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JCtbrarg 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL. 



SCIENTIFIC AND RAILWAY GAZETTE. 



VOLUME VI._ 18 43. 



LONDON: 

R. GROOMBRIDGE, 5, PATERNOSTER ROW, J. WEALE, 59, HIGH HOLBORN; WILEY & PUTNAM, NEW YORK: 

GALIGNANI, PARIS. 



l'RINTED FOR THE 1'ROrRIETOR BY THOMAS BURROWS, AT THE OFFICE OF THE CTV1L ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL, 
10, FLUOVER STREET, WHITEHALL 



THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL. 



REMARKS ON ARABESQUE DECORATIONS, AND PAR- 
TICULARLY THOSE OF THE VATICAN. 

( With an Engraving, Plate I.) 
Read at the Institute of British Architects, February 3, 1840. 
[At a moment when the public attention is so greatly occupied with 
the revival of decorations in fresco painting, we have much pleasure 
in being enabled to lay before our readers, on the commencement of a 
new volume, the following paper, originally produced at the Institute 
of British Architects. We regret that we cannot devote a larger 
number of engravings to the illustration of this essay, which must con- 
sequently appear somewhat defective in form.] 

It is an observation which has been very frequently repeated and 
very variously expressed, that the proper use to be made of the 
study of the ancients in their works of art, is not to copy, but to 
endeavour to think like them. It is admitted to be of little utility to 
the artist, to imitate the forms of those beautiful models of decora- 
tion, which the Greeks and Romans have bequeathed to us, unless at 
the same time he qualifies himself to apply them judiciously, and 
modify them successfully, by investigating the principles from which 
they originate. Among these principles, none is more important, or 
has exercised a greater influence in bringing ancient art to perfection, 
than that which has been so well condensed into one line, that 

" True art is Nature to advantage dressed." 
and if we wish to rival the ancients in the production of what is at 
once excellent and original, we must, like them, seek the original types 
in the works of Nature. This was the source from which they drew the 
various objects which they have modified and combined, not only in their 
capitals, their friezes, their vases and their furniture, but also in the 
apparently capricious and fanciful mixtures of different species of 
animals, and even of foliage and animals, into harmonious composi- 
tions, which delight the eye by their graceful and elegant forms, 
however repugnant to truth, or incompatible with reason. The mo- 
tives are to be inquired into which influenced the choice of these 
objects, and the process investigated, by which they fell into the 
conventional forms in which alone many, perhaps most of them, are 
now to be found. 



No. 64.— Vol. VI.— January, 1843. 



That such a course of study would be analogous to the practice by 
which the ancients themselves attained so high a reach of perfection, 
we have sufficient proof. Nothing in art can be imagined more con- 
ventional than the orders of architecture ; and yet Vitruvius endea- 
vours to derive them all from simple principles, and in the Doric 
order, we can easily trace the original elements of a primitive mode 
of construction. We shall not so readily perceive the analogy with 
the female form, given as the origin of the Ionic. It requires a very 
great stretch of imagination to refer the volutes to the curls of the 
hair, or the flutes to the folds of the garment. Whatever be the 
origin of the Corinthian order, the fable which attributes its invention 
to Callimachus, is as graceful as the order itself; and its repetition by 
Vitruvius sufficiently indicates it to have been a received principle, 
that the most conventional forms (and a more conventional form than 
the Corinthian capital it would be difficult to point out), were sup- 
posed to have been originally suggested by the forms and accidents 
of nature. The least we are authorized to infer from all these in- 
stances is, that in the opinion of the only ancient author on archi- 
tecture to whom we are able to refer, a motive was to be found in 
every thing the ancients invented, and that in studying the arts it was 
indispensable to seek and to understand it. 

To follow up the subject of these remarks, would open an extensive 
field of inquiry. They are offered in the present instance merely as 
prefatory to a few observations on the arabesque style of decoration, 
illustrated by a short review of the arabesques in the Loggie of the 
Vatican. It is proposed to inquire how far the artists who designed 
and executed these arabesques have been indebted to the antique, 
and how far they have modified the hints derived from that source, so 
as to adopt their compositions to the purposes they are destined to 
fulfil. There will also be occasion to notice the derivation of many 
conventional forms, and the happy adaptation of natural objects by 
which these arabesques are enriched in a very extraordinary degree. 

In speaking of these sort of compositions as arabesques, the term 
is of course adopted as it is commonly understood, and it is needless 
to explain that we disregard both its etymology and meaning in 
applying it to the paintings and stuccoes of antiquity, which repre- 
sent not only foliage and fruits, but also beasts of every species, and 
imaginary creatures combined and interlaced together. These deco- 
rations have also acquired the name of grotesques, from the grottoes 

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[January, 



or underground buildings in which they have been found — a term we 
have perverted still more from the sense in which it was invented. 

It is remarkable that the only mention Vitruvius makes of this 
style of decoration, is in reprobation of it — but he describes it so ac- 
curately, that the passage is worth repeating, if for no other reason. 
After pointing out and classifying, what he considers legitimate objects 
for painting walls, such as architectural compositions, landscapes, 
gardens, and sea-pieces — the figures of the gods, and subjects drawn 
from mythology, and the poems of Homer, he proceeds thus — "I 
know not by what caprice it is, that the rules of the ancients, (observe, 
that Vitruvius looks up to the ancients in his day, that is to say to 
the Greeks,) who took truth for the model of their paintings, are no 
longer followed. Nothing is now painted upon walls but monsters, 
instead of true and natural objects, instead of columns we have 
slender reeds, which support a complication of flimsy stems and 
leaves twisted into volutes. Temples are supported on candelabra, 
whence rises, as from a root, foliage on which figures are seated. 
In another place, we have demi-figures issuing from flowers, some 
with human faces, others with the heads of beasts, all things which 
are not, never have been, nor ever can be. Such is the influence of 
fashion, that either through indolence or caprice, it renders the world 
blind to the true principles of art. How can it ever be supposed that 
reeds can uphold a roof, or candelabra a whole building — that slender 
plants can support a figure, or their stems, roots, or flowers put forth 
living beings. Yet no one condemns these extravagancies; on the 
contrary, they are so much admired, that no one cares whether they 
be possible or not, so much do mankind render themselves incapable 
of judging what is really deserving of approbation. For my own 
part, I hold that painting is to be esteemed only so far as it repre- 
sents the truth. It is not sufficient that objects be well painted ; it is 
also necessary that the design be consonant to reason, and in no 
respect offensive to good sense." Pliny also laments that in his time, 
gaudy colouring and quaint forms were held in greater estimation 
than the real beauties of art. But with all deference be it spoken, 
there is another side to the question, which these great authorities 
seem to have overlooked. Conventional decorations of this kind 
were within the reach of thousands to whom paintings in the higher 
branches of art were inaccessible, and a more general diffusion of 
taste must have been at once the cause and effect of their universal 
adoption — how universal, the remains of Pompeii reveal to us. If 
we examine the ancient arabesques independently of these preju- 
dices, we shall find endless beauty, variety and originality ; graceful 
details, combined in consistent and ingenious motives and analogies, 
and great skill and freedom in the mode of execution. We shall also 
find reason to doubt whether the introduction of the arabesque style 
really had the effect of discouraging painting of a higher class, since 
even at Pompeii, poetical compositions of great merit are frequently 
combined with the lighter groundwork of the general decoration. 

However fanciful and capricious the arabesque style may at first 
sight appear to be, there can be no doubt that it may be treated ac- 
cording to the general fixed principles of art, and that the artist will 
be more or less successful as he keeps these principles in view. A 
due balance of the composition is essential, so that the heavier parts 
may sustain the lighter through every gradation, and there must be 
such a disposition as not to cover too much or too little of the ground. 
Unity of design is to be studied in a connexion of the parts with 
each other, and in the harmony of the details and accessories, which 
ought as much as possible to tend to some general aim. It adds very 
greatly to the value of this species of decoration, when it can be 
made by these means, significant as well as ornamental. It would 
lead us much too far to enter upon the subject of colour; but it may 
just be observed, that in the ancient decorative painting, the balance 
of colour is strictly attended to. Their walls usually exhibit a gra- 
dation of dark panels in the lower part, a breadth of the most brilliant 
colours in the middle and principal division, and a light ground thinly 
spread with decoration in the upper part and in the ceiling, an ar- 
rangement dictated by the natural effects of light and shade, and re- 
flection. As lightness and grace are the peculiar attributes of ara- 



besque, the foliage which forms its most fertile resource should never 
be overloaded, its details and modes of ramification ought to be drawn 
from nature. The poems of Schiller and other German authors have 
lately been published, with a profusion of arabesque decoration in 
the margin, which are well worthy of attention, both for the ingenuity 
with which they are rendered illustrative of the text, and for the ac- 
curacy, the botanical accuracy, with which some of the foliage and 
flowers are represented, and which forms one of the greatest charms 
of these clever and original compositions. 

Although the paintings in the Loggie of the Vatican pass under 
the name of Raffaelle, it is not pretended that they are the work of 
his hand, nor even his designs. He was indeed the originator and 
director of the whole, and the character and influence of his taste is 
visibly stamped in every part. But his coadjutors in the work were 
artists, whose names are inferior to none in the Roman school but his 
own, such as Giulio Romano, Perino del Vaga, Benvenuto Tisi, and 
others, who were occupied not only in the execution but in the inven- 
tion of the details. Francesco Penni and Andrea da Salerno are par- 
ticularly noticed as being employed for the figures, Giovanni da 
Udine for the fruits and flowers, and Polydore Caravaggio for the 
relievos. It may be worth digressing to mention, that M. Quatre- 
mere de Quincy is of opinion, that the sculptures of the Parthenon 
were produced by similar means, Phidias there performing exactly 
the same part as Raffaelle in the Vatican — and it is indisputable that 
the combination of unity of design with variety of detail which 
characterizes Gothic architecture, could have been produced only by 
the same system, and by employing the minds as well as the hands, of 
those by whom the decorations were executed. When we see per- 
fection attained in three distinct styles of art, in three distant ages, 
by means precisely similar, it is not too much to assume that these 
means are probably the right ones. 

The Loggia of Raffaelle, is an arcade in 13 compartments. The 
arches are open, or at least, were so originally, toward the court, of 
which the Loggia forms one side. The opposite side is a wall pierced 
with windows, one in each arch, giving light to the suite of rooms 
which contains the great frescos of the prince of painters. The 
ceiling of each compartment forms a square cove, on the sides of 
which are the panels containing the series of scriptural paintings, the 
engravings from which are known as Raffaelle's bible. These are his 
own designs, and some are known to have been touched with his hand. 
Both the lateral and cross arches are supported by pilasters about 16 
feet high, panelled, and decorated with coloured arabesque on a 
white ground. Each pilaster on the wall side is flanked by a half 
pilaster, in which the arabesque is carried through on a smaller scale 
of composition. It is to these pilasters the present remarks will be 
confined. We shall find in them as much matter as with the collateral 
observations to which they will give rise, will fully occupy the time 
at our disposal this evening. 

The description of the pilasters will be taken in the order in 
which Volpato has engraved them; that is to say, beginning on the 
side next the wall. ■ 

No. 1. Notwithstanding the great variety in the composition and 
details of these works, we shall find a general unity of design pre- 
vailing throughout, with the exception of the last five of the series, 
which will be particularly noticed in their turn. Whatever form the 
composition may take, it is rendered subservient to the introduction 
of four medallions, or tablets, relieved from the back ground in 
stucco, of contrasted shapes — one like an antique shield — the next 
circular — the third rectangular, and the fourth in the form known as 
the vesica piscis. These medallions occupy the upper part of the 
pilaster, to the extent of about one third of the whole panel, while 
the lower part, to the height of the dado, or somewhat higher, is 
generally filled in such a manner as to afford a weight of colour, suffi- 
cient to support itself by the side of that member of the architecture, 
and the members introduced into its panels, following in this respect 
the practice of the ancients. These medallions might appear to vio- 

1 We must reler the reader to Volpato's engravings, which were exhibited 
when this payer was read. They are easy of access. 



1 843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



3 



late the due balance of the arabesques, if they were identified with 
them ; but the composition is rescued from that fault, by the separate 
character given to the decoration of the medallions, and by their 
being detached, and hung as it were, independently upon the back- 
ground. In the general arrangement of the whole, these medallions 
perform a very important part, connecting the pilasters with the 
panelled stuccos adjoining, both by their relief, and by means of an ac- 
cordant style of decoration and a similarity in the subjects repre- 
sented upon them, neither of which could have been well embodied 
in the arabesque itself, (see Plate I, Fig. 1.) 

It must be admitted, that these compositions considered separately, 
are somewhat unequal, and the examples to be first passed in review 
are by no means the best ; but instruction may be derived from a con- 
sideration of their defects. There are in this pilaster, (No. 1,) many 
graceful details, but the effect is less pleasing and satisfactory than in 
some others where there is a greater unity of composition, and where 
the objects are less varied and numerous ; moreover, too many of the 
forms in this example are somewhat stiff". The guillochi which oc- 
cupies the lower part of the half pilaster, is extremely rich ; and we 
shall find throughout the series, that this part of the composition 
bears a solid and architectural character, in conformity with the 
principle which has already been adverted to. Upon the stuccos it 
is not my intention to dilate ; I would merely draw your attention to 
the beautiful simplicity of the panelling. The antique figures which 
till the comparlments would require a separate dissertation to describe 
them only. They harmonize, as before observed, with the subjects 
contained in the medallions. The clusters of natural fruit and foliage 




which surround the windows are continued throughout the series of 
arches, and are greatly varied in detail, though precisely similar in 
composition. There is nothing conventional in these festoons— the 
clusters are simply connected together by a string, and are composed 
of the most familiar objects rendered with perfect truth. (Fig. 3.) The 
melon, the orange, the chesnut, the tomata, the olive, grapes of different 
kinds, pomegranates, gourds of every description, pine and cypress 
cones, are those which most frequently recur, with their foliage 
and blossoms. The artist has not even disdained the cabbage, the 
cucumber, and the onion. 

No. 2, has the same faults as the first. The frame, with the horse, 
saddled and bridled, is quite in the spirit of the antique decorations, 
but it divides the pilaster disagreeably, and is not a proper subject to 
occupy the principal place in the composition. In the side pilaster 
we have a rather thin and wiry scroll, of which both the foliage and 
flowers are conventional, but the convolvulus major twines beautifully 
and naturally over the fret below. 

In No. 3, a closely woven festoon of foliage and flowers is formed 
into panels — not, I think, very happily, since the arrangement is such 
as the eye does not very readily comprehend, and even if it were 
more simple, it would scarcely be applicable, since it divides into 
many distinct parts the panel which is in itself a single feature of 
the general design ; its integrity is therefore destroyed by this mode 
of decoration. The subjects which occupy the panels are, however, 
well worthy of attention. The group of deer, the landscape, the 
dog chasing a porcupine, the. Cupid on the dolphin, and the two 
winged children manoeuvring a dancing bear, are all in the true spirk 
of the antique. The single figures are less so ; an ancient painter 
would not have placed them on a scrap of earth. In the Pompeian 
decorations, the detached figures — I do not speak of such as are in- 
closed in frames, but the detached figures — partake of the artificial 
character of the style to which they are adopted, and if they are not 
represented as floating in the air, they stand upon a bracket, or a 
mere line, or on anything but the natural ground. In the panels of 
the stucco are male and female chimeras, enveloped in a scroll formed 
of the natural branches of the briar rose. 

In No. 4, we arrive at a greater unity in the design, for though it 
consists of many parts, yet they all bear upon each other, and are 
mutually connected throughout. The temple which forms the centre 
of the composition is altogether in the style of architecture which 
holds so important a place in the arabesques of the baths of Titus 
and Pompeii. I call it a style of architecture, for in the ancient 
paintings, where it generally forms the framework of the composi- 
tion, and contributes greatly to that unity of design which distin- 
guishes the ancient arabesque, it assumes a regularity and consis- 
tency which fairly entitle it to the appellation of a style. The sup- 
porting figures are objectionable, for they are in motion — common 
walking motion. Much more objectionable are the terminal figures 
which rise from the acroteria of the temple. 

My objection to these terminal figures is, that they are improbable. 
Improbable, I mean, upon certain postulates, which it is necessary to 
assume before we can reason upon these imaginary compositions at 
all. The mythology of the ancients has peopled the elements with 
beings compounded of the human and brute creation, their intelli- 
gence being indicated by the first, and their fitness for the region they 
are supposed to inhabit by the second. There is nothing in ancient 
art, in which greater taste or judgment is displayed, than in some of 
these combinations. The animal functions appear in no wise com- 
promised by the mere interchange of corporeal members, between 
different species. Such combinations, therefore, as long as they in- 
volve no glaring disproportions, present nothing repugnant to the 
mind; and we aie so familiarized to them, that we pronounce upon 
the success of the representation of a triton, a satyr, or a centaur, 
with as little hesitation as we might upon that of any of the animals 
of which they are compounded. We are equally ready, or perhaps 
owing to a stronger association of ideas, more ready, to admit of 
aerial beings, supporting themselves on wings, floating in the ether, 
or alighting upon a flower without bending the stalk, though these 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



January, 



are, in fact, less probable than those born of the ocean or the earth. 
Between animal and vegetable life there is also a sufficient analogy 
to attach some probability, or at least to afford an apology, for the 
graceful combinations between these two kingdoms of nature, in- 
vented by the ancients, and adopted to a very great extent in the 
compositions before us; but, when we come to combine animal life 
with unorganized matter, the probability ceases ; and if, as in the 
case before us, the unorganized portion is something artificial, and 
totally out of proportion besides, the combination becomes intolerable. 
Thus we acquiesce in the metamorphoses of Ovid or the Arabian 
Nights, as long as certain analogies are observed ; but the transfor- 
mation of the ships of Eneas into sea nymphs, is, as one of our 
greatest critics has observed, a violation of probability to which 
nothing can reconcile us. 

No conventional form has been more abused than the terminus. 
Intelligence and immobility are the attributes which the ancients in- 
tended it to embody, but their apposite creation is totally different from 
anomalous compositions like this, into which it has been tortured. 

The scroll in the half pilaster of this example is greatly superior to 
that in No. 2. It is more simple in its composition, and the leaves 
are broad and natural, and fill the space much more satisfactorily 
than a multiplicity of wiry lines and flimsy objects, producing confu- 
sion, and destructive of breadth of effect. 

In No. 5, we arrive at a superior composition ; for it must be re- 
peated, we are examining the decoration of a single member of an 
extensive whole, and that however beautiful each may be, unity is a 
beauty in addition. No object in decoration has been so extensively 
used as the scroll. The ancients do not appear to have been afflicted 
with an unhappy craving for novelties, nor to have been haunted with 
the apprehension that beautiful forms of composition would become 
less beautiful by repetition. When the most appropriate forms in 
architecture and decoration were once ascertained, they were contin- 
ually repeated, but marked with a fresh character, and stamped with 
originality by those refined and delicate touches which were all-suffi- 
cient when they were properly appreciated. We need only refer to 
the temples of the ancients, to see how pertinaciously they adhered 
to an established principle, and to the varieties in the proportions of 
the Doric order, or the character of the Corinthian capital, varieties 
which we may be assured were nei- 
ther capricious nor accidental, to see 
how studiously they availed them- 
selves of all the resources of art in 
its details. In the same manner with 
regard to the ever-recurring form of 
the scroll, as long as the foliage and 
ramifications of nature are unex- 
hausted, so long will it be capable 
of assuming an original character in 
the hands of the skilful artist. A 
striking illustration of this position 
may be drawn from the arabesques 
in the palace of Caprarola, where 
the pilasters of the Loggie are de- 
corated with scrolls, all similar in 
composition, but each formed of a 
different species of natural foliage, 
without the intermixture of any- 
thing conventional, except the regu- 
larity of the convolutions. I regret 
that I can show but three of these 
beautiful scrolls, and those very 
slightly represented. They are com- 
posed of the olive, (Fig. 4,) the 
vine, (Fig. 5,) and the convolvulus, 
(Fig. 6.) The latter being rather 
thin in proportion to the others, is 
enriched with birds. 



Fig. 4. 




Fig ■>. 





For the magnificent scroll before us we are indebted to the antique. 
It is an imitation of the well known marble in the Villa Medici, but 
the artist has made it his own by the skill with which he has adapted 
it to his purpose both in proportion and colour (see Plate I, Fig. 2.) 
I would particularly call your attention to the animals, the squirrels, 
the mice, the lizards, the snake, the grasshopper, and the snail, dis- 
persed about the branches, so well calculated to fill the spaces they 
occupy, and at the same time producing a variety which would have 
been wanting, bad the foliage only been extended with that object. 
To the scroll in the half pilaster, it is to be objected, that it is a re- 
petition in small, of that in the principal compartment; but if ex- 
amined separately, it will be found full of instruction, from the union 
it displays of natural objects with conventional forms. The spiral 
line of the antique scroll, is evidently drawn from the natural course 
of climbing plants. It is conventional in its openness and regularity. 
The involucra of plants furnish the hint for the base from which the 
antique scroll is made to spring, and the spathes of the liliaceous 
tribe for the sheaths, of a conventional repetition of which, the an- 
cient sculptured scrolls principally consist. Thus far for the general 
elements of the antique scroll, which the artist has implicitly followed 
in the example before us ; but he has enriched his composition 
without disturbing its unity, by making every sheath produce a dif- 
ferent branch, drawn immediately from nature. The birds present 
an equal variety, and are occupied according to their natural habits, 
in feeding on the berries and buds, or on the variety of insects which 
are also introduced. The arabesques in the side panels are to be 
particularly noticed in this example. A motivo, however slight, is 
always to be desired, and here we see a very graceful one, in the two 
winged boys, who dip into a vase-like fountain. The winged bear , 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



which occupies the medallion, may be noticed, as a violation of pro- 
bability. A being to cleave the air, should not be selected from the 
most heavy and awkward of animals. It is undoubtedly intended for 
a.jeu d'esprit, and is quite in the spirit of the antique. The ancient 
frescos are full of such whimsical combinations, but always, as in the 
present instance, occupying a subordinate place. 

No. 6 is worthy of an attentive examination ; the lower part is ex- 
tremely fanciful, and well adapted to its purpose. For his principal 
object the artist has chosen the Diana of Ephesus, with her attributes, 
forming, with some arbitrary deco. 



Fig. 7. 




rations, a remarkably well balanced 
composition, of which the recti- 
linear shapes contrast in the hap- 
piest manner with the flowing lines 
above. The Diana constitutes a 
foreground, behind which rises a 
slender tree. There is nothing 
more graceful throughout the 
whole series than the branches of 
this tree, and the winged boys who 
sport among them and enjoy the 
fruit. (Fig. 7.) Equally graceful 
are those who gather barley from 
the Cornucopia, and grapes from 
the loaded trellis above. 
No. 7 is one of the most remarkable of the series. In this the artist 
has ventured, and with the most perfect success, to discard every 
thing conventional, and to represent a natural tree, balancing its irre- 
gularities of ramification and foliage by the numerous birds which 
occupy the branches, where they may be supposed to have been col- 
lected by the call of the bird-catcher, who is concealed in the under- 
wood with his bird-call in his mouth. (See Plate I, Fig. 1.) One 
bird, fettered by a limed twig, is about to fall into his hands. It is 
impossible to admire too much the skill with which this simple motivo 
is worked out. The arabesque of the side pilaster is one of the best 
of this order; all the parts are graceful in themselves, and well ba- 
lanced, both in form and colour. This composition is also to be 
remarked for the introduction of some of the heraldic insignia of the 
holy see. The keys in saltire, the umbrella, the papal tiara, and the 
fisherman's ring, with which the successors of St. Peter are invested. 
I am rather surprised that this sort of allusion has not been more libe- 
rally used. 

No. 8 is perhaps the least pleasing of the series. There is a total 
want of unity in the composition, which is merely a repetition of 
similar designs, and these not a little stiff and formal. There is like- 
wise too great a weight, both of form and colour, toward the top ; but 
the scroll in the half pilaster is beautiful, and closely resembles that 
in No. 4. 

It will be unnecessary to dwell upon No. 9, since it is precisely the 
same in general character as No. 5, though varied in its details, in 
the disposition of the animals, and the mode of spreading the lighter 
ramifications at the top. 

No. 10 bears nearly the same relation to No. 4, upon which we 
have already remarked at some length. It may be further observed 
in reference to Nos. 4 and 10, that folds of drapery are too broad and 
heavy to be successful in arabesque, its effect is seldom pleasing. I 
must also protest against the birds which crown this composition. 
Nature has provided a variety which makes it quite unnecessary to 
seek novelty by combining the neck of one species and the tail of 
another with imaginary wings. The first impression is that these 
birds are meant for swans ; the second, and abiding one, that the artist 
did not know how to draw a swan — he has not mended them by dress- 
ing them in trousers. The scroll in the half pilaster is composed in 
the same manner as in No. 5, but is better filled. 

The next example may be considered a pendant to No. 7, which, 
however, it by no means equals. The stem is a natural reed, each 
joint conventionally expanded into a calix, from every one of which 
sprouts a branch of a different species ; here are the wild celery, the 



rose, the blackberry, the arundo, the privet, the grape, the olive, and 
the barley. The panthers in the stucco panels are appropriately 
combined with the ivy and grape. 

Of the more varied and fanciful compositions on this side of the 
Loggia, No. 12 is one of the best. It wants unity, and the introduction 
of so dull a reality as a curtain in the midst of so many objects of pure 
fancy is displeasing; neither can I reconcile myself to the termini in 
the upper part. Independently of other objections, they are too es- 
sentially terrestrial to enter into combination with these light sprays — 
an aerial terminus is a contradiction. They are, however, well treated 
when compared with those in No. 4. The separate parts of this com- 
position are greatly to be admired, especially the motivo of the lower 
part, and the unity which pervades the fanciful combination above it. 
No. 13 is in the same style, but much superior. Taking the lower 
half as complete in itself, nothing can be more gracefully designed, or 
more perfectly balanced, which latter is, perhaps, after all, the most 
important point in the composition of arabesques ; they will certainly 
be found more or less pleasing on a first impression, as this condition 
is more or less perfectly fulfilled. The solidity of the base, the 
breadth of the parts forming the next step, the lightness of the Pom- 
peian architecture above, and the fluttering character of the objects 
which surmount it, constitute a gradation which satisfies the eye, 
while the variety of detail fills the imagination. The upper parts of 
both these examples abound too much in trivial and wiry details, such 
as ribbons and strings of jewellery, which are introduced to convey 
the idea of excessive lightness, but have rather a contrary effect, by 
producing confusion, and are also too artificial to harmonize with the 
general character of the composition. 

The last on this side repeats No. 3 in the principal composition, 
and No. 10 in the half pilaster, and therefore requires no observation. 
The twelve compositions which occupy the piers on the open side 
of the Loggia, differ remarkably from the 14 which have been de- 
scribed, and a perfect unity of design distinguishes the majority. 
This was, perhaps, the more easily accomplished, since (the architec- 
ture necessarily differing from that on the side next the wall) the 
dado is continued across the pilaster, and forms a separate series of 
panels, each of which is filled with a natural or imaginary being, 
adapted to the element of water. The half pilasters are also omitted 
on this side, and a greater breadth of design given to the stuccoes 
which are brought into immediate contact with the larger arabesque. 
In No. 15, the artist has chosen the apparently incongruous subject 
of fish to combine with his foliage. In a painting by Hogarth we see 
in the fashionable furniture of one of his scenes, a composition o f 
foliage inhabited by fish instead of birds, and though this absurdity be 
intended as a caricature of the taste of his day, it is no great exagge- 
ration of the fact. In this design, the foliage and the fish are brought 
together without the slightest violation of probability ; the fish have 
been hung to the branches; the variety of their forms and colours 
produce an admirable effect, and above all, they are perfect in the 
condition, more especially indispensable in objects not intrinsically 
graceful or pleasing, of being represented witli the most absolute 
truth to nature. We have the haddock, the lobster, the dory, the 
cuttle-fish, the whelk, the perch, the shrimp, the crab, the gorbill, the 
muscle, the cockle, the mullet, and the anchovy. This example may 
teach us that objects for decoration may be sought throughout the 
whole range of Nature's works with hopes of success. 

A more graceful conception than the double scroll which forms the 
subject of No. 16 it is difficult to imagine. It combines unity of de- 
sign with an unexceptionable balance of parts, and the most perfect 
lightness devoid of any thing trivial. This composition might be con- 
sidered absolutely faultless, were not the two figures placed within the 
scroll rather too small to bear a proportion to some analogous forms, 
combined with other parts. 

Of No. 17 it can hardly be said the effect is pleasing ; but both the 
motivo and the grouping of the musical instruments are greatly to be 
admired, as well as the skill with which the ends of the ribbon are 
made to fill up and balance the composition, which is well worthy of 
study, as showing how advantageously familiar artificial objects may 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



lip employed in decoration, when used in their proper place, and not 
discordantly associated. 

Unity is again lost sight of in the design No. 18, but the different 
objects which compose it, are harmonized upon a totally different 
principle from any which have been hitherto examined, and the effect 
is rather dependent upon colour than on form. The panels contrast 
brilliantly with the white background, and are relieved and rescued 
from heaviness by the sharp dark lines which surround them ; this is 
quite antique. The component parts of the upper portion of this 
pilaster must not be passed over unnoticed : — the Cupid and Psyche, 
the lions with their cubs, the Satyrs grouped with the lower medallion, 
and the scroll work, which is entirely free from the trivial and con- 
fused appendages of which there is reason to complain in some of the 
former examples. 

The general design of No. 19 is the same as in the last example, 
but its development is scarcely equal, except in the subjects which 
till the panels, which are in the highest degree classical and elegant. 
I ought, perhaps, to have noticed the Tritons, male and female, which 
occupy the dado of the three last pilasters, but I cannot pass over the 
bird introduced into this ; we are not only presented with the form of 
the creature, but the skeleton of the fish in its claw indicates its habits 
also, with the most scrupulous attention to nature ; equally true are 
the bull-rushes in the back grounds. 

No. 20 appears to me inferior to any other on this side. The lower 
part is good, but misapplied, every portion being too minute for its 
place in the general design. The observation on the drapery need 
not be repeated. The upper part, besides containing too many trivial 
and wiry forms, exhibits two or three objectionable matters of detail 
which it will be proper to point out. The swaddled children are 
equally unpleasing to the eye and the imagination, and are therefore 
improper objects for decoration; the heads are also objectionable. 
To masks there can be no objection — we are familiar with them as a 
decoration of the ancient theatre; the association does not desert us, 
though neither the mask nor the manner of its application may have 
any thing in common with its origin, and though it may be coloured 
to the life, it is but a mask. But if a bust be introduced, unless it be 
represented as a sculptured bust, it suggests the idea of mutilation, or 
what is still more degrading to its character, a coloured wig-block. 
And even if the heads could be tolerated, nothing can be more un- 
graceful than holding the festoon in the mouth. Again, in reference 
to these cornucopia (to say nothing of their being ill proportioned and 
badly drawn), the blossoms and foliage which issue from them are 
attached at the other end to the scroll above, so that we are in doubt 
to which member of the composition it belongs, or rather, we see that 
it confusedly belongs to both. On the sort of termini which finish this 
arabesque, enough has already been said. 

The remainder of these composi- 
tions are of a different character 
from any that have preceded them, 
their basis being more architectural, 
and suited to be the framework of a 
series of figures which, in the five 
last examples, reach to a much 
higher order of art than mere de- 
coration. The lower part of the 
design No. 21, is in itself beautiful, 
independently of the figures com- 
bined with it, which in composi- 
tion and drawing, are truly worthy 
of the Roman school. They do not 
appear to form any connected sub- 
JHct, like the rest which follow, but 
the by-play, if it may be called so, 
by which they are united, greatly 
adds to their value. The attitude of these lower figures, so per- 
fectly adapted to the place they occupy, has its motive in their 
retreat from the monkies by whom they are threatened, and the mon- 
kies are held carelessly by the figures above who are occupied in 





imitating with looking glasses the dragons, whose undulating forms so 
gracefully supply the lighter materials of the composition. The me- 
dallions which have hitherto accompanied us, are laid aside in this and 
the remaining pilasters. (Fig. 8.) 

Fig. 9. No. 22 is the first of these con- 

nected designs to which I have 
adverted. In these groups we have 
the four seasons embodied in per- 
sonifications truly Raffaelesque : — 
Spring distinguished as the pairing 
season — Summer by a group load- 
ed with ripe grain, and the fruits 
of the season spread at their feet 
— Autumn by the vintage, repre- 
sented with a grace and fancy 
which it is difficult to find words 
to characterize adequately, (Fig. 
9,) and Winter by a composition 
well calculated as a base for the 
pyramid which risps from it. To 
point out the beauties of this paint- 
ing as regards decoration, is to take 
a very narrow view of its merits ; 
every one of the 14 figures it con- 
tains might be studied as an ex- 
ample of all that is great and 
graceful in the Roman school of 
art. 

No. 23 also is not more remarkable for the skill with which the 
parts are combined, than for their separate excellence. The niches 
and superstructure, supported by caryatic figures, serve as a basis for 
the three fates drawing the thread of human life. Observe well the 
pertinency of all the attributes : — the respective ages of the three 
females, the opening blossoms which surround the first, the ripened 
fruit which accompanies the second, and the monumental character oi 
the niche in which the third is placed, with the human emblem ol 
mortality at her feet; and to descend to the lower compartment, we 
have again to admire the perfect attention to nature in the bird, and 
the berry-bearing plant in which it is feasting. 

The next compartment (No. 24), is also full of a moral intention. 
The principal figures are emblematical of the flight of time. The 
horary dial supports an admirable group of day and night, with their 
emblems, dominated by the personifications of the sun and moon ; they 
are accompanied by the well known emblems of time and eternity, 
and we may find much meaning, even in the steel yard, classically 
weighted with heads of Janus regarding the past and the future. 
None of the series is more elegantly terminated than this, though the 
group does not appear to have any immediate relation to the main 
subject. 

Nothing can be in a higher style of art, than the personifications of 
Faith, Hope, and Charity in No. 25. To enlarge upon their indi- 
vidual excellence would be foreign to the present purpose. I must 
only draw your attention to the manner in which they are made sub- 
servient to the general design of filling the space they are intended 
to decorate, and the spire-like form in which they are made to rise 
from the heavy to the light. 

The last compartment is dedicated to the sciences of geography 
and astronomy. The terrestrial and celestial globes, borne by the 
gpnius below, each support figures emblematical of that part of the 
universe which they represent. On the one lies the earth-born An- 
tEus at the feet of Hercules, who is represented in his appropriate 
labour of supporting the heavens, while a winged being of celestial 
aspect crowns the other. 

Having now completed the review of this series of arabesques, it is 
not my intention to detain you by any lengthened observations upon 
them, such as occurred having been expressed on the immediate 
occasions on which they arose. I began by stating the principles 
which 1 conceived might be illustrated by this review and in con- 



1843] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



elusion, I venture to suggest the examination and study of arabesque 
composition as practised by the ancients and the moderns — a com- 
parison of the Baths of Titus, and the remains of Pompeii and Her- 
culaneum, with the Loggia of Raffaelle, the Villa Madaraa and the 
Palazzo T, as one of the most instructive lessons that can be devised, 
upon the varied and original results that may be derived from the 
same materials, according to the different lights in which they are 
viewed, the different modes in which they are studied, and the diffe- 
rent purposes to which they are applied. In the resources which the 
decorative artist can call to his aid, the moderns bave greatly the 
advantage over the ancients, since we possess their materials and our 
own also. For as long as ancient authors are read, and ancient art 
appreciated, so long will allusion to the manners, customs, poetry, and 
religion of antiquity be familiar to us, and the symbols to which they 
gave rise be universally understood ; indeed numberless allusions of 
this kind are constantly before us, and are so familiar that we forget 
to inquire their origin. In personification, and the embodying of 
abstract ideas, the field is as open to us as to them, and we see to 
what advantage it may be turned by the examples we have just passed 
in review ; and if we add to all these objects those derived from the 
useful arts and sciences which may be turned to account in the hands 
of the skilful decorator, his resources maybe considered boundless. 
For as we have seen in these examples, it is not the familiar aspect 
of any object which should banish its representation from works of 
fancv. Every thing depends upon its proper application. The ancients 
made the best use of whatever they considered most appropriate, and 
we must endeavour to do the same. Thus, on the pedestal of the 
Column in the Place Vendome, a professed imitation of that of Tra- 
jan, modern arms and habiliments occupy the place of those of the 
Roman period sculptured on the original. Whether this translation 
be as well executed as it might be, is not now the question. It is 
noticed merely as being right in principle. One fertile source we 
have, totally unknown to the ancients, from which materials may be 
drawn for decoration, carrying with them the invaluable quality of 
being in all cases significant as well as ornamental — I mean the science 
of heraldry. I cannot help thinking that the Greeks, who used so 
much diversity of colour in their architecture, would have availed 
themselves liberally of the tints of heraldry in their decorations, had 
they been acquainted with it. From the personal allusions it con- 
veys, it might be made a much more important feature than it even 
now is, in the decoration of private as well as public buildings, and we 
have only to study the works of the middle ages for invaluable hints 
on the mode in which it may be applied. The mere display of 
shields of arms is but one mode. We shall find heraldry intimately 
woven into the ornaments of our Gothic buildings, and he who can 
read its language, may often understand an allusion in what may 
appear, at first sight, a mere decoration. Thus, one of the mouldings 
of the tomb of Humphrey, Duke of Glocester, at St. Albans, is filled 
with an ornament, which, on examination, resolves itself into a cup 
containing flowers, a device assumed by that Prince, says a MS. in 
the college of Amis, "as a mark of his love for learning." Heraldry 
has not been neglected in modern Italian art, and a very well imagined 
arabesque may be seen at the town hall at Foligno, where the ceiling 
is covered with foliage spreading from the centre, on the ramifications 
of which are hung the shields of the nobility of Foligno for many 
generations. And at Macerata there is a church decorated in a very 
peculiar style, bearing throughout an allusion to the name of the 
founder. 

A. P. 



Pompeii. — The Frankfort Journal of the 10th November, states, that the 
last excavations made in the Street of Pompeii brought to light a number of 
paintings in fresco, which were affixed as an ornament to four adjoining 
houses. One of those paintings was remarkable for the extreme correctness 
of the design, and for the freshness of the colouring. The subject of this 
painting is Bacchus and a faun pressing grapes, which are home by a young 
slave, whilst a child is pouring the wine into a vessel fixed in the earth. 



BUILDINGS IN BELGIUM. 
By George Godwin, Jon., F.R.S., &c. 

" Perhaps no study reveals to us more forcibly the social condition and 
true feeling of passed generations than that of their monuments."— M. Guizot. 

Chapter I. 

Belgium contains a multitude of interesting examples of architec- 
tural skill in the middle ages, eminently worthy of careful study, and 
sufficient, from the diversity of the epochs they mark and the charac- 
ter they bear, to illustrate fully a history of the rise and progress of 
Gothic architecture, and the re-birth of Italian art. An essay on the 
architecture of Belgium, its peculiarities, its gradual alteration, and 
its connexion with the architecture of other countries, would be a 
valuable work, and, so far as I know, is yet to be done, notwithstand- 
ing that most of her chief buildings are almost universally known. 
The present memoranda consist simply of the jottings made during a 
brief visit to the country in question, and are published with the feel- 
ing which has in other cases led the writer to take the same course, 
namely, that if every one will bring a stone, you may soon raise a 
pyramid. 

The domestic architecture of Belgium offers an infinite variety, and 
affords numerous bints for present application. Within a very small 
circle, in some cases even in a single city, examples may be found of 
the different styles of building which have prevailed at intervals, say 
of fifty years, from the 11th or 12th century up to the present time. 
Such towns are a book wdiich those who run may read, and afford a 
great amount of pleasure and information to those who will pause to 
think. At Tournay, a most interesting old town, close to the French 
frontier, towards the western extremity of Belgium, (and of which I 
shall hereafter speak again,) there are several exceedingly ancient 
houses; one of an interesting character is situated near the church 
of St. Brixe. The whole is of stone, and terminates in a gable. The 
windows, about 5 feet high and 4 feet wide, are each divided into two 
openings by a small column with plain leafed capital. One of the lower 
windows has simply a rectangular mullion down the centre, the edges of 
which are chamfered to within a certain distance from the top and bot- 
tom. The siring courses, consisting simply of a square member and a hol- 
low, continue through the whole front, and form straight window heads, 
over which are introduced discharging arches. The adjoining front 
is precisely similar. In the Rue des Jesuits there are some houses of 
the same character, but of a somewhat more advanced period. The 
columns and caps are nearly the same as those before mentioned, and 
the upper part, perhaps 50 or 60 feet in extent, consists wholly of 
windows and small piers alternately. 

Ghent and Malines display similarly ancient houses. 

An early advance upon this arrangement would probably be the 
introduction of a transom to divide the windows into four, and so to 
form a croisee. In the gable of an old house at Ghent, near the Hotel 
de Ville, appears a large pointed window, quite ecclesiastical in as- 
pect, with mullions, traceried head, and label. A house near the 
Grand Place at Tournay affords a very perfect example, of the appli- 
cation of pointed architecture to a street front, at the beginning of the 
16th century, and the Hotel d'Egmont at Ghent, shows, another appli- 
cation of the same style at a period when it was beginning to exhibit 
svmptoms of decline ; as also on a much more elaborate scale, does the 
well known Maison des Franc Battliers in the same city. 1 

Near the Eglise de Chateau at Tournay is a large building, now the 
Horse Infirmary for the artillery, which would seem to be an example 
at a later stage of the decline. It is constructed of red brick and 
stone, and presents gables, pointed headed windows, other square 
windows divided by mullions, and large dormers in the roof. The mould- 
ings, however, are Italianized, the discharging arches, partly stone 
and partly brick, which occur even over the pointed headed openings, 
are made into adornments, and all the ornaments which appear are of 
mixed design. Later still, the line of the gable became altered into 

1 Mr. Donaldson has o:ade a very interesting series of sketches lo illus- 
tiate die gradual progression here only hinted at. 



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[January, 



a scroll, the mullions of the windows disappeared, and the Gothic 
panelling on the face of the building gave place to pilasters and en- 
tablatures elaborately adorned with figures, fruit, and foliage, as may 
be seen in numberless examples remaining in most of the towns. 2 The 
Town Halls and Belfries form a striking feature in Belgium, and in 
some cases are singularly beautiful. Amongst the privileges granted 
to the towns when they first acquired communal rights, none seem to 
have been deemed greater, or were more speedily acted upon, than 
the right of building a belfry to call together the citizens, and a hall 
as a general meeting place. 

The Hall at Louvain, which has afforded a subject to so many of our 
artists, is now unquestionably one of the most perfect specimens of a 
civic building raised by the medieval architects, which remains to us. 
The whole of it, a pile of crocketted canopies, corbels sculptured into 
numberless figures, windows, panelling, and elegant turrets, has been 
restored in a very able manner. 

The Town Halls of Bruges, Audenaerde, Ghent, and Brussels, are 
other examples of great interest. The spire of the latter, which is 
remarkable for its lightness and elegance, is now being restored, and 
I cannot avoid making this an opportunity to remark, that the desire 
to restore the buildings left us by our fathers, which is, at this time, de- 
veloping itself simultaneously in England, France.Germany and Belgium, 
is no unimportant sign, and will serve hereafter to characterize the 
19th century. Valuable as the result is, the feelings which prompt 
to it, and of which it is but the evidence, are more important still. 

The west front of St. Gudule at Brussels, the cathedral at Antwerp, 
and St. Bavon at Ghent, are amongst the principal buildings in 
Belgium, which have been lately repaired. More important perhaps 
than anv, however, are the restorations now going on at the cathedral 
of Tournay, which is one of the most interesting structures in the 
country, whether regarded per se as a specimen of the architectural 
skill of two different periods of time, or as recalling by association 
the events of many ages. 

Seen from a distance, with its forest of towers high above the sur- 
rounding buildings, its effect is very striking; nor are the pleasant an- 
ticipations so raised in any degree lessened by a close approach. In 
form, it is a Latin cross, with five towers; namely, one on the east, 
and one on the west side, at each end of the transept, and one at the 
centre of the cross. The transept is terminated at each end by a 
semi-circular absis, similar to many churches in Cologne and other 
parts of Germany. The nave has an aile on each side, separated by 
piers and small columns bearing semi-circular arches, which in 
various parts approach the horse-shoe form. 3 Above these, is a 
second range of piers and arches, of similar or greater height than 
the first, forming the front of a large gallery, extending the width of 
the ailes. 4 Over these, is a series of arches against the wall, spring- 
ing from short piers. The clerestory and the vaulted ceiling were 
the work of barbarous repairers, in 1777, and took the place of the 
ancient wooden roof: they will shortly be restored to their original 
appearance. B 

All the capitals of the lower columns in the nave are sculptured to 
represent foliage, and are exceedingly sharp and clear. In earlier 
times, they were all painted and gilt, and further decorated by 
scripture mottoes around the abacus. Much of the stone-work is 
rough and has been covered with stucco: the columns and other 
parts that were exposed, are of Tournay stone polished. 

2 Lille, a French town, but close to the Belgic frontier, displays a great 
number of houses of this character, of great richness, and in some cases, 
much beauty. _ 

a The piers occupy a square of six feet on the plan, set diagonally. The 
openings are 13 feet 6 inches wide, and about 11 feet 6 inches high to the 
springing of the arch. There are nine such compartments on each side of 
the nave. 

4 'i he galleries in ancient churches were used for the purpose of separating 
the sexes, and even different ages of the same sex. This was perhaps ren- 
dered necessary by the custom of saluting, which then obtained amongst the 
'•faithful." 

5 During the whole of the 18th century continued injury was done to the 
building, by injudicious endeavours to support the fabric ; many openings, 
especially in the transept and the clerestory of the choir were bricked up ; 
the capitals of the columns and other decorative portions were covered with 
whitewash, and the frescoes which adorned the walls destroyed. 



The four great arches at the junction of the cross are pointed, and 
have also been embellished by colour, much of which is still visible. 

The interior of the semi-circular absis, terminating the transept at 
either end, is exceedingly beautiful, and produces a very striking effect. 
The annexed sketch, (Fig. 1,) may serve to give some general idea 
of its arrangement. At the bottom, a series of six lofty columns two 
feet eight inches diameter, and about 24 feet high, built up of ten 
courses of stone, and placed at a short distance from the wall of the 
absis, support narrow semi-circular arches raised on legs. Over 
these are two triforia and a clerestory, and the whole terminates in a 
half dome with plain ribs converging to a point. 6 The capitals of 
the columns consist of volutes and of leaves. The base of each 
pillar has four sculptured leaves at the angles of the pedestal. 

Fig. 1. 




Originally the choir was about one-third the length of the building, 
and terminated in an absis similar to those of the transept in form 
and style. This portion of the building, however, was rebuilt, as i- 
mentioned hereafter, and is now an exceedingly fine specimen of the 
pointed style, resembling in some respects the choir of Cologne ca- 
thedral, although executed much before that wonderful building. 

The present choir has an aile and a series of small chapels on 
both sides, which continue round the east end. Lofty columns bearing 
acutely pointed arches, separate the ailes from the choir. In each 
spandril of these arches is a circular ornament in mosaic work, and 

6 These vaults aie formed of rubble work, under a wooden root, and an 
less than two feet in thickness. 



1S43.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



above rise a very elegant triforium and lofty clerestory. Behind the 
triforium is a series of peculiar quatrefoil lights, blocked up and un- 
known until lately (as indeed was the whole of the triforium), but now 
again filled with stained glass. 

The choir is elevated above the nave by three steps, for about one- 
third its extent, and then by a fourth the remainder of the length, and 
is paved with black and white marble in squares. The high altar 
has four additional steps. The pillars in the choir were originally 
constructed with that daring which characterizes many of the earlier 
efforts of pointed architecture, and soon gave symptoms of insuffici- 
ency. They were then strengthened by additional masonry at the 
back, and even now are remarkable for their lightness and elegance. 
It mav be mentioned, that when the choir was rebuilt, the old chancel 
arch which was probably semi-circular, was cut away to make room for 
a pointed arch ; as also was the case at the entrance from the transept 
to the aisle of the choir on each side. Painting and gilding have been 
used throughout as a means of decoration, and will probably be again 
resorted to when the whole of the substantial repairs have been exe- 
cuted. : A series of flying buttresses (seen in the sketch, at the head 
of the second chapter), surround the choir externally, and it is be- 
tween these that the chapels are formed, terminating in gables. 8 The 
roof of the choir above the vaulting is of oak, and of great height. 

Round the outside of the clerestory of the nave there is a continu- 
ous gallery, formed within the thickness of the walls, and faced by small 
octagon columns and arches of the Tournay stone, originally polished. 9 
Elsewhere there are various galleries in the walls, so that all parts of 
the building are practicable. 

The same stone is employed in the construction of the building as 
the rock consists of on which it stands, so that it may be said to be a 
continuation of the solid substratum. Nevertheless, there are many very 
serious fissures and settlements, especially in the transept and choir, 
which need extensive repair. The west front of the building has 
been disfigured by various alterations; a groined porch in the pointed 
style extends the whole length of the front, and above it a large 
pointed window has been introduced, so as to destroy entirely its 
original character. ' ° There is a variety of sculpture under the 
porch, but the greater part of it is modern and very uninteresting. 
The cathedral is entered by two doors, one on the north side of the 
nave, and the other on the south, adjoining the transept. The north 
door is seen in the external view of the north absis at the head of 
the next chapter, (Fig. 2,) and is of the transition period. It con- 
sists of a semi-circular archway beneath a pointed trefoil arch, the 
whole profusely adorned with ranges of sculptured figures, animals, 
and foliage. On each side of the light which occurs between the 
circular and the pointed arch, is a small twisted column. The four 
towers of the transept are each different in detail, and have been 
executed at different times. They all display, however, a mixture of 
pointed and semi-circular arches. 

The whole length of the cathedral within the walls is, as nearly as 
I can estimate it, 420 feet. The transept, which is nearly in the 
centre of the building, is 212 feet from north to south. The width 
of the nave including the ailes, is 70 feet; the choir is a few feet 
wider. The height of the choir is 110 feet. As a datum for com- 
parison, it may be mentioned, that Salisbury Cathedral, according to 
Mr. Britton, is 450 feet long within the walls, "S feet wide in the 
nave, and that the height of the choir is SI feet; in other words, it 
is 30 feet longer, 8 feet wider, and 29 feet lower than that of Tournay. 

' In a chapel, south side of choir, the spandrils of an arcade are painted 
to represent angels bearing scrolls. 

6 These flying buttresses are double. The upper arch was apparently 
formed first, and this being found insufficient the lower arch was then 
added. 

There is a curious gallery of this description round the Eglise de 
Chateau in Tournay. 

10 The west frunt had originally two small towers at the angles. These 
towers at the extremity of the west front are found in many buildings in 
Belgium, at the E-jlise de Chateau before mentioned, St. Bavon, Ghent, &c. 

(To be continued^) 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK. 

FASCICULUS XLIV. 

" I must have liberty 
Withal, as large a charter as the winds, 
To blow on whom I please.'' 

I. Were architectural performance to keep pace with architectural 
promise in this country, we should have some magnificent works ; but 
as ill-luck will have it, either something or other interferes to check 
the undertaking — to blight it in the bud, or the thing itself turns out 
wofully inferior to promise — far more liberal than discreet. Of such 
untoward turn-outs, not a few might be enumerated. The poor Edin- 
burgh Parthenon was nipped in the bud : after a few cf its columns 
were put up, it was discovered that " Auld Reekie " was not another 
Athens, and that an Hellenic Doric face would look as awkwardly 
upon the Calton Hill, as the helmet of Minerva herself upon an old 
washerwoman or Meg Dods. It was to have been a temple of Scot- 
tish worthies, but some one asked where they were to find worthies 
to fill it ; so though that Parthenon did not fall to the ground — for 
there was nothing but a few columns to fall, and they are still stand- 
ing — the scheme did. Not so that of Buckingham Palace ; that w : as 
erected, and remains a monument of those twins in architectural 
taste, King George (IV.) and Mister Nash. We were there pro- 
mised "a magnificent edifice in the most dignified style of Grecian 
architecture." So magnificent was the original design — so carefully 
had every part been studied beforehand, that no sooner were the two 
little boxes intended for wings put up, than it was found out that they 
were intolerably paltry, and must come down again ; and afterwards, 
another grand discovery was made, namely, that the little dome on 
the centre of the west- front, was so impertinent as to show itself from 
the Park, where it was not intended to be seen — and that it would so, 
might have been ascertained, by a model of the intended structure ; but 
models are expensive things — too expensive to be thought of by such a 
strict economist, and so careful of John Bull's pocket, as was John Nash ! 
The National Gallery, at any rate its facade, was to have been a pro- 
digiously classical piece of architecture; whereas, its turn-out ex- 
hibits to us a "beggarly account of empty" niches above, and a 
cockney display of area railings, and kitchen windows below ; to say 
nothing of a blank pediment — typical, perhaps, of the state of sculp- 
ture in this country ; of scaffold poles left sticking by way of garde-fou 
between the columns of the portico ; of the dome, which looks about 
as elegant, though somewhat less droll, than the huge cowl at the Old 
Bailey. The York column was to have rivalled that of Trajan, but 
as it was found impossible to eke out the Duke's martial achieve- 
ments so as to cover the shaft with them, that part is left quite bare : 
nevertheless, it is still, no doubt, the express image of its prototype. 
The Nelson monument — ah ! what was the Nelson monument to 
have been, or rather, what was it not to have been? There we were 
told to anticipate a work, of which English art would have reason to 
be proud. " All the talents " were called out on that occasion, and we 
have got a tolerably decent model of one of the five orders, upon the 
top of which, Nelson will look like the wick of a candle burnt down 
to its socket. Again was public expectation raised to the highest 
pitch: the new Royal Exchange was to be a phoenix— in more senses 
than one— an edifice worthy of the first country in the world, and of 
the dignity of the City of London.— Well, if it should not exactly 
answer to our ideas of what is worthy of the first, it will doubtless 
amply redeem the promise put forth for it as regards the last, since 
should it turn out to have a more shop-keeping than dignified physi- 
ognomy, all the more characteristic may it be of the dignity of the 
City. 

II. Hardly will his letter to the Athenceum obtain for Professor 
Cockered a benediction from Professor Pugin ; neither is it likely to 
be much better relished by Puseyites, Camdenists, and " Ecclesiolo- 
gists," and whatever other 18/8 there may be of the same kind. 
" Until the subject of our ancient architecture is studied," says the 
Professor, " the true spirit and intention of that architecture will 



M 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



never be understood ; and it will then, possibly, be found, that the in- 
tercessions of saints, and the pride of heraldry, are not in accordance 
with the free spirit of a Protestant, and a free people of the 19th 
century; and we may then shake off this dull, unmanly copyism which 
disgraces our school, and daring to think for ourselves, invent and 
perfect an architecture suited to the ideas religious and moral of our 
times, and in accordance with the materials and structure of an im- 
proved practice .'" There's heresy for you, with a vengeance! What 
say you to that Joseph Gwilt ? Why, the smallest of the "small-fry " 
could have uttered nothing half so mischievous and vile! Invent, in- 
deed ! — perfect too ! By the beard of Vitruvius — if he wore one — it is 
truly scandalous. — " Dull, unmanly copyism !" What say you to that, 
Sir Robert? — the audaciousness of it must make your hair stand on end. 
What say you again, Friend Welby, to that same fling at " copyism," 
and the expressive hint, that the spirit of our ancient architecture is 
not exactly in accordance with the spirit of the 19th century ? Well, 
after all, you have reason to comfort yourselves that Cockerell did not 
have a fling at Lord Shrewsbury and his "Inspired Virgins," who turn 
out, it seems, to be just what might be expected of miracles and 
miracle-mongers in this 19th century. 

III. Architectural painters and draftsmen are privileged, it may be 
presumed, to lie with impunity, a licence of which some avail them- 
selves so freely, that some of their productions are no better than so 
many downright graphic falsehoods, which, by greatly exaggerating 
or flattering the buildings so shown, cause disappointment when we 
afterwards behold them. It is a very common mode of lying, with 
them, to draw their figures, which should always serve as a faithful 
scale to the architecture, so much smaller than they ought to be as to 
convey the idea of the buildings being very much larger than they 
really are. Another common piece of deception is to throw in forced 
effects of light and shade that are never to be seen in the real objects. 
By no means is it an uncommon trick to put in, not merely positive, 
but most violent and exaggerated shadows on the upper part of a 
building, while all below is quite light; — shadows which we must 
suppose are occasioned by a score of balloons hovering over us just 
up in the air. 

IV. It was to be hoped that the invention of the Daguerreotype 
would ere this have been turned to a very great account for the study 
of architecture, and have been made to supply us with perfect and 
trustworthy representations of buildings, more especially of such as 
have not yet been represented at all. With regard to subjects of the 
latter kind, this does not appear even likely to be the case. Cer- 
tainly it is not so with the "Excursions Daguerriennes ;" for there 
some pains seem to have been taken to select some of the stalest 
subjects possible, and to avoid any which in addition to their in- 
trinsic attractions, would have those of novelty and freshness. This 
is rather — or more than rather — provoking, so exceedingly perverse, 
in fact, that one is quite puzzled to account for it. Those who pro- 
vide the engravings for the large sheet almanacs, seem to have the 
same relish for staleness of subject. The Cambridge almanac for 
this year has an interior view of the hall of Trinity College, instead 
of the facade of the new Assize Courts, as might have been expected, 
and which, shown upon that scale, would have formed an interesting 
architectural plate. Again, there has been so very little building 
going on of late, and that little so undeserving of their notice, that 
the " Stationers" have been obliged to go to Greenwich Hospital for 
the subject of the engraving to their almanac. Well, some fifty 
years hence, perhaps, the turn will come for Cockereil's Sun Fire 
Office, and Moxhay's Commercial Hall. 

V. A sort of materialism seems to be just now prevailing in archi- 
tectural doctrine, that is more likely to give us able builders and 
cunning "artisans" than real artists in their profession. No doubt, in a 
merely utilitarian point of view, it is far more important that we 
should have the former than the latter. Art may be dispensed with, 
or treated as sometbing altogether subordinate ; but then, let us, in 
fairness, abate our claims in behalf of architecture itself, as one of 
the fine arts, and to which, in its quality of such, we look for aesthetic 
charm and power. " Mere builders," is quite as strong a term of 



reproach as " mere artists ;" and is one by very far more generally 
applicable than the other, since there are but comparatively few in 
the profession — and not everyone among the professors themselves— 
who show themselves to be artists at all; most of them being no 
better than respectable copyists and plagiarists, unable to catch the 
spirit of their models, and both preserving that, and combining with 
it some spirit of their own, to give us some fresh ideas wortli having, 
and produce works that might deserve to become models in their 
turn. It must be admitted that the studies belonging to an architect 
are very multifarious; yet, while undue stress is laid upon some, 
which, after all, are but means — the mere scaffolding of his art — that 
which is assuredly not the least important among them is overlooked, 
namely, the study of design, by which is to be understood some- 
thing more than that mechanical species of it, which may be learnt 
secundum artem. "But," say the feeble and the timid, " it is safer to 
stick to mere rules: to pretend to deviate from them, and aim at 
originality is very presumptuous, and moreover, exceedingly hazardous 
and dangerous." No doubt: yet it is by that daring which some 
call rashness, that glory is won, and through perils and hazards that 
conquest is achieved — in art as well as in arms. Of course those 
whose valour and prowess are calculated for nothing more arduous 
and perilous than a sham fight or review, do well to abstain from 
entering a field where only master-spirits may hope to win, and 
where even they may fail and fall. 

VI. Greatly do I envy Professor Donaldson the possession of that 
pair of spectacles, which enables him to discern " lines of palaces at 
Pimlico and on the north side of the New Road," and magnificence 
in Regent Street! George Robins could hardly have been more 
liberal of praise in one of his puffing advertisements; and from him. 
such puff would have been received for just what it is worth ; but 
from a Professor and ex cathedra ! it is tin pen fort. Such excessive 
liberality on the part of the Professor at University College, is the 
more remarkable, because he could not find even one syllable of praise 
to bestow on a certain building in Gower Street, which some hold to 
be a very fair piece of architecture, although they are so fastidious 
in their taste, as to have no admiration for Pimlico palaces — not even 
for the palace, and for Regent Street magnificence. Perhaps the Pro- 
fessor was afraid of alluding or calling the attention of his auditors 
in any wav, to the portico of the building they were assembled in, 
knowing that its columns had been compared by one very great au- 
thority in such matters, to "Ten Cyprians," a class of ladies that 
ought not to be allowed at Colleges and Universities. As to the 
great critical authority alluded to — one, by the bye, who holds archi- 
tectural criticism generally, in abhorrence, much as he has scandalized 
at " Wilkins' Corinthian Cyprians," he is quite enamoured with those 
of St. Martin's Church. 



NEW ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY EXTRAORDINARY. 

Some witty but malicious wag has just been amusing himself by 
circulating a hoaxing jeu d'esprit, which imports to be a list of the 
officers of a new Architectural Society, and in so doing has made ex« 
ceedingly free with many respectable names, attaching to several of 
them some of the most ludicrous titles imaginable. We suspect that 
it comes from some one who is no very great admirer of Mr. Gwilt 
and his opinions, for that gentleman's name stands very conspicuously 
at the head of the list, wheje he is sneeringly designated "Professor 
of Latin architecture," — a style of architecture never heard of before 
— and as " Vitruvian Professor," which last title seems to be intended, 
to be a double shot, and to allude contrastingly to Mr. Hoskiug as the 
"Anti-Vitruvian Professor," and therefore in Mr. Gwilt' s opinion, a 
Professor of Architectural Heresy and Radicalism. Then we have 
Mr. Valentine Bartholomew, "Professor of Fruit and Flower-painting," 
— an odd sort of appointment in a college of architects ; Mr. G. Aitch- 
inson, "Professor of Concreting and Opus Incertum," — in which last 
there are, if no professors, plenty of practitioners already. How Mr. 
Billings will relish the title of " Itinerant Delineator," we know not ; 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



Jl 



but it is a tolerably safe one, since no one will care to rob him of it, 
the epithet being just next door to that of strolling player. Mr. W. 
Bartholomew is named as " Honorary Solicitor," and if by that is 
meant he is to do all the law business of the society " gratis for no- 
thing," he must be a real phoenix in his profession — something more 
wonderful than all other Professors put together. We never heard, 
before, of " Baptisterograpter," yet such is the high-sounding title 
conferred upon a Mr. W. P. Griffith. Besides these, there are a 
"Custos," 1 a "Recorder," and a " Cataloguist " ! Of Professors of 
one kind or other there are no fewer than eight ; so that the title is 
likely to become quite a drug — so dog cheap that no one will think it 
•worth having. But the drollest thing of all still remains to be men- 
tioned : would it be believed that these professed and professing 
"Free-masons" have got a female among them, contrary to the well- 
known regulations of that mysterious craft? And what office does the 
lady fill ? Is she their " Professor or Professoress of cookery." Oh, 
no ! There would be nothing very ridiculous in that ; especially as 
there is a "Gibbons' Carver," and there must, accordingly, be a cook 
to provide materials for him to operate upon. No, the lady's office is 
to be that of — guess if you can, but we defy you to do it ; therefore 
not to teaze you any longer, tell you it is to be that of "Embroidress!" 
Think of Professors, and a Vitruvian Professor among the rest, being 
jumbled up with an " Embroidress " — alias a Professor of Millinery ! 
O, Vitruvius, how art thou fallen ! Dignity of Art, how art thou 
sunk ! — so low that ne'er shall we be able to dig thee out again .' 

Not contenting himself with this bit of quiz, the author of it has 
very unceremoniously mentioned several gentlemen as individuals on 
•whom it is proposed to confer Honorary Fellowships, and has even 
had the audacity to make free with the name of Charles Barry; which 
is certainly carrying the joke a little too far. He has also put down 
those of both Willis and Whewell, and we need not say very blunder- 
ingly, since the " Vitruvian Professor" holds their writings in such 
contempt, that he has thought proper to omit them in the list of archi- 
tectural works inserted in his Encyclopaedia. It being merry Christmas 
time, some license may perhaps be allowed to the jokers and lovers of 
fun ; but we suspect that many of the parties who figure in this jeu 
d'esprit, will consider it very sorry fun — not at all better than a fort 
mauvaise plaisanttrie. 



RESTORATION OF THE CHURCH OF SAINT MARY, 
REDCLIFFE, BRISTOL. 

[It affords us much pleasure to be able to lay before our readers the 
following address of the Vicar and Churchwardens of the church of 
St. Mary, Redeliffe, Bristol, on the proposed works necessary to be 
done to restore this noble specimen of ecclesiastical building to its 
pristine grandeur; and we are happy to see that the combined talent 
of Messrs. Britton and Hosking have been engaged to report upon the 
necessary works requisite to be done : the one is well known for his 
antiquarian disquisitions and his love for all that concerns the Chris- 
tian architecture of Great Britain, and the other for his thorough 
knowledge of construction and architecture, which insure that the 
public will have that justice done to the building that it so well 
merits. We heartily join in the appeal, and do hope that every ar- 
chitect will exert his influence, in stimulating the public to come for- 
ward with subscriptions, for the restorations requisite this noble 
edifice.] 

The Vicar, Churchwardens, and Vestry of the Parish of St. Mary, 
Redeliffe, having resolved upon a public and extended appeal on be- 
half of the venerable and once splendid fabric entrusted to their care, 
prepared and circulated, in July last, an address briefly stating the 

1 QuEere, should not this be " C'ustnrd-maktr P" 

Printer's Devil, 



circumstances which appeared to them to justify such appeal. That 
address explained the preliminary steps which the parish authorities 
had adopted, and especially their selection of Mr. BfilTTOM to advise 
respecting the decayed state of their church, and the best mode of 
restoring it to its pristine integrity and beauty, with their reasons for 
such selection. The result of their communication with that gentle- 
man was his calling to his aid Mr. Hosking, Professor of architecture 
and of the arts of construction, at King's College, London, whom the 
Vestry, at Mr. Britton's request, have associated with him in the 
commission. 

These gentlemen having carefully and fully sup-eyed the church, 
presented to the parish authorities luminous and detailed reports, on 
all the matters referred to them, accompanied by plans and drawings 
illustrative of their views. In the conclusion of their preliminary 
address the parish authorities stated that the reports were thought 
too copious for printing on that occasion; but that in a subsequent 
appeal, an analysis should be given, to embrace their more leading 
and prominent parts, and illustrated by copies of some of the draw- 
ings. It is in fulfilment of this intention, and of the pledge contained 
in their former paper, that the Vicar, Churchwardens and Vestry, now 
present this more extended address, in the hope and belief that the 
public will feel as well satisfied as the parish authorities in their pre- 
liminary address stated themselves to be, that the able and eminent 
architects alluded to, have, in their consideration of the matters re- 
ferred to them, " been governed by views not less honourable to their 
reputation for taste and science, than for sound and practical know- 
ledge, and that could the views of those gentlemen be carried out. 
our city would possess a parochial church, and the west of England a 
national monument, of unequalled beauty, and one to be visited and 
admired by multitudes of strangers of our own and of foreign 
nations-" 

In their reports on the present state and contemplated repairs and 
restoration of the church of St. Mary, Redeliffe, Messrs. Britton and 
Hosking commence by drawing the attention of the parish authorities 
to the injuries sustained by the fabric, from the long-continued access 
of damp and moisture, both in the superstructure and foundation 
walls — produced, as to the former, by the insufficient means for carrying 
off the rain and snow — and, as to the latter, by the want of drainage; 
both which deficiences they principally ascribe to the original ar- 
rangement for the discharge of water from the roofs, and want of 
drainage round the fabric. To the former of these defects, they at- 
tribute, in a great degree, the injury to, if not destruction of, the 
external faces of the Masons' work upon the wall* and buttresses. 
Thev have, in much detail, set out the nature, extent, and causes of 
the mischief; and, in a subsequent part of their report, have sug- 
gested, with like detail, the extensive and efficient measures recom- 
mended for remedying the evils alluded to, and for preventing their 
future recurrence. 

They describe the roof covering as, throughout, in a very defective 
state, though heavy expence is anuually incurred in repairing it; and 
they suggest its entire re-arrangement and re-construction, upon the 
principles described in their reports. 

They have also ascertained and have very accurately described, an 
original defect existing in the great tower, evinced in a bulging out- 
wards of the. external faces of that part of the structure, and pro- 
duced by an inequality of strength and resisting power between the 
finely-wrought and closely-jointed masonry of the faces, and the rub- 
ble backing which constitutes the main bulk of the walls ; and they 
state that, with the exception of the tower and the flank wall and 
buttresses of the south aile of the chancel, all the walls and founda- 
tions, throughout, appear to be perfectly sound and but little injured 
They attribute the settlement outwards of the flank wall first noticed 
to the want of proper drainage before alluded to, and to the too near 
approach of graves to the foundations of the wall in question, which 
are not, in that part of the fabric, more than four or live feet in depth; 



12 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



and they state that, by an attempt formerly made, to prevent the 
flank from going further, or to hold it up, mischief has been occa- 
sioned to the pillars which stand between it and the chancel, and, 
through those pillars, to the clerestory resting upon them. They ex- 
press their opinion that the chancel is in an insecure state therefrom, 
and point out in very strong and clear terms the mischief and danger 
to be apprehended, unless immediate attention be given thereto ; and 
they enter, at considerable detail, into the comparative inefficiency of 
the repairs which have been from time to time effected. 

Recurring to the tower, they state, that the solid structure of this 
beautiful work is generally sound and trustworthy, though its exterior 
sm/ace has almost wholly perished; and that from the dilapidated 
state of the whole exterior and especially of the enrichments pre- 
viously noticed by them, the tower is unsafe to approach ; and they 
therefore recommend means for excluding persons from passing 
within reach of the danger to be apprehended from the constant 
liability of fragments of stone, of no mean size, to become detached, 
and to fall in every direction. 

They represent the masons' work of the spire as generally sound, 
though the surface of the stone upon the exterior is rapidly disinte- 
grating from the causes described in the report. 

In proceeding to advise as to the solid and substantial repair of the 
fabric, in its more important parts aud the restoration of the orna- 
mental parts, Messrs. Britton and Hosking state that so intimate a 
connexion exists between the parts of such a building as that under 
consideration as to render what may appear to be merely ornamental 
in most cases essential to the stability of the structure — that they 
feel themselves compelled to report on these two heads together; and 
they furnish very able and sufficient grounds for their determination — 
but dividing the subject into two parts, viz. : — 

First, the tower and spire — and second, the church with the lady 
chapel, the porches and other accessories. 

With respect to the first, it would be injustice to the architects to 
give in any other language than their own, the suggestions they have 
offered, viz . : 

'■The Tower and Spire. — This singularly beautiful composition is alto- 
gether distinct in style and date from the Church, which has been added to 
it, and deserves, as it requires, to he considered, not as a merely provincial 
edifice, and far less as a simple parish steeple, but as a national monumen t, 
and in the first rank of the many noble structures of the kind in existence in 
this country. In magnitude it is exceeded by few ; in destined altitude, the 
larger Cathedrals alone would excel it ; and in chaste simplicity of design, 
combined with elaborately beautiful, but subdued and appropriate, deco- 
ration, Redcliffe tower is surpassed by none ; whilst it is pre-eminent in its 
position, on a lofty bank of the Avon, within the commercial capital of the 
west of England. We have already intimated, that the solid structure of the 
tower is sound and trustworthy, and that it is capable of being easily made 
to bear all that it was ever intended to carry. The structural arrangement 
of the tower itself, and of the existing portion of the spire, give the com- 
pletest evidence that the original design contemplated as it provided for a 
spire of the form and proportion exhibited in the accompanying engraving of 
the church. It would appear, however, that when the church was built the 
idea of completing the spire was abandoned, as the south-western buttresses 
of the tower were reduced in projection, and otherwise altered to compose 
with the west front of the church — and the south-eastern angle was altered, 
throughout, to extend the nave of the church uninterruptedly to its western 
front. The tact and skill with which the outer, or south-western angle of 
the tower was altered, and the fine taste with which the turret pier, in front 
of the church, which composes with the reduced buttress of the tower, is 
arranged, to connect the parts of the composition, are most admirable ; but 
not so the arrangement at the other angle — where a low, heavy arch, and an 
unmeaning blank, upon a heavier pier, obtrude themselves immediately 
within the church door — contrasting, most disadvantageous!)- too, with the 



composition of the arches of the aile, and with the clerestory on the other 
side of the entrance. 

" It may be remarked here, that, at the time RedclifFe church was built, 
the taste which produced the original design of the magnificent superstruc- 
ture to the tower no longer existed ; spires were not built to Gloucester 
cathedral nor to Bath Abbey church, in the 15th century — as they had been 
at Salisbury, Norwich, and Litchfield, in the 13th and 14th centuries; com- 
paratively small spires, on lofty towers, as at Louth and Newcastle — or 
lanterns, as at Boston, indicate the prevailing taste, in that respect, when 
tlus church was built, and the abutments of the spire of the original design 
were altered or removed. In this manner the incomplete or demolished 
spire was left, and the original composition was shorn of its fair proportions. 
" In compliance with the instructions to us, to advise as to such alterations 
in the restoration of the ornamental parts of the fabric both external and 
internal as may seem necessary for reinstating it to its ancient and pristine 
beauty, we urge, most strongly, the necessity of restoring, at the same time, 
the perished surfaces of the tower, and its immediate accessories, adapting it 
to receive the completed spire, and carrying on, to completion, that beautiful 
feature of a masterwork of architectural composition, which, in its truncated 
state, is but an unpicturesque deformity. Thus the original design may be 
both restored and completed, and Bristol possess a noble national monu- 
ment, that will add to the beauty of her locality and to her pre-eminence 
amongst English cities. 

" In restoring the tower, as contradistinguished from the superimposed 
spire, it will, of course, be proper that the work should be set upright on all 
its faces ; and, in doing this, it will become necessary to take out and rein- 
state the whole of the ashlaring of the surfaces, even when it might other- 
wise remain, though that, indeed, is of very small extent. Moreover, all the 
stones upon which the enrichments occur must, of necessity, be drawn, 
wherever the enriched surfaces are defective, and these requirements together 
would involve the reinstatement of all the external surfaces of the tower. 
Paring old work, and pinning in patches of new stone, where there is not any 
left to pare, we consider altogether out of the questiou — as paring would 
reduce the original proportions of the design — and pinning in, among the 
pared faces, pieces in the place of stones altogether ruined, would not pro- 
duce a restoration of the fabric to its ancient and pristine beauty. The 
absolutely necessary restoration of the faces of the tower, with its buttresses, 
turrets, pinnacles, niches, canopies, pediments, windows, and their enrich- 
ments, parapets, cornices, and corbels, will give the means of doing all that 
is necessary, with a trifling exception, to fit the tower to receive the spire of 
its full dimensions. This exception involves an alteration within the church ; 
but we shall be able to show that what is required there can be made, not 
only consistent with, but most desirable for, the services of the interior. 

" The existing portion of the spire is, fortunately, quite enough to give the 
means of developing the original design, whilst it affords demonstrative evi- 
dence that a complete spire was contemplated by the original designer of the 
structure. If lines be drawn from points within the footings of the buttres- 
ses of the tower, through the base of the spire, on the summit of the tower, 
they will follow the sides of the spire, as far as it now exists, and meet at 
such a height as similar compositions of equal date would justify by analogy . 
We have drawn such lines, or rather we have set up the present compartment, 
as it exists, and find that its thrust is within the abutments afforded by the 
buttresses, and that the sub-structure generally has the strength necessary 
to carry the superstructure resulting from carrying it up to the height indi- 
cated ; which height results from a continuation of the same lines upwards, 
and is further justified by the best existing examples of works of the same 
class. 

" The decorations of the spire, as it exists, are of singular beauty and pro- 
priety; the ribs are exquisitely moulded, and the characteristic enrichment 
of the vertical and pointed mouldings of the tower below, is carried with 
great good taste and beautiful effect up into the spire, so that nothing has to 
be imagined in that respect ; and we may say with confidence, that the de- 



CHURCH OF ST. MARY, REDCL1FFE, BRISTOL. 
VIEW FROM THE SOUTH-EAST, WITH THE SPIRE, 



AS PROPOSED TO BK RESTORED. 




The general style of architecture and the ornamental details of the church ahove indicated are replete with beauty, and present to the 
eye ef the tasteful and intelligent observer a series of exquisite subjects for study and contemplation as viewed from different points. The 
view from the south-east, as shown in the annexed woodcut, represents the tall and narrow south transept, with its aisles, windows, highly 
enriched flying and attached buttresses, perforated parapets, and purfled pinnacles ; the south porch, of two stories, and newly designed 
staircase turret, the flying buttresses and clerestory windows of the nave, with the bold crocketed pinnacle, which surmounts the stairs at 
the south-west angle ; rising above the west end of the northern aisle are seen the upper or belfry story of the noble tower, with its 
richly adorned panels, boss-enriched mouldings, and perforated parapet ; the bold and finely proportioned octagonal pinnacles at the 
angles of the tower ; and rising from among them the lofty graceful spire, crowning and adorning the whole. Of this last splendid and 
heaven-pointing architectural member of a Christian edifice, there are numerous examples both in England and on the Continent, which 
are now admired as they deserve to be admired; but, however meritorious and beautiful may be the spires of Strasburg, Salisbury. 
Freyburg, Lichfield, Norwich, Louth, or others of less note, Redcliffe spire, in form and detail, as indicated by its existing portion,' and 
as it is susceptible of being rendered, with the tower, its legitimate base, may challenge a comparison with them all. 

' VI i e " existing portion" of the spire is not more than one-fifth of the whole height, or up to the first enriched band. 



CHURCH OF ST. MARY, KEDCLIFFE, BRISTOL. 
VIEW OF THE NAVE, ETC., LOOKING TOWARDS THE EAST, RESTORED. 




Divested of pews, seats, and other furniture of a Protestant church, the above print shows the architectural character and details of 
the Interior of this truly beautiful edifice. If not equal in sculptured decoration to the gorgeous chapels of Henry VII, London, and 
King's College, Cambridge, it will bear comparison with those justly famed buildings, and will be found to surpass most of the cathedrals 
and other large churches of our own and of foreign countries in this respect. Although in miniature, this beautiful delineation in wood 
engraving displays the finely moulded and shafted piers or pillars, with the arches to the aisles, and the panelled walls above them in the 
situation of the triforium of the large cathedrals. Over this traceried wall is a series of clerestory windows of large dimensions, and of 
fine forms and proportions, with mullions and tracery. These, it is reasonably inferred, were originally filled with stained glass " casting 
a dim, religious light " over the whole scene. Connecting, and apparently tying together, the two side walls, is a groin-vaulted ceiling, 
profusely adorned with intertwining moulded ribs, foliated tracery, and richly sculptured bosses spreading over the whole. In the view 
presented by the engraving, the eye ranges through a beautiful vista full of the most charming architectural effects. It requires but little 
stretch of fancy to imagine the exquisite, and indeed sublime, appearance of the whole, were the windows filled with pictured glass, and 
the ribs, bosses, and capitals of the vaulted ceilings, and of the shafted pillars, with gold and colours " richly dight." 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



13 



sign, as we present it, of the tower, with the restored spire, is a true pre- 
sentment of the original intention of the first designer. We may have 
omitted to state hitherto, however, what is most satisfactory to know, that in 
the midst of the dilapidation and disintegration which pervade the work, 
not/iing in the moulded forms or other enrichments, and nothing in the forms 
and proportions generally, is entirely lost ; hnt specimens remain, from which 
restorations may be made with certain truth. 

" It will be remarked, that the basement of the tower, in the drawing of 
the elevation of the west front, shows a greater depth of faced work than 
appears at present. This we consider it desirable to restore, to prevent the 
structure from losing any part of its apparent elevation, in raising the level 
of Redclift'e Street before the north-west entrance to the enclosure j and we 
have suggested, in the drawings, a re-arrangement of the steps of approach 
to the church, in accordance with this view. We propose to alter the win- 
dows of the tower, from their present forms and proportions, to others, 
more in character with the design of the superstructure." 

For the reasons detailed in the report, Messrs. Britton and Hos- 
king recommend that attention should be first directed to the resto- 
ration of the tower and spire ; and that the former should, under the 
circumstances, not be deferred any longer, if it be desired to preserve 
this beautiful monument from utter destruction. 

Speaking of "the church, with the lady chapel, the porches, and 
other accessories," after the recommendations before alluded to, as to 
what are termed the hydraulic arrangements and the proposed re- 
construction of the roofs — Messrs. Britton and Hosking suggest a new 
gateway at the north-west corner of the church enclosure, and other 
arrangements consequent upon the recent alterations under the Bristol 
Improvement Act, and for giving more effect thereby to the beautiful 
edifice under consideration ; and, after their valuable suggestions for 
the substantial repair of the fabric, in the south flank of the chancel 
and the transept, they refer to their drawings, as showing with suffi- 
cient clearness the restorations they propose of the various parts of 
the exterior of the building ; which restorations, they state, are 
mostly from existing authority within the building itself — and where 
no specimen exists of the original parts, the restorations are stated 
to be made, to the best of their judgment, from analogv. Repeating 
their difficulty of separating the substantial from the ornamental parts 
they go on to show that many portions commonly considered merely 
ornamental are either absolutely necessary, or highly useful, to the 
substantial structure; and after naming several instances of this sort, 
they add : — 

" We do not contemplate, however, and cannot imagine that the necessary 
and useful reparations are required to be made in merely shaped blocks of 
stone without the mouldings and other decorations appropriate to them ; 
and, for ourselves, had rather see the church a picturesque ruin, than be 
instrumental in restoring it to strength without its native beauty. We pro- 
pose, therefore, the restoration of all the decorations that ever existed upon 
the surfaces of the work, and that with new materials, and not by paring and 
patching the old." 

They add, however, that, in some few cases, the heads of the win- 
dows, with the tracery in them, may, perhaps, be preserved. 

The architects propose to move the modern attachment to the 
south porch, also the lobby to the lady chapel, and likewise the sheds 
and other unsightly objects about the church, and of the doorway and 
steps at the south-east side of the north porch ; they further suggest 
certain provisions and restorations consequent on such removals. 

As to the interior of the Church. — The suggestions of Messrs. 
Britton and Hosking refer to matters of which they describe the 
restoration for the most part as easy. But the most important res- 
toration of the interior is that at the east end, involving the removal 
of Hogarth's pictures, and other inappropriate attachments, and the 
reinstatement of the east and clerestory windows; and they hope to 
find that reparations only will be wanted to the screen, between the 



chancel and the lady chapel. The latter will want certain alterations, 
including a new floor. 

In the restoration of the spire will be involved some alterations, 
pointed out by them, at the west end of the church, including a new' 
arrangement for the organ; and they express their hope, that as the 
whole of the lead and glass must be removed from the windows for 
the restoration of the mullions and tracery, it may, in the principal 
ones at least, be reinstated with stained glass of an appropriate 
character. 

They also propose in detail numerous and important alterations in 
the re-arrangement of the pews and seats, by which, with an increased 
seat accommodation, and belter command from the pulpit, reading- 
desk and altar, a more perfect view of the building may be obtained, 
whilst all the beautiful pillars shall be in every case insulated, that 
the eye may range over their lofty and symmetrical forms and pro- 
portions, from the base to the summit. 

The reports of Messrs. Britton and Hosking, with their accompa- 
nying drawings, though (for want of more time and labour than they 
have yet been able to bestow) not made with the fi-.lness of detail re- 
quired for actual operations, are, nevertheless, the result of admea- 
surements and of careful delineation of the most important parts; 
and their observations arise from close examination of the work in 
general and in detail, upon personal survey and attentive study and 
consideration of what they have observed; and their estimatt 
joined are the result of such survey and consideration, and also upon 
comparison with the cost of other large works of analogous extent 
and character. 

The Tower and Spire.— The complete reinstatement and lesto- 
ration of the tower with its pinnacles, and all its decorations, in the 
manner, and with the stone they contemplate adopting, will cost 
about £8,200. 

The re-construction and completion of the spire, according to the 
data afforded by the existing portion thereof, and according to the 
drawing of the west front restored, and making the requisite addi- 
tions to the buttresses of the tower, and including the scaffolding and 
machinery necessary, will cost about £3,(300. 

The Church, with the lady chapel, the porches, and other accesso- 
ries:— 

1st. — The hydraulic arrangements, including new roofs to the church 
and lady chapel, the re-arrangement of the north-west approaches, 
with the earthwork, drains, &c, as recommended in their general 
report, after giving credit for old materials, will cost £1,850. 

2nd. — The substantial repair and reinstatement of the interiors, and 
the repair, reinstatement, and perfect restoration of the whole of the 
exteriors of the church, lady chapel, and porches, including the re- 
working of the whole of the external decorations in the stone alluded 
to, together with the alterations and presumed improvements recom- 
mended in the general report, it is estimated will cost nearly £21,400. 
3rd. — The re-arrangement and refitting of the interior of the 
church as proposed by Messrs. Britton and Hosking, will cost £2,000. 
The whole presenting a total outlay of £37,650, which, with a due 
estimate for contingencies, in works so extensive, and of such com- 
paratively novel character, cannot, in the judgment of the parish au- 
thorities, be safely calculated at a sum much less than £ 1' ',' >• II I. 

It is, however, stated by the architects, that the expense under the 
2nd head may admit of reduction, by their finding, on further exami- 
nation, portions of the work capable of remaining, or of being re- 
worked and re-applied in places less exposed to the weather, and it 
is their opinion, that the part of the work contemplated in this section 
may, after precautions are taken to secure it, generally be distributed 
over any reasonable number of years. 

In allusion to the large sum required for effecting the object in all 
its proposed details, the parish authorities can but repeat, in the lan- 
guage of their preliminary address, that such an amount is only to be 
raised by the liberal co-operation of those whom providence Ins 



II 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



blessed with the ability and the desire to aid in such objects as that 
for which this appeal is intended ; and upon those of our own locality 
who have been so favoured by providence, they repeat their confi- 
dence, that an appeal will not be made in vain for the restoration of a 
fabric, which, if not wholly the work of a Bristol Merchant, is to be 
ascribed principally to one of that class. Their confidence is strength- 
ened bv the able and energetic support they have received from 
many and influential quarters, and especially from our local press, by 
one of whose editors it has been well and eloquently said, that "the 
question for the public — for the church-going public in particular — to 
answer, is, — Shall decay be suffered to proceed until restoration shall 
have become impossible? The amount required (£40,000) for the 
complete repair of the fabric is certainly great, but when we recollect 
the large sums which have, been raised for the restoration of Hereford 
Cathedral, and of York Minster, we cannot doubt that the nobility, 
gentry, and wealthy commoners of Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, 
and the neighbouring counties will evince equal liberality in worthily 
upholding — 

•' The pride of Bristowe and the western land." 
The parish authorities, whilst they feel that they cannot, with pro- 
priety, divest themselves of the responsibility of carrying out, so far 
as they shall be enabled to do, the repair and restoration contem- 
plated, feel sensibly that the public, from whom the means of accom- 
plishment is so largely to be drawn, are entitled to every reasonable 
security for the due appropriation of the sums contributed, and it is 
therefore the desire of the parish authorities, at an early period after 
any considerable subscription shall be obtained, to convene a meeting 
of the subscribers, by the majority of whom, subscribing not less than 
£10 each, six contributors of not less than £50 each shall be chosen, 
who, with the members of the vestry for the time being, shall form a 
committee for carrying out such repair and restoration, and for con- 
trolling the monies received, and the expenditure thereof. 

The parish authorities in aid of the object intended, propose to 
anticipate, as far as they possibly can be advised to do, the revenues 
of the estates vested in them for the repair and support of the 
church, and by means of which, that object has been hitherto (how- 
ever inadequately) accomplished without the parish having been ever 
burdened by a church rate, and from this source they will apply the 
sum of £2000, to be paid, as they propose the individual contribu- 
tions shall be paid, by five equal and successive yearly instalments, to 
meet the expenditure as it will probably annually progress. 

In conclusion, the vicar, churchwardens and vestry, of St. Mary, 
Redclifife, venture to quote and apply to their church, the language 
used by the learned and Very Reverend the Dean of Hereford, in re- 
ference to his own cathedral, which at the present moment is in a 
dangerous state ; but which is likely to be preserved and renovated 
by the united efforts of the benevolent friends of the church and of 
Archeology. — " Restoration, is the grand object to be achieved, not 
mending and patching." * * * * * "I earnestly 
intreat that restoration may be regarded as the one thing sought — 
sound and legitimate restoration, for which there is sufficient au- 
thority." 

To the preceding appeal the parish authorities append the fol- 
lowing remarks and suggestions by their senior architect, who, as an 
antiquary and author, has laboured nearly half a century to elucidate 
and illustrate the ecclesiastical architecture of Great Britain. 
M. R. Whish, near. 

J" 03 - Paoctok, ) Churchwarden*. 
John Farler, J 

Extracts from the Remarks and Suggestions by Mr. Britto.n. 
To those persons who are. not acquainted with Redcliffe Church, it 
may be both interesting and useful to give a short account of its pe- 
culiarities, beauties, and historic annals. — As a parochial Christian 
temple it is acknowledged to rank, if not the first, at least in the first 



class, amongst the many fine sacred edifices of our country. As com- 
pared with the cathedral and conventual churches of England, it sur« 
passes most in symmetry of design — in harmony and unity of charac- 
ter — in rich and elaborate adornments — in the picturesque composi- 
tion of exterior forms and parts — and in the fascinating combination 
of clustered pillars, mullioued windows, panelled walls, and groin- 
ribbed ceilings of the interior. I know of no building, to compare 
with it in all these features, in Great Britain, and I feel assured that 
there is none superior in graceful design, and beauty of detail, in all 
civilized Europe. Except the cathedral of Salisbury, which is nearly 
of one age and design throughout, the other cathedrals, and indeed 
most of the large parish and conventual churches, consist of hetero- 
genous parts, of varied and discordant dates and styles. 

The accompanying views of Redcliffe Church, though on a small 
scale, cannot fail to impress every eye that can see, and every mind 
that can appreciate the beauties and merits of architectural design, 
that the church, now fast approaching ruin, was once, as it may again 
be made, a splendid edifice; a temple eminently adapted for the 
soothing and sublime demotions of Christian worship, and also calcu- 
lated to impress every spectator with wonder, delight, and admira- 
tion. 

The' architect and the antiquary who read plans and sections of 
buildings, as the musician reads notes, will instantly perceive, that 
the church referred to is systematically and beautifully arranged ; that 
its interior abounds with clustered pillars, and richly-ornamented 
ceilings ; that its walls are pierced with large windows, divided by 
mullions, and strengthened with buttresses toresist the thrust of the 
arched ceilings ; that it has a transept of unusual design, being di- 
vided into three nearly equal parts; that there is a presbytery, or 
chance!, with ailes, divided from it by richly-devised screens ; that 
there is a lady-chapel, east of the chancel, separated by another open 
screen ; that there are two small apartments, for a resident chantry- 
priest, north of the chancel-aile, in one of which is a fire-place, 
showing it to have been a dwelling, the whole being of unusual oc- 
currence; that there is a double porch on the north flank of the 
church, manifesting in form, style of walls, ribs, and stairs, different 
ages of erection ; also a porch on the south side, differing, again, from 
the double north porch in every respect ; that the wider and stronger 
walls at the north-west angle of the plan, show the foundation of a 
tower; that there is a doorway for entrauce at the west-end, central 
to the nave ; and that different flights of steps, from north to south, 
traverse the west-end, and show that the ground ascends, quickly, in 
that direction. Aided by the accompanying engravings, of a view of 
the church from the north-east, and interior ; any person may readily 
understand the architectural characteristics of the church referred to ; 
and those who have studied Christian architecture will immediately 
perceive its peculiarities of form and arrangement, as well as the 
chaste profusion of its ornamental details. 

Although essential and substantial repairs and restoration be the 
main objects in the contemplated works, these will be applied to the 
interior even more than to the exterior of the building; for if the 
latter may be regarded as the shell, the former is the kernel — if the 
last be the case, the first is the jewel intended to be preserved. In- 
deed, as the inside of Redcliffe Church was in its original and finished 
state an architectural design of pre-eminent richness aud beauty — as 
it was destined by its founder and architect to surpass all its neigh- 
bours in originality of composition and elaborate finish, so was it 
adapted to satisfy the wants and wishes of those for whose devotions 
it was intended — the present architects, emulous to follow such ex- 
ample, propose to render it fully and completely adapted for the rites, 
as well as the habits, of its protestant occupants. In doing this, they 
consider it material to provide accommodation for the many, rather 
than merely to please the few ; they think the clergyman and his 
congregation should be in such close communion, that the former may 
be seen, as well as heard by the latter. If the numerous shafted 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



16 



pillars tend to interfere with this communion in some degree, the few 
sittings, so placed as to be out of view of the minister, will only be 
resorted to on emergencies. In designing and disposing the altar, 
the desk, and the pulpit, the organ, and the font, as well as the re- 
quired number of seats, the most scrupulous attention will be paid by 
the architects to the ancient usages of the Anglican church, and thev 
confidently anticipate many striking and beautiful scenes and effects 
■when the whole is completed, the subordinate appendages being made 
to correspond and harmonize with the architectural disposition and 
character of the church. A learned and travelled clergyman who has 
devoted some years to the study of the church architecture of the 
middle ages, writes to me thus — "The harmonious effect of Redcliffe 
Church must at one time have been quite unrivalled. I am not aware 
of any cathedral or parish church, either in England or abroad, that 
contains an equal amount of rich and uniform vaulting. The bosses, 
more particularly, both in quality and quantity, surpass all that I have 
met with elsewhere." 

To accommodate and afford every degree of comfort to even 
larger congregations than have generally assembled within the walls 
of this church, we have made such arrangement of the seats, as shall 
bring all persons more fully and freely within sight and hearing of the 
minister; and have also taken especial care to display the complete 
height and design of all the graceful clustered pillars of the edifice. 

There are four palpable varieties of Christian architecture in 
Redcliffe church, manifesting as many architects, and as many dif- 
ferent times when they were respectively designed and erected. The 
inner north porch, or vestibule — the tower and spire — the outer north 
p 0rc h — the body of the church, with the lady chapel, and the south 
porch — we feel assured were built successively, and it is generally 
admitted, that an older church was removed to give place to the 
present nave and chancel with their ailes and the transept. The 
oldest of these members, i. e. the vestibule, is of a date between A.D. 
1200 and 1230. " In 1207 Lord Robert de Berkeley granted to Red- 
cliffe church, at the request of William, the chaplain, his fountain of 
water from Huge well, for the friars of St. John the Baptist in Red- 
cliffe." Lands were conferred on the same church, about that time, 
plainly showing that there was one then in the parish. The tower 
and spire we may safely refer to the reign of Edward I, as corres- 
ponding with known specimens of that age. According to the 
chronicles of Bristol, Simon de Burton, who was mayor in 1293, 
" began to build the church of St. Mary de Redcliffe, when John 
Lamyngton was chaplain," — (Evans's " Chronological Outline.") 
Seyer, in his "Memoirs of Bristol" (Vol. II., p. 77) from MS. Calen- 
dar, more cautious and particular, says, " It was about the year 1293 
or 1294 that Simon de Bourton, a person of wealth and consequence, 
who was Mayor of Bristol in that year, and bore the same office six 
times, built the church of St. Mary, Radcliffe, where the eastern end 
now is." Here we find it positively stated by one writer, that the 
church was built, and by another that it was begun, at the above date. 
To us it is quite clear that no part of the present church is so early 
as 1291. 



YORKSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sir — My attention has been drawn to a letter in the last number of your 
Journal, containing remarks on the Yorkshire Architectural Society. "What 
is personal in the letter may be safely left unanswered, as the tone in which 
it is written will be its best counter-agent. 

With respect to the Society, your anonymous correspondent has made 
several statements, of the falseness of which I hope he was ignorant; these 
appear to require some notice. 

In his letter, it is said " The prospectus contains the names of two archi- 
tects only, and neither of them attended the Autumn meeting." 

Before the Autumn meeting, the prospectus contained the names of twelve 
architects; I saw four present at the meeting, aud I believe more attended. 



Your correspondent says, " Two meetings arc to he held in the year, and 
from the information given at the la-t, it appears, that for general accom- 
modation, they are to he in the remote corners of the country." 

Two general public meetings will lie held during the year, the places of 
meeting being various, and appointed by tin: Committee, so as to suit the 
convenience of the members generally. 

Again, "All admitted must he members of the Established High Anglo. 
Catholic Church." It is true that this Society fur promoting the study of 
Ecclesiastical architecture, admits only churchmen ; but without respect to 
their peculiar sentiments. No exclusion of any member of the church has 
yet taken place, and the Society, amongst its 400 members, includes many 
churchmen of different opinions. 

The last misstatement is, that " the standard for all buildings is to be 
Parker's Glossary." 

At the request of a dignitary of the church, a list of elementarv works on 
Gothic architecture was added at the end of the report, as a guide to any 
member beginning the study of architecture ; in this li.t Mr. I'arker's 
Glossary was mentioned, together with the works of Rickman, Bloxam, &c. 
This so far as I know, is the only foundation for the imaginative writer's 
assertion, " that the standard for all buildings is to be Parker's Glossary." 
Whether the insertion of such venturous statements on the authority of an 
anonymous writer suits the character of a respectable periodical, I leave to 
your judgment. 

I am obliged by your having pointed out in your Editorial remarks an 
unintentional omission in the advertisement there alluded to. It was con- 
sidered, or rather assumed without consideration, so much a matter of course, 
that the architect whose plan should he chosen, would have the carrying 
out of his design, that no express mention of this was thought necessary. 
I am, Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

S. Wilkinson, 
Hon. Sec. to the Yorkshire Architectural Society. 

Leeds, Dec. bth, 1842. 



THE KENTISH TOWN COMPETITION. 

Sir — Should what I am about to say appear too pointed against a parti- 
cular party, that individual has mainly to thank himself for the pointedness 
of some of my remarks. When we find a man pursuing that very course 
which he has both loudly and publicly reprobated in others, and protested 
against — we must suppose, upon principle — when we see a would-be Cato 
all at once changed into a Clodius, such an offender has little reason to look 
for that lenity which might perhaps be extended to those, who, whatever 
their conduct may lie, at least make no parade of being greatly more upright 
and conscientious than their neighbours. 

That after expressing himself decidedly hostile to competition, after actu- 
allv saying, " I have endeavoured to go into t he strongest possible condemna- 
tion of which I am capable, of the depreciating effect of competition in ar- 
chitectural design;" that after thus pledging himself in print, anil the 
strongest possible manner, to be opposed to the system of competition in 
any shape, Mr. Bartholomew should have liecome, or have even though! of 
becoming a competitor for the intended church at Kentish Town, is indeed 
most strange. He cannot disavow those words, and a great many others to 
the same effect, unless he should now choose to say, that although his name 
appears upon the titlepage, he is nr t the bona-fidc author of the work ; anil did 
not even know until after its publication, what opinions it really contained; 
yet hardly will he re»wt to sucb evasion. He must therefore put up with 
the mortification of having been so imprudent as to puldish a good many 
very harsh reflections that now recoil upon himself. Hardly is it possible to 
conceive how a man who has denounced the whole Bystem of competition 
in the most unmeasured— even virulent terms, as one compounded of folly 
and knavery, and which lie accordingly laboured earnestly to put down, 

should now abet it ; a Id not onlj join in a public competition, but in doing 

so, should unfairly eia.le tin- restrictions laid upon others, having good 
reason to know that his doing BO would I"' winked at. 

In the list of printed conditions, one was to the effect that none of the 
drawings sent in Bhoutd be <■»/„„,,, l. bul merelj tinted in sepia. This m 
sufficiently explicit ; there was no possibility of mistaking it. Nevertl 
Mr. Bartholomew's principal elevation was a coloured drawin 
lie violated the instructions which Ins rivals bad been obliged to conform 
to: consequently he ought in justiie to have been put Aon de combat at 



16 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



once. The best that can be said in excuse for him in that matter, is h 
so far he practised no deception, for the most ignorant set of men must 
have been able to see whether a drawing was coloured or not, and if they 
choose to violate the pledge implied in their own instructions to the com- 
petitors, the dishonesty rests with them. At any rate they have no cause 
to upbraid Mr. Bartholomew with having acted unfairly. But there was 
one little licence of another kind taken by Mr. Bartholomew, by which they 
were probably imposed upon. I here allude to the singular discrepancy 
between the geometrical elevations and the perspective view, in which last, 
several alterations were made, in order to improve the effect. Improvement 
there was, hut it was also direct falsification. It was tantamount to saying, 
" execute the building from this set of designs, and such will be its ap- 
pearance." And if that does not amount to one of the tricks practised in 
competition, I know not what does. By no means do I pretend to say that 
Mr. Bartholomew is indebted for the decision in his favour, mainly to that 
artifice. He would probably have been equally successful, had he taken the 
liberty of evading the condition which required perspective drawings. I 
merely mean to say that such artifice was actually practised ; and by whom ? 
— by no other than the immaculate and conscientious Mr. Bartholomew, 
the violent and ultra anti-competitionist, who, in another edition of his book — 
should it ever reach one — may now bring forward some examples of the 
ruauceuvres practised in the competition for the Kentish Town Church. 

■Without any additions, however, there is enough and more than enough 
in his book at present, to convict the author of the " Specifications " of the 
most flagrant inconsistency. Or are we to suppose that he purposely left 
himself a loophole to creep out of, in the remark, that " what every res- 
pectable architect who has any real professional business to attend to, thinks 
of competition, may be gathered from the well-known fact, that none such 
is found to send in a competition design, unless he possess, or fancy that he 
possess, direct influence for obtaining the prize!" After this, we are com- 
pelled to suppose that Mr. Bartholomew would not have entered into the 
competition in question at all, had he not good reason to imagine before- 
hand that the prize would be secured to him by influence behind the curtain. 
It seems, therefore, after all, that violent as he is against competitions in 
general, he has no objection whatever to enter into one, provided he knows 
that it is a mere mockery as far as others are concerned, and that however 
superior may be the merit of other designs, the preference will be awarded 
to his own ! He has now put beyond all doubt that he had but one in- 
ducement, and that founded upon what is most corrupt in the whole system 
of competition ; upon that which really brings it into disgrace, and renders 
it nothing better than a system of dishonesty and intriguing — where one is to 
be favoured, and all the rest are to be duped — being invited to throw away their 
time in making drawings for what is arranged and all but finally settled be- 
forehand. In the Kentish Town affair, however, there is something to con- 
sole those who have been duped and disappointed ; for not only is it a con- 
solation, but even a triumph to find that Mr. Bartholomew's anti-competi- 
tion rigour has thawed and melted away — probably owing to the late very 
hot summer ; and that he has to all intents and purposes publicly recanted 
the furious invectives he has uttered against competition in his book. There- 
fore, those last now stand for nothing — except as so many proofs of his 
singular sincerity and consistency. 

I remain, &c., 

Not A. B. but B duped. 



THE INVENTOR OF THE DREDGING MACHINE. 

Sib — I observe, with some surprise, from a review in your Journal of last 
month, that you still consider the claim of the inventor of dredging by steam 
power to be amongst the number of those which are not yet satisfactorily 
established. You refer to a paper in the Civil Engineer and Architect's 
Journal, for January, 1839, wherein the invention is unreservedly ascribed 
to my grandfather, John Hughes, and during the four years which have 
elapsed since the publication of that paper, no syllable has ever been ad- 
vanced in opposition to this claim — a fact which carries with it peculiar 
■weight to the minds of those who, like myself, are fully aware of the very' 
large circulation which your Journal commands. An individual, however, 
has at last thought proper to assert— I am willing to believe without the 
sanction of Messrs. Rennie— that the dredging machine is the invention of 
the late Mr. Rennie, their father, who first used it at the Hull Docks. In 
commenting upon this assertion, you observe truly, that a very important 
fact is not mentioned, namely, the year in which Mr. Rennie first introduced 



it at the Hull Docks. I shall, therefore, supply this omission in order that 
you, Sir, and the readers of the Journal, may estimate the value of the asser. 
tion thus rashly hazarded by a self-constituted champion of Mr. Rennie. It 
will be found that the first steam dredging engine employed at Hull was that 
used for cleansing out the Humber Dock, which was not opened till the 30th 
of June, 1809; and the following passage from Mr. Timperley's account of 
this dock will fix the time at which the engine was first used. 

" This dock was not cleansed for three years and a half after it was 
opened, the dredging machine and mud boats not being completed until then." 1 
Hence it appears that the dredging machine could not have been employed 
at Hull before the end of 1812 or the beginning of 1813. 

While this is the fact with respect to Mr. Rennie's claim, I am in posses- 
sion of a report by my grandfather, dated in 1820, where he describes 
minutely every particular of his invention of the engine, and first employ- 
ment of her at Woolwich, as far back as the year 1804; and not until it 
can be shown that the engine was invented before this last date will the 
claim of my ancestor be at all invalidated. I believe that Messrs. Rennie 
have far too high a respect for honour and truth to dispute for one moment 
a fact with which their respected father must have been so perfectly well ac- 
quainted, as that of the invention of the machine, and her first employment 
by my grandfather at Woolwich, in the year 1804. At the same time, it is 
possible that a person less intimately acquainted than they must be with the 
history of an invention of this nature, might be misled by the fact that 
dredging machines, on the old bag and spoon principle, were employed at 
Hull 50 or 60 years ago. It is even admitted, that a bucket engine worked 
by horses, was used at Hull from about the year 1782. This engine was 
probably the work of Mr. Rennie. That it bore no resemblance however 
to the modern steam dredging engine is abundantly proved by the fact, that 
many years after the horse machine was erected at Hull, the application of 
steam power to the dredging engine was unsuccessfully attempted by Tre- 
vethick and many other able engineers. Had Mr. Rennie's machine of 
1782, been anything like the steam dredging engine, the simple application 
of steam could scarely have baffled the exertions of so great a man as 
Richard Trevethick, with others of his contemporaries. 

With respect to your observation " that the late Mr. Rennie, together 
with his talented sons, have brought the machine to that great perfection it 
has now attained," I would simply remark, that the engine built by Messrs. 
Donkin for William Hughes of Inverness, and used by him on the Caledo- 
nian Canal, was the most perfect ever constructed. See accounts of this 
engine in Baron Dupin's work on the resources of Great Britain, in your 
Journal for January 1839, and in a paper read before the Institution of 
Civil Engineers during the last session. 
I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

8, Duke Street, Westminster, Samuel Hughes. 

December loth, 1S42. 



AMERICAN MARINE STEAM ENGINES. 

Sir — A late number of your Journal contained some remarks concerning 
American Marine Steam Engines, which were in a spirit very unlike the 
usual tone of the English press in descanting upon " Brother Jonathan's " 
available genius in such matters. Candid, fair, impartial criticism, no 
matter how close it may chance to " cut," will do much towards removing 
those mutual prejudices which unhappily exist to such an extent, that the 
mere imprint of "American" or "English," is oftentimes of itself suffi- 
cient to place the merits of any work without the pale of respectful con- 
troversy. 

This should not be ; there is not the least of necessity or of policy in 
being thus deprived of the benefits of each other's experience ; as advan- 
tages in some shape or other, most undoubtedly belong to each, and only 
require to be known in order to be secured. As an illustration, might be 
adduced the acquaintance already formed through the establishment of your 
Trans-atlantic Steam Navigation Companies. One or two iustauces will 
suffice. In the English marine engine we see a connecting rod 15 feet long, 
and 10j inches diameter, subjected to the same direct stress with the con- 
necting rod of the American engine, and which is 24 feet long and C inches 
diameter; two thirds less in area, and one third greater in length, and yet 
performing equally well the same labour ! By this, we are taught, that 

1 See Mr. Timperley's account of the Harbour and Docks at Kingston- 
upon-Hull. Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. 1, p. 22. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



17 



while the English engines are certainly at one extreme, we are probably at 
the other. Again ; the Great Western, if you please, comes over here with 
decks as "clean " as a " man of war," and returns with the singular notion, 
that on her quarter deck, can be erected, at a trifling expense, a saloon equal 
in every respect — and superior in many — to the one below, and making an 
addition to her accommodations equal to one third of all her cabin room 
below deck ! 

Notwithstanding the unequalled degree of perfection to which steam na- 
vigation upon our rivers has attained — excepting, of course, the great river 
of the west — the impression is very prevalent abroad, that in the attempt to 
compete with the " Lion of the seas," we shall be found wanting — an im- 
pression unfortunately, most consistent with a certain illegitimate specimen 
of " Yankee enterprise," which has recently visited your shores. We think, 
however, that the time is not far distant when, with a ship exceeding in 
length the ordinary proportion, with engines having greater length of stroke 
so as to admit of working steam at a greater pressure without adding weight 
to the working parts, with paddle wheels large in diameter, very narrow, 
and making revolutions not less than 20 per minute ; and with boilers 
adapted to a pressure of 151b. to 201b., we shall be able somewhat to 
" shorten the distance " which separates us from the " land of our fathers." 
Certain it is, that our ship-builders and engineers will not be satisfied with a 
steamer which will require, for a passage to Liverpool, more than ten days 
of good weather. 

You were pleased to notice in a favourable manner the engines of the 
Spanish steamers Regent and Congress, built by the late firm of Ward, 
Stillman and Co., of the Novelty iron works, New York, and to intimate a 
wish to have the details of their arrangement. In answer to which, I take 
pleasure in sending to you a detailed account of those vessels, together with 
so much of a drawing of their engines, as will answer the purpose of your 
inquiry, and which I am authorized to do by Messrs. Stillman and Co. 

View of the Upper Valves. 




A, Throttle valve. B, Expansion valve. C, Steam valve. D, Exhaust 
valve. E, Upper part of cylinder. F, Exhaust pipe. G, Steam pipe to 
lower valve. 



Length on deck 
Breadth . 
Ditto at water line 
Depth of hold 
Draft of water 
Burthen 



Feet. Inches. 
154 
30 8 
2S 8 
14 6 
8 6 
on tons. 



Frame of white oak, live oak, locust and cedar. The floor of white oak, 
laid close and caulked inside and out. Planked with white oak ; fastened 
throughout with copper thorough bolts, composition spikes and locust tree- 
nails. 



Engines : — 

Diameter of cylinders 12 i indies. 

Length of stroke 4 feet 7 inches. 

Diameter of paddle wheels 18 feet. 

Length of board 7 feet 6 inches, and width 2 feet 6 inches. 

Pressure of steam 101b. 

Number of revolutions per minute 2G. 

Total weight of engines, wheels and boilers 100 tons. 

Two copper boilers 22 tons. 

Length of boilers 14 feet, height 9 feet, and breadth 8 feet. 

Total of fire surface 1400 feet. 

Speed of vessels 10 miles per hour. 

Cost of vessel, engines and boilers, about 150,000 dollars. 

It would be trifling, I fear, with the patience of your readers, to enter 
into a detailed description of the drawings, representing, as they do — with 
one or two exceptions — but an "old acquaintance," the " side lever engine;" 
the principal deviation from which, is the steam valves, and perhaps the air- 
pump bucket. The valves are shown in the section in the same position as 
in the drawings you refer to as having received, and which has recently been 
published in the London Mechanics' Magazine. As to the merit of this ar- 
rangement of the valves, I will not now offer an opinion, except that they 
are not generally used here for large engines. 

As English engineers — either from strict fidelity to the opinion) of Watt, 
or from much actual experience — have held us guilty of divers " barbarisms," 
in our substitutions for the use of the "slide valve," I shall make this 
matter the subject of another communication, accompanied with a sketch of 
the most approved form of the " double " or " balance valve." 

The bucket of the air-pump, as shown in the separate sketch, for aught I 
know, may not be peculiar to this country, nor is it universally adopted 
here ; it has been found, however — in situations where the condensing water 
is free from sand — to be far more efficient and durable than any other in 
use. 

The " bilge injection," shown near the bottom of the condenser, is here 
thought to be an essential part of the engine of every steam vessel. And 
instances have occurred in which the use of it has been attended with the 
saving of much life and property. 

With your permission, I will from time to time furnish your readers with 
notices — accompanied with drawings — of such improvements in American 
engineering, as may be thought interesting, or of such of its features as are 
not familiar to our transatlantic brethren generally. 
I am, Sir, &c, 

A'eti; York, July 1842. F. W. S. 

In our Journal for June last, we noticed that the Spanish govern- 
ment had ordered, and obtained from New York two war steamers, named 
the " Regent " and " Congress," and in commenting thereon we observed, 
we wished some further information before we gave any opinion on the sub- 
ject; we were favoured with a lithographed external view of the engines, but 
we desired to look below the surface. Our wish has now been complied with, 
we are in possession of an apparently perfect section of the engines of the 
Regent and Congress steam ships, together with F. W. S.'s remarks thereon, 
and which we now publish. We thank him, and think, if his intentions are 
supported by engineers of the Old and New World; it will do much towards 
the explosion of prejudice, the extension of knowledge, and general good of 
mankind; that we heartily co-operate in this view, we plainly avow, as in 
fact our remarks in our last December number fully prove. We are, therefore, 
surprised at the opening paragraph of our correspondent, and we are uncon- 
scious of having admitted anv thing into our columns which could offend his 
taste. If we have descanted upon " Brother Jonathan," it was more in play- 
fulness than anger, not as an opposing race, but as descendants of one com- 
mon stock, to which genius is common. We think, however, onr corres- 
pondent's reprehensions are misapplied, as we do not recollect using the 
phrase he complains of. With tins exordium wc at once proceed to an 
analysis and consideration of the engines of the Regent and Congress. 

The engines are of the beam kind, and scarcely to be distinguished from 
those of the Meg,era by Seaward, published by Weale in hisTredgold, pi. 49, 
vol. 2. The architecture is vcrv similar to the engines of the Tiger, by 
Edward Burv. (See Trcdgold, vol. 2, plates 110 and 1 10 a.) In one point 
thev differ, in the use of circular valves instead of the D or Murdock slide, 
and' in this it i-e,embies another emanation ofiAmerican intellect, called the 
Ro,/al William (now Isabella II.) which; made the voyage to England in 
1832, and subsequently figured in the Spanish war. 

3 



is 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



The cylinders are 421 inches diameter and 4 ft. 7 in. stroke ; at 26 strokes 
or 23S feet the power is equal to 71 i horses each, or 143 horses collectively. 
This is nominal power as calculated by the rules of the late Mr. Watt, appli- 
cable to steam of 21 or 3 lb. per inch, but in this case we have a pressure on 
the safety valve of 10 lb. per square inch, so that the actual power will pro- 
bably be 150 per cent, above this, depending entirely upon the expansion 
used', and we may further observe, that with a suitable arrangement, circular 
valves may be made to produce any degree of expansion, at pleasure. The 
air pump is 22 inches diameter, and about 2 ft. 6 in. stroke, = a content of 
6-6 cubic feet. Cylinder 42A in. x 4 ft. 7 in. long = 49-46 feet content, 
which divided by 66, makes the cylinder 7-5 times larger than the pump, 
just the usual proportions of English engines. The condenser is 2 ft. 5 in. 
fore and aft, 3 ft. 5 in. in width, and 4 ft. high, with proper deductions is 
equal to a content of 24 cubic feet, and 71"5 -7- 24 = nearly 3 cubic feet 
per h.p. The circular steam valves are 11J in. diameter = 103-86 area, 
the eduction valves are 10 in. diameter = 78-54 area, or rather more than 
a square inch per horse, a very ample allowance, and much exceeding Mr. 
■Watt's rules, as will be seen by reference to Farey and other works, but 
taking into consideration the increased density of the steam employed, is 
judicious, and about on a par with modern slide valve practice. Our corres- 
pondent is wrong in supposing that English engineers have adhered to the 
slide valve " from strict fidelity to the opinions of Watt." It is otherwise ; 
they have departed therefrom and followed Murdock, his disciple, who 
patented the D, triangular, or other shaped sliding valve, in his specification 
of 1700. (See Farev, p. 677.) We are at a loss, also, to find any novelty in 
the construction of the circular valves ; they appear to us precisely similar to 
those used by Mr. Watt 1 in his engines of 1808. He used circular pipes, 
and here we have rectangular passages. (See Farey, plate 20.) We are 
equally obtuse respecting the air pump, of which we have an isometrical 
drawing, and can find nothing new therein ; if our correspondent alludes to 
the packing ring similar to that of the piston, we may say that system has 
been followed in this country since the year 1S26, perhaps earlier. The 
bilge injection is in the same category. 

There is merit in the adaptation of a double beat expansion valve, though 
it is by no means new, and we think we can suggest an improvement, as the 
lower face can never be tight (see the annexed engraving). The other parts 
of these engines are so much like the best English practice, that it is need- 
less to pursue the inquiry farther. The space occupied in the vessel for each 
engine is 16 ft. fore and aft, and about 5 ft. 9 in. over the main beams. 

On the whole, we think the engines of the Regent and Congress to be 
highly creditable to Messrs. Ward, Stillman & Co., of New York, by whom 
they were manufactured, not only as evincing considerable judgment in de- 
tail, but more so, in their selection of the common beam engine, which, after 
all, appears to be the best kind yet produced. 



THE NEW HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 

The fifth contract for erecting this national and truly magnificent work 
nas just been entered into, and Messrs. Grissell and Peto are again the suc- 
cessful competitors. This contract or portion of the work is by far the most 
important that lias yet taken place, embracing as it does the Victoria Tower, 
the Roval Gallery, the Houses of Lords and Commons, with other important 
and necessary adjuncts thereto. The following particulars have been ob- 
tained : — 

The Victoria Tower, or Royal entrance, necessarily occupies the first posi- 
tion in the arrangement, whether as regards the order of description or the 
magnitude of its structure, which perhaps will be one of the richest and 
most gigantic specimens of Gothic architecture that this or any other coun- 
try can boast. Beneath this tower the Royal entrance will be formed, pre- 
senting an area of 60 feet square, into which the Royal and other state car- 
riages will be enabled to drive with the most perfect ease, turn round at the 
foot of the Royal staircase, and depart at the entrance on the south side. 
The upper stories of the tower will be used as secure depositories for public 
records and state documents. The external square of the tower will be 78 
feet at the principal floor level, from which point it will be ornamented with 
the richest specimens of Gothic sculpture to the height of 240 feet, reaching 
to the base of the four crowned turrets by which it will be surmounted. 
The entire height, from the bottom of the "tower to the top of the turrets, 
will be 300 feet. 

The Royal entrance-hall or vestibule is the next object of interest in- 
cluded in the present contract, and will be approached from the right-hand 
side of the tower, leading from the principal staircase to the Royal Gallery. 

1 Or rather his successors, Boulton and Watt. Mr. Watt retired from 
business in 1800. 



For the Royal Gallery, the next in order, no pains have been spared on 
the design to render this portion of the edifice of surpassing richness and 
magnitude. The upper part of the walls will be of the most elaborately- 
sculptured designs of Gothic ornaments, while the lower portion of the 
walls is divided into compartments intended for the reception of the most 
exquisite subjects in fresco painting. 

The Royal Robing-room will be next approached from the Royal Gallery, 
and will strictly harmonize with the fittings and ornaments of the latter. 
It will he a most splendid apartment, 40 feet in length and 30 feet in width, 
immediately adjoining the house of Lords, with entrances for the Sovereign 
on each side of the throne. 

The Bishops' Robing-room, a large apartment on the right-hand side of 
the Robing-room of Her Majesty, will be appropriated to the use of the 
spiritual peers. 

Tne House of Lords comes next in the order of arrangement, and will be 
situate on the principal story, preserving a level throughout with the old 
floor of St. Stephen's Chapel, so that the entrance for the peers may either 
be obtained along the corridors from the river front, or by that leading from 
Old Palace-yard. The size of the House of Lords, as well as that of the 
House of Commons, will he reduced to the smallest possible limits compa- 
tible with the required accommodation, and to give them that form and ar- 
rangement which will afford the greatest number of sittings in the smallest 
space, bring the members nearest to each other and to the speaker, and be 
the most convenient for carrying on the ordinary routine of business. 

The two houses will be placed as nearly as possible in the centre of the 
whole mass of buildings, this being considered the position best adapted for 
communication with each other, and with their respective offices and ac- 
commodations ; for easy access from the various entrances and approaches, 
public and private ; for security from noise and disturbance ; for allowing 
their form and size to he exactly fitted to the wants of each house; for the 
purposes of lighting, warming, and ventilating in the most convenient 
manner ; and for making any modifications or alterations in them which 
may be thought desirable without deranging the general plan and elevations. 

It has been thought proper to avoid placing any members' seats under the 
galleries, as well as any seats whatever behind the woolsack or the Speakers 
chair. 

From the House of Lords a spacious lobby and corridor will lead directly 
to the great centre hall, immediately under the centre tower. This hall will 
he a large apartment, of a circular form, and 60 feet in diameter, and the 
principal public approach to the committee-rooms from it will be by a broad 
flight of steps to a large waiting-room on the first floor, from which there will 
be a direct and immediate access to the committee-rooms of each house, and 
to the offices connected with them. When the Houses commence their sit- 
tings, and the daily business is at an end, the public may retire either by the 
principal staircase, or by that which leads to Westminster Hall. The cen- 
tral tower will rise in an octangular form, and will be 270 feet in height. 

From the central hall, proceeding northward, will be the Commons' cor- 
ridor and lobby, leading to tho House of Commons, with the residence of 
officers in that division on the east side of New Palace-yard. 

Attached to each House of Parliament will be refreshment-rooms and 
offices, and the approaches of the Sovereign, the members of both houses, 
and the public ; the clerks' and other offices are so arranged as to be wholly 
independent of each other, with the means of making them entirely or par- 
tially in communication. 

The members and oflicers attending committees, it is arranged, may go or 
return by private staircases communicating with their respective houses and 
offices. 

The whole of the official residences will have separate external entrances 
and staircases ; the principal floor of that for the Speaker will be expressly 
devoted for state levees or Parliamentary dinners, and will be fitted up on a 
scale of great splendour. 

The libraries and committee-rooms of each house are placed towards the 
river, for the convenience of light, and freedom from noise and disturbance, 
and the former are so arranged on the principal floor as to be en suite, with 
the power of extending them at pleasure, by including the adjoining com- 
mittee-rooms. 

The ancient chapel of St. Stephen, the crypt, and cloisters are preserved ; 
over the crvpt the spacious apartment will form the inner vestibule to the 
houses of Parliament, to be called St. Stephen's Hall. This hall will be fitted 
up in the same style of ornament as the Royal Gallery and the corridors, 
with the introduction of choice subjects in fresco painting. 

Another important feature will also be found in the construction of the 
two houses for the purpose of a complete and thorough ventillation. This 
department has been placed under the superintendence of Dr. Reid, who, 
after a variety of trials of different plans and experiments, has adopted a 
mode of ventilation by which not only the houses of Perliament but every 
apartment and office connected therewith may, it is said, be regulated at 
pleasure. It is proposed that the three great towers shall be made available 
for this purpose, and from a certain height that the masonry of them shall 
be hollow, and pierced in several places for the reception and egress of air. 
According to the state of the wind, air might be received from the Victoria 
or clock towers, which will occupy the northern aud southern extremeties. 
The form of the Victoria Tower has been already described ; the clock tower 
will also be of the square form, finishing spirally, and of the height of 270 
feet. The air thus obtained will be forced by machinery through the vaults 
under the body of the whole edifice, thence it will be discharged by means 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



1!' 



of chambers to the body of both houses, extending to the Royal Gallery and 
the main and entire portions of the buildings. After passing through the 
various apartments the air will be received by means of perforated ceilings 
into chambers to be fitted above the roofs, and will be carried off up the 
central tower. 

The works that are already in progress on the eastern or river front are in 
a great state of forwardness, and will, when completed, extend to 870 feet 
in length. The ground floor embraces repositories and offices, and the prin- 
cipal one, the Lords' and Commons' libraries, corumittee-rooms, the con- 
ference-hall, and the public and private corridors. The south front will he 
340 feet long, that portion next the river being appropriated as the residence 
of Sir Augustus Clifford, the Usher of the Black Rod. The opposite front, 
on the northern wing, will comprise the residence of the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, the Sergeant-at-arms, and other officers. 

The external works of the first and principal stories on the river front, in- 
cluding the Lords' and Commons' river entrances, are nearly completed, and 
the decorations are of the most extensive character. The northern and 
southern fronts are ornamented with elaborately-sculptured niches in which 
are placed statues of the various kings who reigned in England prior to the 
Conquest. 

Along the whole eastern front, immediately under the principal floor win- 
dows is an ornamented band, on which is displayed in strong relief, in old 
English characters, the names of every sovereign who has reigned in Eng- 
land since the Conquest, commencing in chronological order with William 
the Conqueror, and terminating with that of William IV.. and above each 
are the Royal arms of England richly sculptured. — Standard. 



LAW PROCEEDINGS. 



HOARD NUISANCE. 



In the Court of Queen's Bench, Friday, December 2nd. (Sittings at Xisi 
Prius at Westminster, before Mr. Justice Coleridge and a Special Jury.) 

MURRAY V. ELGAR. 

The Solicitor-General. Mr. Piatt, and Mr. M. Smith, conducted the case 
for the plaintiff; and Mr. Thesiger, Mr. Dundas, and Mr. Watson, that of 
the defendant. 

This was an action brought by a gentleman residing at No. 16, George- 
street, Hanover-square, to recover compensation for the injury which he had 
sustained by reason of the defendant having erected a " hoard," for which 
some open boarding had been afterwards substituted. 

It appeared that the premises occupied by the plaintiff abutted on those 
occupied by the defendant, who, in 1839, had erected the hoard in question, 
for which the open boarding had been substituted, within 10 feet of the 
ilining-room windows of the plaintiff. The object was not to recover 
damages, but to get rid of the nuisance. The servants who had lived in the 
plaintiff's family before and after the erection of this obstruction, stated that 
the light in the lower rooms of the house had been considerably diminished, 
that the walls had become damp in consequence of the free circulation of air 
beingimpeded, and that the provisions in the larder had frequently been 
spoiled from the same cause. Several architects and surveyors gave it as their 
opinion that the value of the house was diminished by one-third, and Dr. 
Ure stated that he had performed several experiments which convinced him 
that the light in the plaintiff's dining-room had undergone a diminution of 
six degrees by the erection of the hoard, and three degrees by the open 
boards. Mr. Facey corroborated Dr. l T re's evidence, and the medical at- 
tendant of the family deposed that Mrs. Murray's health had suffered ma- 
terially in consequence. 

Mr. Thesiger contended that the plaintiff had no right to recover for any 
loss of prospect or comfort, and that the evidence as to the obstruction of 
light and air was most unsatisfactory. 

Mr. Justice Coleridge having summed up, 

The Jury found for the plaintiff, with nominal damages. 



PROFESSIONAL CHARGES. 

In the Court of Queen's Bench, Friday, December 2nd. (Sittings at Nisi 
Prius at Westminster, before Mr. Justice Coleridge and a Common Jury.) 

DOBSON V. CROZIER. 

Mr. Piatt and Mr. C. Clark were counsel for the plaintiff; and Miv 
Whateley and Mr. Petersdorff for the defendant. 

This was an action to recover .-£54 5s. Crf., for work and labour done by 
the plaintiff, who is an architect. 

It appeared that the plaintiff had drawn up certain plans and specifica- 
tions for the erection of a house for the defendant, for which tenders had 
been offered by builders, but which plan had not been carried into effect. 
He had subsequently drawn other plans and specifications, from which the 
house had been erected. The defendant had paid .£35 into court, being 5 
per cent, on the money expended in carrying into execution the accepted 
plans. The plaintiff claimed in addition .£10 for Ids trouble in drawing the 



rejected plans, and some other items, making together the sum of .£53, for 
which the action was brought. 

Several surveyors were called for the defendant, who stated it was the 
custom of the profession tc charge 2\ per cent for rejected plans, but they 
disallowed all items but that charge. 

For the defendant it was contended that the plaintiff had not proved that 
the plans had been rejected through the caprice of the defendant, and there- 
fore it must be taken that the plans were inapplicable, 

The learned Judge having summed up, the jury returned a verdict for the 
plaintiff for 9/. 10s., in addition to the money paid into court. 



BLACKWALL RAILWAY.— INFRINGEMENT OF PATENT. 

//( the Court of Queen's Bench, Monday, December I9(h, Before a 

Special Jury. 

CURTIS V. THE DIRECTORS. 

This was an action for the alleged infringement of a patent which had 
been taken out by the plaintiff, for connecting and disconnecting the draught 
or ground rope of a railway, with railway carriages, when the rope was in 
motion. The plan was specially applicable to railways where the carriages 
were drawn, as on the Blackwall Railway, by means of a rope moved by an 
engine placed at the spot, towards which the carriages were desired to be 
drawn. The defendants had adopted a plan for effecting this purpose, which 
it was alleged was essentially the same as that invented by the plaintiff. 
The defence was, that the plans were not the same, and that that which was 
in use on the Blackwall Railway had been suggested to the directors some 
time before the specification of the plaintiff was published. There was a 
good deal of evidence given as to the practicability of ever attaching a rope 
to a railway carriage when the rope was in motion, and much doubt was 
thrown upon the possibility of such a performance ; but a person, named 
Barn, stated that he had twice done it when in the service of the Blackwall 
Railway Company ; once when, in coming up to London, the rope acciden- 
tally got detached, and once at the Limehouse station, when no passengers 
were in the carriage, for the purpose of an experiment. He, however, said, 
that it required a " good man " to do it, and the appearance of the witness 
showed that he came within this expression, in the particular meaning he 
attached to it. Witnesses having been examined on both sides, the cause, 
which had occupied the whole of the day, was terminated by the jury inter- 
fering, and stating that they were of opinion the powers used by the two 
parties were not the same, when the plaintiff consented to be non-suited. 



ROYAL EXCHANGE. 



We hope it may not turn out that there was more of hurry than good speed 
manifested in the competition for the sculpture that is to adorn the pediment 
of the portico. Quick work it certainly was, when after being sent in on 
the evening of the preceding clay, the designs were " examined " ? on the 
25th November, and the ballot-box brought into play instanter ; the majo- 
rity of votes being in favour of Mr. Westmacott — whom rumour had pre- 
viously marked out as likely to lie the fortunate competitor. After so 
much has been said relative to the manner in which competitions are 
managed and mismanaged, it might have been thought that at any rate a 
little more tact and adroitness would have been employed on tins occasion. 
Whether such was really the case or not, it certainly now looks as if it had 
been a preconcerted affair; for hardly is it possible to suppose that the 
committee could competently judge off-hand of the merits of the designs as 
works of art — unless indeed the one chosen was so evidently superior to the 
two others, as to have no room for doubt or question — which is not very 
probable. We ourselves saw one of the rejected designs, or rather two 
different designs by Mr. Watson, the artist who has lateiy given such public 
proof of his ability in the bas-relief of the new Commercial Hall in Thread- 
needle Street; and having seen them, we certainly doubt very much at 
present if the one "selected" be— we will not say of greater, but of equal 
merit. Upon Hamlet's principle of " Assume a virtue, if you have it not," 
there might have been the appearance of a little deliberation : there might 
have been an interval of three or four weeks, during which, artists and those 
known to be judges of art should have been allowed to inspect the designs, 
and public opinion in regard to them, so far taken, and taken also into con- 
sideration. Possibly the one which is to be executed is the best design, and 
so too, might the best design have been the winner, had the matter been 
decided by lottery. If it be worth while to bestow so considerable a 
Three Thousand Guineas or Pounds on the decoration of the pediment, it 
was surely worth while to bestow far more scrupulous attention upon I 
sign itself, beforehand than now appears to have been done. However, tin 
Gresham Committee have, in this instance, shown themselves u, I 
of business and dispatch, who can make up their minds very qt 
without any nonsensical ■• shilly-shallying." Still, with all our misgivings, 
we are willing to hope for the best; though as poor Mr-. Nicklebj says, 
" we ought never to be over and above sanguinary in our expectation- ! " 



20 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



THE FINE ARTS.— THE ROYAL ACADEMY. 

On Saturday, the 10th ult., there was a very numerous meeting of the 
members of the Academy, in Trafalgar-square. 

Sir Martin Archer Shee was in the chair ; and there were present Sir R. 
Westmacolt, Sir W. Ross, A. Cooper, R. Cooke, H. P.Briggs, W. Etty, C. L. 
Eastlake, P. llarduicke, D. Maclise, W. Mulready, T. Unwin, W. Wyon, W. 
Collins, E. Landseer, C. R. Leslie, J. M. \V. Turner. C. R. Cockerell, J. J. 
Clialon, W. T, Witherington, D. Roberts, E. H. Bailey, and A. E. Chalon, 
members of the Academy. 

At nine o'clock the President commenced the business of the evening, by 
stating the objects the Academy had in view, by giving those annual rewards 
to the students who gave tangible proofs of talent, vigilance, and applica- 
tion in the various classes of drawing, painting, sculpture, and architecture ; 
and he then went into a detail of the merits displayed in the respective 
classes, to all of which, except that of models from the life subject, the 
medals were cheerfully given by the Council ; and the reason for not giving 
a medal in that class, arose from there only being one candidate, and there- 
fore there could be no competition. The merits of the chalk drawings made 
from the living models, and from the antique statues, were mentioned in 
terms of high commendation by the President, who observed emphatically, 
that the style of drawing these difficult objects had considerably improved 
within the last two or three years, which he stated arose from the alterations 
made, deviating from the late method, and which had been judiciously made 
by the present keeper of the Academy. To the copies in oil from Guido's 
picture of " Fortune," the President gave high and deserved commendation, 
as well as to the architectural plans, elevations, and sections of the beautiful 
Church of Walbrook. 

The prizes were then distributed in the following order, viz. : — 

To Mr. James Clarke Hook, for the best copy made in the school of paint- 
ing, the silver medal, with the lectures of the Professors Barry, Opie, and 
Fuseli. 

To Mr. Alfred Rankley, for the next best copy made in the painting 
scbool, the silver medal. 

To Mr. J. C. Hook, for the best drawing from the living models, the silver 
inedal. 

To Mr. John Clayton, for the best drawings of the ground plan, sections, 
&c, of St. Stephen's Church, Walbrook, the silver medal. 

To Mr. James Harwood, for the best drawings from the antique, the silver 
medal. 

To Mr. Alfred Gafley, for the best model from an antique statue, the silver 
medal. 

After the delivery of the prizes, the President concluded the public busi- 
ness of the evening with an address from the chair, which was replete with 
the soundest practical observations upon the state, condition, and prospects 
of the arts in this country. We regret that our limits do not allow us to 
give a full report of this able and eloquent discourse ; but amongst the points 
he touched upon with energy and feeling were, that unworthy and ground- 
less prejudice that still remains in the minds of a few of the noble and 
wealthy classes in England, which would place foreign modern arts far above 
that of Great Britain, even at the present day. This morbid desire to set up 
every country above their own in matters of an intellectual nature, was far 
more commonly entertained some years since in England than it has been of 
late; we have done our part in demolishing this unnatural, this monstrous 
doctrine, and it has been damaged irretrievably. After the President had 
clearly and with much energy pointed out the gross absurdities and contra- 
dictions of the few anti-national connoisseurs who still exist, he properly no- 
ticed another unnatural practice which militates against the arts of the 
United Kingdom — namely, the vituperation poured forth plena flumhw by the 
minor press, generally, against the native artists and their works. The Pre- 
sident went into many topics professionally interesting, and, on concluding 
Ins address, was warmly applauded. 

The general assembly then proceeded to appoint officers for the ensuing 
year, when Sir Martin Archer Shee was unanimously elected President. 

Council, New List.— Messrs. Charles Barry, George Jones, Alfred E. Cha- 
lon, and Thomas Phillips. 

Old List.— Messrs. Philip Hardwick, David Roberts, John James Chalon, 
and William Mulready. 

Visitors in the Living Model Academy, New List.— Messrs. Edward H. 
Bailey, Alfred E. Chalon, Richard Cook, and William Frederick Wither- 
ington. 

Old List.— Messrs. Charles Robert Leslie, William Mulready, Thomas 
Uwins, and W. Wyon. 

Visitors in the School of Painting. New List.— Messrs. Henry P. Briggs, 
Charles L. Eastlake, Charles Robert Leslie, and Thomas Uwins. 

Old List.— Messrs. W. Collins, W. Etty, Edwin Landseer, and David 
Roberts. 

Auditors re-elected— Messrs. William Mulready and J. M. W. Turner, and 
Sir R. Westmacott. 



THERMOGRAPHY. 

Art of Copying Engravings, or any Printed Characters from Paper on Metal 
Plates; and on the Recent Discovery of Moser, relative to the Formation 
of Images in the Dart. By Mr. Robert Hunt. Read at the Meeting of 
the Cornwall Polytechnic Society, on the 8th Nov. of which excellent 
Society Mr. Hunt is the secretary. 

The Journal of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, for the 18th of July, 
1842, contains a communication made by M. Regnault, from M. Moser, of 
Konigsberg, " Sur la formation des images Daguerriennes ;" in which he 
announces the fact, that " when two bodies are sufficiently near, they impress 
their images upon each other." The Journal of the 29th of August contains a 
second communication from M. Moser, in which the results of his researches 
are summed up in 26 paragraphs. From these I select the following, which 
alone are to be considered on the present, occasion : — " All bodies radiate 
light, even in complete darkness. — This light does not appear to be allied to 
phosphorescence, for there is no difference perceived whether the bodies have 
been long in the dark, or whether they have been just exposed to daylight, 
or even to direct solar light. — Two bodies constantly impress their images on 
each other, even in complete darkness. However, for the image to be appre- 
ciable, it is necessary, because of the divergence of the rays, that the distance 
of the bodies should not be very considerable. — To render the image visible, 
the vapour of water, mercury, iodine, &c. may be used. — There exists latent 
light as well as latent heat." 

The announcement at the last meeting of the British Association of these 
discoveries, naturally excited a more than ordinary degree of interest. A 
discovery of this kind, changing, as it does, the features, not only of the 
theories of light adopted by philosophers, but also the commonly received 
opinions of mankind, was more calculated to awaken attention than anything 
which has been brought before the public since the publication of Daguerre's 
beautiful photographic process. Having instituted a series of experiments, 
the results of which appear to prove that these phenomena are not produced 
by latent light, I am desirous of recording them. 

I would not be understood as denying the absorption of light by bodies; 
of this I think we have abundant proof, and it is a matter well deserving 
attention. If we pluck a Nasturtium when the sun is shining brightly on 
the flower, and carry it into a dark room, we shall still be enabled to see it 
by the light which it emits. The human hand will sometimes exhibit the 
same phenomenon, and many other instances might be adduced in proof of 
the absorption of light ; and I believe, indeed, of the principle that light is 
latent in bodies. I have only to show that the conclusions of M. Moser have 
been formed somewhat hastily, being led, no doubt, by the striking similarity 
which exists between the effects produced on the Daguerreotype plates under 
the influence of light, and by the juxtaposition of bodies in the dark, to con- 
sider them as the work of the same element. 

1. Dr. Draper, in the Philosophical Magazine for September 1840, mentions 
a fact which has been long known, that " if a piece of very cold clear glass, 
or what is better, a cold polished metallic reflector, has a little object, such 
as a piece of metal, laid on it, and the surface be breathed over once, the 
object being then carefully removed, as often as you breathe again on the 
surface, a spectral figure of it may be seen, and this singular phenomenon 
may be exhibited for many days after the first trial is made." Several other 
similar experiments are mentioned, all of them going to show that some mys- 
terious molecular change has taken place on the metallic surface, which 
occasions it to condense vapours unequally. 

2. On repeating this simple experiment, I find that it is necessary for the 
production of a good effect, to use dissimilar metals ; for instance, a piece of 
gold or platina on a plate of copper or of silver, will make a very decided 
image, whereas, copper or silver on their respective plates give hut a very 
faint one, and bodies which are bad conductors of heat placed on good con- 
ductors, make decidedly the strongest impressions when thus treated. 

3. I placed upon a well polished copper plate, a sovereign, a shilling, a 
large silver medal, and a penny. The plate was gently warmed by passing a 
spirit lamp along its under surface : wdien cold, the plate was exposed to the 
vapour of mercury ; each piece had made its impression, but those made by 
the gold and the large medal were most distinct ; not only was the disc 
marked, but the lettering on each was copied. 

4. A bronzp medal was supporled upon slips of wood, placed on the copper, 
one-eighth of an inch above the plate. After mercurialization, the space the 
medal covered was well marked, and for a considerable distance around the 
mercury was unequally deposited, giving a shaded border to the image. 

5. The above coins and medals were all placed on the plate, and it was 
made too hut to be handled, and allowed to cool without their being re- 
moved ; impressions were made on the plate in the following order of inten- 
sity, gold, silver, bronze, copper. The mass of the metal was found to 
influence materially the result ; a large piece of copper making a better image 
than a small piece of silver. When.this plate was [exposed, to vapour, the 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



2] 



results were as before (3, 4). On rubbing off the vapour, it was found that 
the gold and silver had made permanent impressions on the copper. 

6. The above being repeated with a still greater heat, the image of the 
copper coin was, as well as the others, most faithfully given, but the gold 
lead, and silver only made permanent impressions. 

7. A silvered copper plate was now tried with a moderate warmth (3). 
Mercurial vapour brought out good images of the gold and copper; the 
silver marked, but not well defined. 

8. Having repeated the above experiments many times with the same 
results. I was desirous of ascertaining if electricity had any similar effect: 
powerful discharges were passed through and over the plate and discs, and 
it was subjected to a long continued current without any effect. The silver 
had been cleaned off from the plate (7), it was now warmed with the coins 
and medals upon it, and submitted to discharges from a very large Leyden 
jar ; on exposing it to mercurial vapour, the impressions were very prettily 
brought out, and strange to say, spectral images of those which had been 
received on the plate when it was silvered (7). Thus proving that the influ- 
ence, whatever it may be, was exerted to some depth in the metal. 

9. I placed upon a plate of copper, blue, red. and orange coloured glasses, 
pieces of crown and flint glass, mica, and a square of tracing paper. These 
were allowed to remain in contact half an hour. The space occupied by the 
red glass was well marked, that covered by the orange was less distinct, but 
the blue glass left no impression : the shapes of the flint and crown glass 
were well made out, and a remarkably strong impression where the crown 
glass rested on the tracing paper, but the mica had not made any impression. 

10. The last experiment repeated ; after the exposure to mercurial vapour, 
heat was again applied to dissipate it, the impression still remained. 

11. The experiment repeated, but the vapour of iodine used instead of that 
of mercury. The impressions of the glasses appeared in the same order as 
before, but also a very beautiful image of the mica was developed, and the 
paper well marked out, showing some relation to exist between the sub- 
stances used and the vapours applied. 

12. Placed the glasses used above (9, &c), with a piece of well smoked 
glass, for half an hour one-twelfth of an inch below a polished plate of cop- 
per. The vapour of mercury brought out the imago of the smoked glass 
only. 

13. All these glasses were placed on the copper, and slightly warmed ; red 
and smoked glasses gave, after vaporization, equally distinct images, the 
orange the next, the others left but faint marks of their forms ; polishing 
with tripoli and putty powder would not remove the images of the smoked 
and red glasses. 

14. An etching, made upon a smoked etching ground on glass, the copper 
and glass being placed in contact. The image of the glass only could be 
brought out. 

15. A design cut out in paper was pressed close to a copper plate by a piece 
of glass, and ihen exposed to a gentle heat ; the impression was brought out 
by the vapour of mercury in beautiful distinctness. On endeavouring to rub 
off the vapour, it was found that all those parts which the paper covered 
amalgamated with mercury, which was removed from the rest of the plates ; 
hence there resulted a perfectly permanent white picture on a polished cop- 
per plate. 

1C. The coloured glasses before named (9, 12), were placed on a plate of 
copper, with a thick piece of charcoal, a copper coin, the mica, and the 
paper, and exposed to fervent sunshine. Mercurial vapour brought up the 
images in the following order — smoked glass, crown glass, red glass, mica 
beautifully delineated, orange glass, paper, charcoal, the coin, blue glass ; 
thus distinctly proving, that the only rays which had any influence on the 
metal, were the calorific rays. This experiment, was repeated on different 
metals, and with various materials, the plate being exposed to steam, mer- 
cury, and iodine ; I invariably found, that those bodies which absorbed or 
permitted the permeation of the most heat, gave the best images. The blue 
and violet rays could not be detected to leave any evidence of action, and as 
spectra imprinted on photographic papers by light which had permeated 
these glasses, gave evidence of the large quantity of the invisible rays which 
passed them freely, we may also consider those as entirely without the power 
of effecting any change on compact simple bodies. 

17. In a paper which I published in the Philosophical Magazine for October, 
1840. 1 mentioned some instances in which I had copied printed pages and 
engravings on iodized paper, b mere contact and exposure to the influence 
of the calorific rays, or to artificial heat. I then, speculating on the proba- 
bility of our being enabled, by some such process as the one I then named, to 
copy pictures and the like, proposed the name of Thermography, to distin- 
guish it from Photography. 

18. I now tried the effects of a print in close contact with a well -polished 
copper plate. When exposed to mercury, I found that the outline was very 
faithfully copied on the metal. 

19. A paper ornament was pressed between two plates of glass, and 
warmed, the impression was brought out with tolerable distinctness on the 
under and warmest glass, but scarcely traceable on the other. 



20. Rose leaves were faithfully copied on a piece of tin plate, ex] 

the full influence of sunshine, but a much better impression was obtained by 
a prolonged exposure in the dark. 

21. With a view of ascertaining the distance at which bodies might be 
copied. I placed upon a plat,' of polished copper, a thick piece of plate glass, 
over this a square of metal, and several other things, each being larger than 
the body beneath. These were all covered by a deal box, which was more 
than half an inch distant from the plate. Things were left in this position 
for a night. On exposing to the vapour of mercury, it was found that each 
article was copied, the bottom of the deal box more faithfully than anv of 
the others, the grain of the wood being imaged on (he plate. 

22. Having found, by a series of experiments, that a blackened paper made 
a stronger image than a white one, I very anxiously tried to effect the copy- 
ing of a printed page or a print. 1 was partially successful on several 
metals, but it was not until I used copper plates amalgamated on one sur- 
face, and the mercury brought to a very high polish, that 1 produced any 
thing of good promise. By carefully preparing the amalgamated surface of 
the copper, I was at length enabled to copy from paper line-engravings, 
wood-cuts, and lithographs, with surprising accuracy. The first specimens 
produced (which were submitted to inspection), exhibit a minuteness of de- 
tail and sharpness of outline quite equal to the early Daguerreotypes and the 
photographic copies, prepared with chloride of silver.' 

The following is the process at present adopted by me, which I con- 
sider far from perfect, but which affords us very delicate images. A well 
polished plate of copper is rubbed over with the nitrate of mercury, and then 
well washed to remove any nitrate of copper which may be formed ; when 
quite dry, a little mercury taken up on soft leather or linen is well rubbed 
over it, and the surface worked to a perfect mirror. The sheet to be copied 
is placed smoothly over the mercurial surface, and a sheet or two of soft, 
clean paper being placed upon it, is pressed into equal contact with the 
metal by a piece of glass, or flat board; in this state it is allowed to remain 
for an hour or two. The time may be considerably shortened by applying a 
very gentle heat for a few minutes to the under surface of the plate. The 
heat must on no account be so great as to volatilize the mercury. The next 
process is to place the plate of metal in a closed box, prepared for generating 
the vapour of mercury. The vapour is to be slowly evolved, and in a few 
seconds the picture will begin to appear ; the vapour of mercury attacks 
those parts which correspond to the white parts of the printed page or en- 
graving, and gives a very faithful but somewhat indistinct image. The plate 
is now removed from the mercurial box. and placed in one containing iodine, 
to the vapour of which it is exposed for a short time ; it will soon be very 
evident that the iodine vapour attacks those parts which are free from mer- 
curial vapour, blackening them. Hence there results a perfectly black pic- 
ture, contrasted with the grey ground formed by the mercurial vapour. The 
picture being formed by the vapours of mercury and iodine, is of course in 
the same state as a Daguerreotype picture, and is readily destroyed by 
rubbing. From the depth to which I find the impression made into the 
metal, I confidently hope to be enabled to give to these singular and beauti- 
ful productions a considerable degree of permanence, so that they may be 
used by engravers for working on. It is a curious fact, that the vapoars of 
mercury and of iodine attack the plate differently, and I believe it will be 
found that vapours have some distinct relation to the chemical or thermo- 
electrical state of the bodies upon which they are received. Moser has ob- 
served this, and attributes the phenomena to the colours of the rays, which 
he supposes to become latent in the vapour on its passing from the solid into 
the more subtile form. I do not, however, think this explanation will agree 
with the results of experiments. I feel convinced that we have to deal with 
some thermic influence, and that it will eventually be found that some purely 
calorific excitement produces a molecular change, or that a thermo-electric 
action is induced, which effects some change in the polarities of the ultimate 
atoms of the solid. 

These are matters which can only be decided by a series of well conducted 
experiments. Although attention was called to the singular manner in 
which vapours disposed themselves on plates of glass and copper, two years 
since by Dr. Draper, Professor of Chemistry at New York, and about the 
same time to the calorific powers of the solar spectrum, by Sir John Her- 
schel, and to the influence oi heat artificially applied, by myself 1 17). yet it 
is certainly due to M. Moser of Konigsberg. to acknowledge him to be the 
first who has forcibly called the attention of the scientific world to an in- 
quiry which promises to be as important in its results as the discovery of the 
electric pile, by Volta. 



' The first faithful copy of the lines of a copper plate engi 
tained by Mr. Cautabrana, who has since succeeded in procuring some tole- 
rable specimens on amalgamated copper which cannot be rubbed oil. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



NOTES OX EARTH WORK, EXCAVATION, CUTTING, AND 

FORMING EMBANKMENT UPON RAILWAYS. 

Article IV. — Superintendence, Accounts, and Measurements. 

'.' Modem practice has reduced it to a price per cubic yard." 

Professor Vignole's Lecture, Dec. 1841. 

In pursuance of my promise given at the conclusion of my former 
paper, I shall now attempt to give a description of the methods in 
use during the execution of railways, as regards the supervision, both 
on the part of the Company and contractor. First, then, as to the 
engineering staff; we have parliamentary and consulting engineers, 
engineer in chief, resident, assistant, and sub-engineers, but the duties 
of the resident and assistant it will only be necessary for me to notice. 
The resident controls the whole line and the assistants, and confers 
with the Directors at all their meetings for finance, and when the line 
exceeds 50 miles in length, the duties will be so multiplied that two 
will be requisite. The assistants are subordinate to the resident, and 
have generally a division of 10 miles each, or perhaps a length of, say 
three contracts. The duties of an assistant is to observe that the 
works are executed according to plan, and that the materials are of 
proper quality, and if not so, to complain, first to the contractor, and 
if not attended to, then to the resident ; to allow no change to be 
made in the dimensions without the sanction of the resident, and if 
any change is ordered, to ascertain the difference for or against the 
contractor jointly with him or his agent, to enter these measurements 
in a book, and to" make a return monthly to the resident, as also of all 
materials received on the Company's account, as rails, chairs, keys, 
sleepers, blocks, &c. He is also to make a return each fortnight, of 
the number of men employed by the contractor, to measure works for 
monthly payments, and price them by the schedule attached to the 
contract. In taking the measurements, he will much facilitate his 
work by making them as near as possible to given points, so as to 
save re-measurements. He is also to see that all levels are executed 
with reference to bench marks and gradients given, and to preserve 
the centre or trig line, especially in curves, and to give the half width 
of railway, and to see that no more land is enclosed than has been 
purchased, and finally to be in frequent communication with the 
resident, and if any thing unexpectedly occurs, to lose no time in 
communicating it. From the above statement of duties, it will be 
seen that great responsibility is often placed on the shoulders of the 
assistant, partly owing to the distance that separates him from the 
resident. 

The accounts in detail are in the province of the contractor, which 
will be hereafter considered. The assistant should have a knowledge 
of measuring land and artificer's work, as at the stations on the line 
he is brought into communication with slaters, joiners, masons, 
plumbers, &c. The supervision of a contract on the part of a con- 
tractor will consist of a supeiintendent, clerk, timekeepers, and fore- 
man over each department of artificers. The superintendent sets out 
the works, and sub-lets them to the various gangers and butty gangs, 
and measures and prices their work; he also measures with the 
assistant engineer for the monthly payments. The clerk keeps the 
books, &c. and invoices. The foremen superintend their own trade, 
and examine the goods sent to the works, with the invoice, both as 
regard quality and quantity ; they also send in a weekly return of all 
the men's time individually, and the nature of his employment, 
whether on extra or contract work, and any materials sent to other 
works, each individual workman making a return to him on a printed 
form provided for the purpose. The timekeepers collect the names 
of the ganger's men employed at occasional daywork, and count the 
number of men in each gang four times daily, and take an average 
as to the number employed for the day. One day is retained in hand 
from each man employed at daywork, until he is discharged, the 
wages being paid on the Saturday, although not for that day, but the 
Saturday preceding, counting from each Friday night. 

I will, perhaps, better explain myself by giving, as it were, instruc- 
tions to a set of men on a contract as to the manner they should adopt 
in keeping the accounts : — then as to the clerk, he is to debit the 
ganger's accouut, with the weekly men received, and enter to his 
credit the quantities and prices he is to have for his woik ; to fill up 
a weekly summary, showing how many men have been employed upon 
each separate description of work, and to render a perfectly separate 
account of day work. With respect to payments, he is to pay no 
task man without express sanction of superintendent, and to pay no 
day man except on a Saturday, unless he discharge himself entirely 
from the works, when he is to pay the back day kept in hand. He is 
to receive the invoices after they are examined by the foreman, 
whose duty it is to receive the goods. The invoices to be filed until 



the monthly or quarterly bills are delivered for examination. The in- 
voices are to be copied into the day book, materials sent to or received 
from other works to be entered in books expressly for that purpose, 
bricks, lime and sand will be kept in separate accounts, backed with 
the party's name who supplies each material. No goods to be sent 
by tradesmen without an order, and to have a return ticket on de- 
livery, for both of which forms are provided. Timekeepers to de- 
liver to the desk every evening, the correct time and name of every 
man employed at daywork ; also daily, the name of every ganger, the 
number of men, where at work, and the description of work. Any 
claim by the ganger for daywork not to be allowed unless rendered to 
the office as the regular daymen, and he must apply for payment the 
next Saturday, as it will not be paid at a subsequent period ; and his 
account for taskwork must be settled monthly. 

The superintendent lets and measures the works, and is responsible 
for the levels, and he is in fact the whole executive, the contractor 
being the capitalist or speculator. In the preceding account, no no- 
tice is taken of truck system, tommy shops, menage shops, or subsist 
monev, or any of the tricks of contractors without capital, or such as 
those would be sure to have the lowest estimate; but the proceedings of 
a wealthy and reputable contractor are recorded, and from having seen 
service in both camps, I can bear testimony as to the good effects, 
both morally and physically, of the latter method of proceeding. The 
facility now given to contractors of keeping accounts open for an 
indefinite time, would be much' checked, if engineers would not 
certify contracts completed, until the contractors previously lodged 
with them copies of all their extra claims. 

With respect to measurement of works in progress, the various 
tables published by M'Neil, Day, Bidder, and the prismoidal formula, 
&c, are perfectly inapplicable, from the broken nature of the ground, 
it assuming shapes so various and uncouth at the different benches, 
gullets and levels ; it is, therefore, necessary to take the dimensions on 
the ground, and by computation, ascertain the cubic contents. A 
considerable difference of opinion exists as to the modes of so doing, 
some using the decimal, and others the duodecimal measures ; the 
former gives the contents in yards by multiplication, and the latter 
gives greater facility for the application of practice, or the division 
by aliquot parts; and the total can easily be converted into yards 
by dividing the number of cubic feet in a yard. In the one case, 
all dimensions are taken in feet and inches, and in the other, they are 
taken by a yard and decimal parts, the yard being divided decimally 
into a hundred divisions ; this latter method is most used by old 
practitioners: but feet and inches are now being more used than for- 
merly. The dimensions are recorded in two columns ; one for the 
length, breadth, and depth, placed one over the other always in the 
same succession : the other column being left for the cubic contents of 
each dimension as it is squared, so as to make the addition of the 
several items into a total more easy. The dimensions of finished 
cuttings are taken at each chain's length, by a line stretched across on 
the natural surface of the ground, and a staff held in the centre, by 
an assistant, and a mean of the two ends taken for the depth. The 
width is measured half way up each slope in the centre of each 
chain. The length is measured along the centre of the cutting. The 
dimensions of each hole in broken w ; ork is taken similarly, but is re- 
corded as only on account, and at a subsequent measurement it is re- 
taken from a certain fixed point or chain in the section, which the 
measurement book will tell if kept on a uniform plan. 

In making the monthly return of work executed, all previous mea- 
surements are annulled in toto ; and the return made is the total 
quantity done, and not that that is done between each measurement. 
When a work is very rugged, it is usual to take the measurement of 
the embankment, and not the cutting, on account of the fewer di- 
mensions. The cuttings are measured generally every fortnight, the 
intervening time being subsist weeks, when the pay is on account, 
from the timekeeper's return ; and in some cases the number of 
wagons are computed as a check. The persons who act as time- 
keepers, are generally of the class that has seen better days ; the 
excavators are a migratory horde, they are a collection of the 
agricultural labourers, wdio are more spirited than their fellow- coun- 
trymen, and who have left their native locality to better their condi- 
tion ; so that in works of this sort, trusting too much to the honour of 
such men will not do; and the more checks there are the better, or 
one stands the chance of knowing experimentally the meaning of the 
term " sloping," which by this time is fully known in France. 

I have said nothing as to the mode in which the directors, engineer, 
and secretary, keep a check on each other ; I think, however, that it 
is done by a system of sub-committees of finance, and the division of 
the line into districts, and that no monies are paid by the banker 
without the signatures of three of the directors and the secretary ; 
being on an analogous plan to that adopted in olden times by corpo- 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



23 



rate bodies — "The wardens each to have a key and a chest with 
three locks, and each to keep a key." I hope some one who has had 
a seat at the board will supply the information, as also the form of 
each printed paper used in each department — say engineer's depart- 
ment, printed forms for return of number of men, specification of rails, 
and general specification for works, number of yards done on each 
contract, return for each subdivision of the line, and schedule of 
prices, and tickets of return for materials received, and letter heads. 
In superintendent of line, a pass book for free riding on the service of 
the company, memorandum of coaching department, code of signals, 
instructions and duties of guards, general regulations for police, su- 
perintendent, inspectors, constables, switchmen and gatekeepers; in- 
structions for the use of signal flags. Police department, return of train 
before or after time, number of engine, name of driver, uumber and 
description of carriages, trucks, wagons, horse boxes, and inspectors' 
remarks, and occurrences at :he different stations, viz., number of 
coaches of 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class, and carriage trucks, vans, wagons, 
and mails leaving each station and left behind ; also, a return of the 
name of upper guard, whether delayed by passengers or water, with 
the time of arrival, when due and despatched from each station. 
There are also a return of absentees, whose wages are suspended, 
viz., number of column, name, quality, where stationed, and cause of 
absence, and amount of wages. In addition to the above related de- 
partments, there are the printed time tables, and the ticket system ; of 
colours for the different classes, and whether going east, west, north, 
to notice the returns or accounts rendered by police, when a line is 
south, or on the up or down trains. 

In conclusion, the mention of defalcations must not be omitted 
that have taken place in the staff of the companies, which have 
amounted to upwards of six cases, and those invariably in the secre- 
tary's department; and in no one case am I aware that they have 
been brought to trial. The engineers generally come in for the 
greatest share of odium when works are unsuccessful, but I think the 
blame ought to be divided between the solicitor, secretary, and other 
officers, or the committee, which is indefinite enough. The engineer 
is of necessity obliged to be somewhat acquainted with his business, 
as influence and patronage will not so exclusively prevail as in other 
departments. I have known a line of railway where a quondam di- 
rector slid into the office of superintendent, with £500 a-year; he was 
originally a druggist, having a seat at the board, which the sub-en- 
gineer had not; he was enabled to coerce him to do his duty, with no 
extra pay, he. was a fluent speaker, and often saved the directors 
from attack ; he could not, however, retain his ground, and both he 
and the body of directors acted shabbily to their employees, and ille- 
gally to their employers, the unfortunate shareholders. I may go on 
for some time longer, but am afraid of the editorial pruning hook; so 
for the present, conclude. 

St. jinn's, Newcastle-on-Tyne. O. T. 



REVIEWS. 



COMPANION TO THE ALMANAC, FOR 1S43. 

On returning to this publication, we might dispense with prefatory 
remark ; nevertheless, we have one to make by way of suggestion to 
its publishers, viz., that as they must now afford materials enough 
for the purpose, were all the architectural chapters from the com- 
mencement of the series collected together and reprinted, with such 
alterations and additions as might be found requisite, they would 
form a very useful and convenient volume — one that would to a cer- 
tain extent serve as a Pocket Companion and Architectural Guide to 
the Tourist. As a sequence to this suggestion, we will venture 
another to publishers abroad, which is, that an "Aimuaire" of new 
buildings, &c, for France and Germany — one for each country — is a 
desideratum. 

Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon here make their debut in the " Com- 
panion," with some £clat; there being three different buildings by 
them, and one of them very superior for a building of the kind, al- 
though — perhaps it would be nearer the truth to say because — it is in 
that picturesque style the Lombardie, against which, however, the 
Camden Society folks object, because, forsooth, it is not sufficiently 
"Christian" for their strait laced notions, upon matters that are 
purely conventional, and have nothing whatever to do with genuine 
religion. To object — otherwise than as taste is concerned, against 
the abandonment of the usages observed by our Roman Catholic 
builders, is surely ultra-squeamishness, after we have abandoned 
Romanism itself, with its idle pomposity and all its trumpery. Pu- 




Ground Plan if Wilton Church. 

References.— A, Campanile, 17 feet square, 100 high, or extreme 
height about 120. B, Cloister. C C C, Entrances. D D, Staircases 
to Children's Gallery. E, Nave, 72 by 24 feet and 54 high. F F, 
Ailes. G, Vestry. H, Chancel. I I, Ailes to ditto. Extreme length, 
externally, 156 feet ; internally, 127. Breadth, internally, 56 feet. 

seyism and Camdenism seem to have of late completely turned some 
people's brains. Instead of entering into frivolous, hair-splitting ob- 
jections, we are well content with Wilton Church, on its own archi- 
tectural merits, which are no ordinary ones ; for while the exterior is 
strikingly picturesque in composition and design, the interior will, 
when completed, be quite a model of its kind — simple, yet beautiful 
and varied in its plan, and tasteful in its decorations ; and not only 
with much to produce effect, but with nothing to counteract it, for 
there will be no galleries — at least no side galleries — which always 
give a sort of play-house look to a church; and which, even if ca- 
pable of being so treated, never are made architectural in appear- 
ance, but always so as to cut up and encumber. Still, it must be 
confessed, that galleries accord very well with Professor Hosking's 
principle, that in churches "the largest number of persons must be 
brought within the smallest space!" — it is a wonder he did not add, 
" and at the cheapest rate." The three apses at the altar end of 
Wilton Church will be filled with stained glass, and for the further 
decoration of those recesses, which contribute so much to effect, it is 
in contemplation to paint their ceilings or semi-domes in fresco, but 
whether with subjects, or merely ornamental compositions as in the 
Temple Church, is not staled. Even the strait-laced " Ecclesiologist," 
though it protests against " the introduction of a foreign style in 
church architecture," as an evil that ought to be put a stop to at once, 
allows that Wilton Church is at least " good of its sort." Almost the 
only other church with regard to which the Companion enters into 
description, is the one now building by Mr. Poynter, in Broadway, 
Westminster, in the style of the later period of early English. Its 
internal dimensions are about 95 In- 51 feet, exclusive of a spacious 
apsis at the east end; but as there are, unfortunately, to be gal 1 ' 
we fear we must not anticipate any great excellence of architectural 



24 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Januart, 



character. The tower and spire, however, rising together to the 
height of 200 feet, and placed campanile fashion at the north-west 
angle of the front, will be a very good and bold feature in the exterior. 
Of Mr. Pugin's Catholic Church, near the Blind School, no further 
mention is made, but we suppose that when completed, it will be 
fully described, and at present it certainly promises well — for there is 
much excellent detail in doors and windows, some of which will be 
rather highly decorated, although the general material is only brick — 
but homely as it is, even that is better than what has been not unaptly 
called the "stone and starvation" style. 

The Wesleyans seem to be patronizing architecture ; their College 
or "Theological Institution" at Richmond, is an extensive stone 
structure in the Tudor style, and with some novelty in its design ; but 
the wood-cut view of it does not show it to any great advantage, the 
shadowed parts being indistinct and confused. Whether the execu- 
tion be as satisfactory as the design, we pretend not to sav ; but as far 
as the general character of its facade goes, it appears to be a building 
that would not disgrace either of our universities. Mr. Cockerell's 
Sun Assurance Office is spoken of, upon the whole, with commenda- 
tion, yet not without some exceptions being made to it. The first 
floor windows are objected to as being rather poor and trivial in 
design, and as requiring further enrichment which might have been 
so applied as to till up the plain spaces or panels between the rusti- 
cated piers in which they are set. Had this been done, they would 
certainly have been more important features in the composition, but 
not at all more so than their situation requires; and they would at the 
same time have given greater originality of character to the whole. 
The ensemble, too, would have been more in keeping. The interior 
of the new libraries at Cambridge — that is, of the north wing, the only 
portion as yet finished — another work by the same architect, is also 
described as being greatly better than the exterior, and the principal 
room is said to be a very noble apartment. Another building at Cam- 
bridge, and of which a tolerably full account is here given — which is 
certainly not the case in Le Keux's Memorials of Cambridge, there 
being there scarcely a syllable relative to it — is that for the new 
county courts, by Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon. The facade consists of 
an Italian Doric order in pilasters, comprising a lesser one of insulated 
columns from which spring arches, after the manner of a Venetian 
window. Of these the five centre ones are open so as to form a 
recessed loggia or arcade, and produce a bold effect of light and 
shade. The idea is borrowed from Palladio's Basilica at Vicenza, 
but also exhibits, as is here remarked, a considerable degree of im- 
provement upon the original ; though, to talk of improving upon any- 
thing by Palladio, that may seem little less than treason to those who 
hold his works to be the ne plus ultra of refined taste. Of the 
"Brunswick Buildings" at Liverpool, some account was given in our 
last volume, at page 278, therefore we need here say no more than 
that the view in the Companion fully bears out the description of it, 
and shows it to be an exceedingly handsome piece of architecture. 

Under the head of "Railways of Great Britain" we have a brief 
record of the progress of railways since Nov. 1, 1841, by which it 
appears that, from that time to the present, there is a total extent of 
1761 miles more brought into operation. 



An Encyclopedia of Architecture, Historical, Theoretical, and Prac- 
tical. By Joseph Gwilt. Illustrated by more than 1000 engrav- 
ings on wood. In one thick volume, Svo, lOS'J pp. London, IS 12. 
Longman & Co. 

As one of a series of similar works devoted to separate branches of 
study, and which has been stamped by public favour, and as a useful 
and economic compendium for the student, this Encyclopaedia will, no 
doubt, prove a successful publication. Its contents, however, are so 
multifarious, some of them bearing upon matters which are but very 
remotely connected with architecture properly so termed, that it is to 
this last department we must confine ourselves for the present. And 
we begin by remarking that one great disadvantage attending works 
of the kind is that, however satisfactorily they are executed, as 
regards their main purpose, namely, the instructing those who have 
yet to learn, they are apt to disappoint those who a're already familiar 
with the subject treated of, and of course acquainted beforehand with 
the substance of the information thus collected together. Allowance 
must, therefore, be made for want of novelty, since the whole ground 
must be gone over again, and novelty can be displayed only in the 
writer's views and opinions, and in his corrections of or additions to 
what has previously been said by others. We must, accordingly, 
restrict our observations to the architectural portion of the work, but 
to those opinions thrown out in it, which come immediately from Mr. 



Gwilt as their author; for it is these alone that can be made to serve 
as characteristic specimens, in a mere notice like the present, of so 
extensive a work. 

One thing which is clearly enough apparent is, that Mr. Gwilt has 
not written ad. captandum, at least not as far as the profession are 
concerned, for he expresses himself more than once by no means very 
encouragingly in regard to the present state of the art in this country, 
especially as compared with what it is in France. We do not quarrel 
with him for uttering such opinion, unpleasant as it may be, provided 
it be uttered insincerity; but it is to be regretted that, as he has 
not scrupled to make so severe an allegation, he did not also allege 
some of the grounds on which it is formed. Possibly he may mean, 
not that there is greater architectural talent in France, but that greater 
and more frequent opportunities are afforded it in that country than in 
our own, where, according to him, it is rather checked than encou- 
raged by the government; — which qualification would have softened 
the asperity of the censure. Very far be it from us to object to the 
expression of censure, for it is that which gives value to praise, and 
which produces improvement by holding up faults for correction; still 
we do not exactly approve of that species of it which deals in such 
vague generalities that it is hardly possible to meet and combat it. 
We own that too many opportunities are made mere jobs of in this 
country — that interest and favouritism too frequently supersede merit, 
and that false economy, which often turns out in the end to be very 
expensive, sadly maims many of our public undertakings in architec- 
ture ; but we are also of opinion that there is talent among us that 
would fully vindicate our national reputation in art, were it but drawn 
out, or rather permitted to display itself uncramped, or even with 
some tolerable degree of freedom. When we look at what has been 
done in various parts of the country within the last few years, we 
perceive, upon the whole, improvement — certainly no falling off, and 
with regard to ability in Gothic architecture, we stand very far su- 
perior to any of our continental neighbours. 

We do not dissent, however, very much from Mr. Gwilt, when he 
tells us that " the splendour of the government offices in this country, 
seems to be in an inverse ratio from the renown of the department;" 
in instance of which he refers us to the Admiralty and the " Treasury 
jumble of buildings;" to which he might have added the Custom 
House — a most miserable affair in point of architecture, and also the 
Mint, which has no merit, certainly not that of character, to recom- 
mend it. It is notorious that his opinion of the National Gallery is 
the reverse of favourable, as is likewise that which he entertains of 
the London University ; nor do we suppose that he thinks very highly 
of either the Post-office, or the British Museum, for though he has 
not expressly censured, neither has he expressly excepted them from 
the rest. But it is rather, we trust, with reference to the past than 
to the immediate present, that there is or henceforth will be room for 
complaining of the indifference betrayed on the part of the govern- 
ment and those in power, towards architecture and the other tine arts. 
Something like a public voice in their behalf has lately made itself 
heard amidst all the never-ceasing din and squabbling of politics, and 
the daily palavering of the public press. The erection of such a 
noble fabric as the new Houses of Parliament will at least wipe off 
some of the reproach justly incurred by many other structures, national 
in their purposes, though of the nation most unworthy; and it may 
further be anticipated, that the schemes in contemplation for its in« 
ternal embellishment, will give a powerful and lasting impulse to 
other branches of art. We will not risk our credit by predictions 
that may possibly be falsified by the event: fresco-painting may not 
succeed here, as far as by success is meant the satisfying public ex- 
pectation and public taste ; but it is a good augury, ad interim, that 
any discussion on the subject of it should have been treated as matter 
of public interest. 

There is no difficulty in interpreting Mr. Gwilt's " expressive si- 
lence" in regard to Buckingham Palace, in the section devoted to that 
class of buildings, more especially as he is exceedingly chary indeed 
of any thing like praise towards another structure, which some have 
thought they could not extol too magniloquently. " We regret," he 
says, " that in this country we can offer no model of a palace for the 
student. Windsor Castle, with all its beauties, which, however, con- 
sist more in site and scenery than in the disposition of a palace, will 
not assist us." Ungracious and captious as this opinion may appear 
to many, it does not at all shock us. What we object to is, not the 
opinion itself, but to the ipse dixit tone in which it is uttered, without 
explanation on the part of the writer, so that we are at a loss to know 
what it is he most objects to in it ; whether it be the plan and ar- 
rangement chiefly, or the style and the design. 1 We almost suspect 

1 As neither Mr. Poynter nor Mr. Biittou lias attempted to enter into a 
critical examination of the edifice as it came from Sir Jeffrey's hands— 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



25 



that it is to these last he objects, and that he is disposed to class Sir 
Jeffry Wyatville with another " incompetent architect," for he has 
omitted his name as well as that of Wilkins in his list of architects, 
as he has likewise that of James Wyatt; which omissions cannot 
have been other than intentional, and are therefore peculiarly signifi- 
cant. However lightly we may now estimate him, James Wyatt is 
most indisputably an historic name in the annals of English architec- 
ture, and very far less of a mere shadow and nominix umbra, than 
some of those who are registered and catalogued by the historio- 
graphers of art, and of whom there is very little more than their 
dates to record. The name of Schinkel ought to have been inserted, 
unless the list was actually printed before his death was known in this 
country, which as it comes nearly at the end of the volume, we can 
hardly suppose to have been the case. We are aware that Schinkel 
is no favourite of Mr. Gwilt's ; but favourite or not, his fame has 
spread throughout Europe ; and if names so distinguished are to be 
omitted at pleasure, we may perhaps, ere long, see that of Palladio 
expunged from a table of eminent architects. 2 At any rate the pre- 
cedent is an unfortunate one. 

It cannot be expected that we should pretend to go regularly 
through a work so comprehensive, or have as yet thoroughly ex- 
amined it ; therefore — for the present at least — our readers must be 
content with our pointing out some of the passages and remarks 
■which we noted in looking over the work. Among them are some 
which hit hard at the new Royal Exchange, animadverting on the 
want of judgment manifested, in leaving that portion of it which is 
intended for the Exchange itself, uncovered ; which, however, he ad- 
mits to be a matter of taste ; " for if our merchants prefer exposure 
to the inclemency of the seasons, it is not our business to complain of 
their fancy." But that is not all ; for after speaking of the Bourse at 
Paris, as an excellent model for buildings of that class, he adds, " the 
merchants and city of London disgrace themselves by allowing [only] 
£ 150,000 for a similar purpose here ; and even for this sum they cut 
up their building into little slices, to reimburse themselves by rents 
for the miserable outlay. So much for the spirit and liberality of the 
British merchant !" Though that spirit will most assuredly not ob- 
tain for its writer the freedom of the city of London, or any other 
civic honours, we freely vote it our approbation, since we must own 
that, compared with the flourishing promises that bid us look for a 
structure worthy of the first commercial city in the world, the Royal 
Exchange has sunk down into insignificance. 3 

With equal justice do the Church Commissioners come in for a 
very severe reprimand from Mr. Gwilt, who, in one place, says, "if 
ever a death blow was aimed at the art, that was done by the com- 
missioners for building the recent new churches;" and in another, he 
talks of "true honest churches, one whereof is better than a host of 
the brick Cockney-Gothic tilings that are at present patronized, 
wherein the congregations are crammed to suffocation and not ac- 
commodated." It is, indeed, mortifying to reflect that although they 
have afforded employment to numbers in the profession, the buildings 
alluded to have not at all benefitted architecture itself. 

But what shall we say of the severe strictures at page 642, on the 
present modes of architectural drawing, which contain so much for 
consideration that they would afford us matter for a separate paper 1 
That in both exhibition and competition designs there is, now-a-days, 
an affectation of powerful pictorial display, by means of meretricious 
colouring, exaggerated and unnatural shadows and tricky effects — 
amounting sometimes to downright falsification, cannot be denied, and 
is likewise to be deprecated as an abuse, because it imposes on the 
eye, and draws away the judgment from a sober examination of the 
design itself. Yet while we deprecate the abuse, we are not quite 
disposed to go along with Mr. Gwilt into the other extreme, and for- 
bid not colouring alone, but shadowing also. Very far, indeed, too, 



perhaps, because their opinion of it is no better than Mr. Gwilt's — we shall 
probably take up the subject ourselves. 

2 The omission of such names is all the more extraordinary, because that 
of Brettingham is inserted, notwithstanding the discredit attached to it even 
by Mr. G. himself, who remarks that he had the unparalleled assurance to 
send out to the world as his own, Kent's Designs for the Earl of Leicester's 
seat at Holkham — a contemptible and dirty trick, but not an unparalleled 
one in the history of architectural publications. 

3 Since shops there must be, the very least that can now be done is to 
take care that they shall be as little obtrusive in appearance as possible, to 
■which end prohibitory clauses ought to be introduced into the leases, for- 
bidding not only show-hoards, but all display of articles at the windows, 
where only blinds should be allowed, with the names and business of the 
respective tenants paiuted on then). This could not he complained of, 
because the restrictions would be imposed alike upon every one, and no 
one is compelled to become a tenant if he should object to the conditions. 



are we from being of opinion that architectural drawing Ins deteri- 
orated since the time of Jones, Wren, and Vanbrugh; for we should 

as soon think of saying that architectural engraving has declined since 
the days of Holler. That Mr. Gwilt is perTectlv sincere in what he 
says, cannot for a moment be doubted ; for, though he may be aware 
that they are not likely to be very popular, he utters his sentiments not 
only without disguise, but in a tone sufficiently emphatic; for instance, 
— ' the greatest curse that in these days has fallen on architecture, is 
the employment of draughtsmen, who, with their trumpery colouring 
and violent effects, mislead (he silly men and common-place critics 
that usually decide upon the merits of their works." This is severe 
enough, nor is it entirely free from prejudice— a little overcharged, 
perhaps, both in opinion and expression, therefore Mr. Gwilt must not 
be very much surprised if some should attempt to retaliate, and 
charge him with making use of very coarse language; be that aa it 
may, we ourselves do not like his work the less for its occasional pun- 
gency of expression, which, even when we dissent from the sentiment, 
is more, to our taste than the smirking, wishy-washy style of many 
other writers. 

The more practical part of the work contains a great deal of infor- 
mation—of course not entirely fresh, and therefore more or lesf fa- 
miliar to professional men; but it renders this Encyclopaedia a com- 
plete elementary course for the student, affording" him, in a single 
volume, the instruction that he must else gather for himself from a 
variety of publications. Still, it is questionable whether it would not 
have been more advisable to publish some of the sections separately, 
in the form of a supplement to be bound up with the rest by those 
who choose to take it, because so much matter of that kind', incor- 
porated as it now is in the volume, may deter not a few from be- 
coming purchasers. 

( To be continued.) 



JIncient and Modem Architecture. Edited by M. Jules Gailua- 
baud. London: Firmin Didot, and Co. Part 3. 

Another part of this excellent work has appeared, which is fully 
equal in interest to the former numbers ; it contains a rich specimen 
of the Lombard style, the Carthusian Church near Pavia, Italy : the 
facade is covered with most elaborate ornament, which is shown 
in detail in another plate. The third plate is a view of the Cathedral 
of Bonn, in Germany, a fine specimen of the Norman style ; the 
principal elements, however, present in general, the characteristics of 
the modified Byzantine style, but not so pure as that style. The 
eastern apsis, with its two towers, seem to belong to the close of the 
eleventh century or the beginning of the twelfth. This edifice con- 
tains some excellent points, from which the architect may glean with 
advantage, and turn to good account for some of our new churches. 
We kuow of no work that will add so much to the taste of the archi- 
tect as the one before us. 



learning and Mechanical Manipulation. By Charles Holtzapffel, 
A. Inst. C. E. Vol. I. London: Holtzapffel & Co., 1848. 

We have been able only to give a cursory glance at this work, but 
from what we have seen, we have no hesitation in pronouncing it to 
be a work of the highest use, both to the practical man and the ama- 
teur. Next month we shall return to it. 



SEWERS OF THE METROPOLIS. 

We are heartily glad that some agitation has taken place on this 
subject, having been introduced by the |Boot Law Commissioners. 
We are sorry that we cannot insert Mr. Donaldson'- defence, as chair- 
man of the Westminster Commissioners, but we horrf to advert to it 
next month; for although we do no/ agree with Mr. Chadwick in 
many points, we strongly hold that the present system of sewer ad- 
ministration is susceptible of improvement, so as greatly to relie 
proprietor and builder, and induce parties to construct sewers who 
now shrink from such a responsibility. 



26 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

' The new Law Courts in Guildhall-yard are to be immediately 
erected from llie designs of Mr. Tite, F. R. S. The elevation next 
to Guildhall-yard is to be in the Gothic style, and the buildings on the 
opposite side, now occupied as the Guildhall Police Office, &c, 
are it is said, to be re-fronted, to correspond in appearance. Guild- 
hall Chapel formerly occupied the site of the Law Courts, and the 
style of that edifice might well be used in the present design ; at the 
same time we sincerely hope that the style of Guildhall front will not 
be adopted, but that the present opportunity will be taken advantage 
of to »et rid of the cocked-hats and other barbarisms which Master 
Dance was pleased to call Gothic, and which we should call Gothic par 
excellence .' Several of the Common Council have advocated such a 
course, and we hope will persevere. 

The ground for the new Conservative Club, in St. James -street is 
cleared of the buildings upon it, and shows afrontage of 150 feet. The 
building, it is expected, will be commenced in the ensuing spring, from 
the joint design of Mr. Sydney Smirke and Mr. Basevi. 

The restoration of Wells Cathedral has been entrusted by the Dean 
and Chapter to Mr. Cockerell, R. A., and it is at present to be con- 
fined to the choir and organ. 

The Temple Church is fast approaching completion. The floor is 
being covered with inlaid tiles, manufactured by Messrs. Minton, of 
Staffordshire. Next month we hope to be able to give some account 
of the restorations. 

The Lycian marbles discovered at Xanthus by Mr. Fellowes have 
arrived at the British Museum, and their public exhibition is awaited 
with much anxiety on account of the merit they possess. We have 
before expressed our opinion that much of value connected with 
Persian art remains to be discovered, and recent discoveries in the 
East tend to confirm this. The remains of Persian art which have as 
yet reached Europe, show a promise of something better than we have 
yet had, and illustrate the influence of Persia on Greek art, of which 
abundant evidence is shown in the Lycian marbles. 

On the Travellers' Club a new attic is being raised, so as to relieve 
the garden-front now swamped by the Reform Club and Athenaeum. 
The addition is in the same chaste style as the rest of the building. 
The only part which is looked upon with doubt is the inhersion of 
telescopic circular windows in the roof. The interior is to be deco- 
rated by Sang, a German artist, with arabesques, and used as a 
smoking-room. In reference to Barry's application of colour we have 
heard some remarks upon the decoration of the groined arcade at the 
Travellers' Club. This he has had painted in imitation of granite, 
thus appearing to violate probability, as it would be difficult to work 
granite in such a way. 

The Noah's Ark on the top of the Mansion House has at last been 
removed, to the great satisfaction of the public. 

Cateaton-street is rapidly advancing, and will make a fine street. 
Guildhall is, as we have announced, to be improved. St. Lawrence 
Jewry and Gresham Hall abut upon the street. The latter building is 
to have a highly decorated front, in the florid Italian style, of four 
Corinthian pilasters. It is by far too small for the purposes to which 
it is to be devoted. 

The widening of Fetter-lane, at the Fleet-street end, is determined 
upon, and the houses have been removed. 

Mr. Barry's works in Trafalgar-square now begin to show them- 
selves. The shaft of Mr. Railton's Nelson column is nearly com- 
pleted, and the bronze capital which is being cast at Woolwich is in 
an advanced state. 

A new Hall and Library are to be built in Lincoln's-inn, from the 
designs of Mr. Hardvvicke, and are, we understand, to be in the style 
of the old parts of Hampton Conrt. 

We have seen a line engraving of Barry, by Hurland, which is in 
private circulation; it is 8 inches by G4 inches, and beautifully 
executed, but we do not consider it a striking likeness. 



METROPOLITAN IMPROVEMENTS. 

Whitehall, Mocernber 30th. — The Queen has been pleased to appoint the 
Earl of Lincoln, Lord Lyttleton, Lord Colborne, the Right Hon. James 
Charles Hemes, the Right Hon. the' Lord Mayor of the city of London, Sir 
Robert Harry Inglis, Baft., Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., Henry Thomas Hope, 
Esq., Henry Gaily Knight, Esq., Alexander Milne, Esq., the Hon. Charles 
Gore, Sir Robert Smirke, Knt., and Charles Barry, Esq., to he Her Majesty's 
Commissioners for inquiring into and considering the most effectual means 
of improving the metropolis, and of providing increased facilities of com- 
munication within the same. The Queen has also been pleased to appoint 
Trenham Walshman Philipps, Esq., to he Secretary to the said Commission. 



IRON STEAM VESSELS. 

Sir. — The writer of a paper on steam navigation in the November 
number of the Journal says, " The iron of which vessels are composed 
has been found to become brittle in the course of years, so that, al- 
though tough at first, it will, in the course of time, star like glass, 
when struck by a hard and sharp body." May I be allowed to remark 
that some of the friends of iron ship-building are startled by the 
assertion contained in this sentence, and would be glad to know 
whether the author of it can point to any instance of such " starring" 
which has actually taken place. Until this can be done, the examples 
of the Jlaron Manly, which is stated in the same number of the 
Journal to have been at work from 1822 to 1830, without requiring 
any repairs, although she had been repeatedly aground in the Seine, 
with her cargo on board, and which vessel is also stated to be now at 
work, — of the steamer built by the Horseley Company for the Shan- 
non, in 1825, and now " in good order," and of other iron vessels, do 
not appear to favour very strongly the serious objection raised against 
iron vessels in the paper quoted above. 

I am, respectfully, 

Neath, 12M mo. 10M, 1842. 'A. M. 

[The objection alluded to by our correspondent is very well known 
to exist, by those whose acquaintance with the working of iron steam 
vessels is the most extended. In the Lady Lansdown iron steamer 
on the Shannon, the effect of a collision when the vessel was new was 
merely to indent the plate ; after the vessel had been at work for 
some time, a tendency was observed in the plate to crack, as well as 
to become indented, and the brittleness of the plate was found to 
increase as the vessel became older, until, when struck by a hard and 
sharp body, it starred in the manner we formerly stated. Whether 
this effect is due to the action of the water or to the tremor occasioned 
by the engine, we do not pretend to determine ; if the latter, steam 
vessels of moderate power may undergo a less rapid deterioration, 
and something of the superior durability of the „4aron Alanby may 
possibly be owing to the smallness of that vessel's power. — Ed.] 



MEDHURST'S WATER VALVE. 

Sir — Excuse my troubling you with the following remarks : — 
I have been much surprised by repeatedly seeing reference made to 
a water valve invented by Mr. Medhurst, and particularly a description 
of it by Mr. Vignoles in iris lecture in Cornwall, reported lately in the 
Railway Times, where he remarks that it is a very ingenious contri- 
vance, the only objection being that the country the railway passes 
through must be perfectly level — a serious objection certainly, but not 
the only one ; for the learned Professor surely cannot be so unac- 
quainted with the principle of the common pump as not to know that 
when the tube is exhausted of air, the water will rush in to supply its 
place, and so render the tube ineffectual. Another objection is that 
the communication between the piston and carriage being on one side 
only, the pipe must necessarily be on one side also — a very unme- 
chanical contrivance, to say the best of it. The chances of tlie water 
freezing, or rusting of the piston, are left quite out of the question. 

A Young Mechanic. 



CONTRIVANCE FOR DESTROYING SMOKE. 

Sir — At a meeting held at the Leeds Music Hall about ten months 
ago, I had the pleasure of examining a variety of models and draw- 
ings of patented smoke-consuming apparatus; also of hearing the 
same explained by the inventors thereof, or by their representatives. 
Previous to this meeting, I had paid little or no attention to "smoke 
burning," as it is commonly termed, but since, I have done quite to 
the contrary; I have been continually on the listen, and in full expec- 
tation to see from an individual, whose signature has occasionally 
appeared in your pages, a contrivance to effect the object in question 
more agreeable to my fancy than any I had seen. My expectation in 
this respect not being realised, and perceiving from a printed notice 
received from the Leeds Board of Works, about three weeks ago, 
that the period is fast approaching when all the "wholesale smoke 
manufacturers " within the borough of Leeds will, by Act of Parlia- 
ment, be compelled to check, to a great extent, that nuisance which 
has been so long complained of, I began to think it high time to do 
something by way of experiment to diminish the periodical dense 
volume which rolled from my own chimney-top. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



27 



During the last three or four months, I have had frequent oppor- 
tunities of witnessing the operation of several different kinds of appa- 
ratus for consuming smoke, some of them patented and some not ; the 
whole of which I found wanting some improvement to render them 
capable cf accomplishing their intended purpose still more effectually. 
This circumstance caused me to try a plan of my own, the success of 
which has induced me to hand you the present communication. After 
all the discussion and bother that has of late been driven up and down 
the country concerning the consumption of smoke, "smoke burning" 
is, nevertheless, in my humble opinion, as far as Englishmen have been 
enabled to succeed in the science, attended with so little difficulty as 
to be accomplished with very little trouble and expense. My furnace 
was recently one of the ordinary description, though it is now entitled 
to the name of a "smoke-burner," and the difference of the state in 
which it now is, and that which it formerly was, is simply this. 

Cold air being admitted through a regulating door cr valve built in 
the wall on one side of the ash pit, into a space or chamber formed 
within the wall which supports the fire-bridge, ascends through a 
narrow aperture extending across the top of the bridge, that is from 
one side of the boiler to the other into the flue, where it mingles, with 
the smoke, and thas renders combustion more complete. The air 
thus admitted into the flue can have no good effect any longer than it 
assists combustion ; for this reason, if the engine man be a little atten- 
tive, he will generally find that the air valve may be shut in about 
four minutes after each renewal of the fire. 

There are many "smoke burners" now in constant operation in 
this neighbourhood, some few of them appear to answer tolerably 
well, while others, of the very same plan, appear to have no effect 
whatever. This circumstance renders it impossible for a stranger to 
distinguish the chimneys which have "smoke burners " attached to 
them, from those which have not. I do not mean to say the plan I 
here describe is a perfect remedy for preventing the smoke of chim- 
neys ; it is such as I am convinced will protect me against any inter- 
ference of the Leeds improvement commissioners; it has a better 
effect in accomplishing its object than a great majority of those in the 
neighbourhood ; and it is inferior to none I have yet witnessed, except 
in one point, and that is of all others the most important, viz. expence. 
From your humble servant, 

.Near Leeds, JVoo. 29, 1842. Fleece. 

[We did not think it necessary to give the drawing forwarded by 
our correspondent, as we consider that the description will be suffi- 
ciently understood without it; this "smoke burner " is, we believe, 
identically the same as one that was patented some years since, which 
patent has expired. — Ed.] 



BLAST ENGINES. 

Sir — I shall feel obliged by an explanation from you or from some 
of your correspondents in an early number of yoju- valuable Journal, 
of the following irregularity of blast from a blast engine. 

The engine blows four furnaces, three on one side, and one on the 
other side. There are two receivers, one exactly opposite to the 
gable of the engine house, into which the air is first /creed, and another 
situated nearly equidistant from the three furnaces on one side of the 
engine. The blast to the three furnaces is taken from the bottom of 
the receiver at the engine house, and to the other furnaces, within a 
short space of the top, and about one foot above the orifice through 
which the blast passes from the engine to the receiver. I applied a 
mercurial gauge to various parts of the pipe leading to the single 
furnace, and 1 found the pressure varying irregularly from a quarter 
to three and a half pounds on the square inch ; whereas the pressure 
on the pipes leading to the three furnaces kept uniformly three and a 
half pounds. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

Clyde Iron Works, Glasgon, William Ferrie. 

December 27, 1S42. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 

Sir — The above sketch shows the situation of the supports, &c, of 
a cast iron beam I lately had an occasion to make use of for carrying 
a load of about seven tons at each end. The distance between the 
supports s, 8, was six times as great as that between the centre of 
each load, W, and the nearest support. 

Now, I should feel myself highly obliged if some of your scientific 



readers would be kind enough to furnish the Journal with a correct 
method of shaping beams of this class; also the best formula for 
computing their strength. To prove where a beam of this kind 
would break, I took a parallel square bar of cist iron, divid 
length, and placed it upon two supports, as seen in the sketch, then 



W 



W 



submitted it to a pressure, acting equally upon the points, W, W, till 
it broke in the points c, c. Was I not to' infer from this circumstance, 
that beams of the present kind rpquire to be made strongest between 
the points of support ? Query— Would this inference be c „isist.>nt 
with theory ? I don't remember seeing in any author on the subject, 
any satisfactory information relating to this class of bearers ; still it is 
a form which in general practice is often found very convenient : and 
I have no doubt that if some of your able correspondents would give 
the subject a thorough investigation, the result thereof would be 
generally received as being of great practical importance. 

Leeds, Dec. 17, 1842. Concrete. 



OBSTRUCTIONS TO WINDOWS. 

Sir — I have repeatedly endeavoured to obtain definite information 
on the subject of obstructions to windows (which have acquired a 
right by being opened upon adjoining property the requisite length of 
time) but having been unable to obtain any thing to be relied on, per- 
haps you, or some of your numerous and well informed correspondents 
can afford light on the following subjects. 

1. Suppose a window to be opened upon an adjoining property, and 
(by neglect of the owner of such adjoining property; to acquire a right 
to remain open. What space of ground is required to be left open 
for its use, say in a direct line from its face, or the face of the wall in 
which it is built or opened ? 

2. Does the opening such window (of course it being possessed of 
the right as above) give any right to space on each side, or more 
than its own width. 

3. Does it preclude the building of any structure beneath it, or as 
high as its sill. 

These queries, you will perceive, are intended to cover all the 
ground of right of occupancy inherent in [windows, which have been 
allowed to remain open a length of time sufficient to give what is 
termed a right of light. 

By replying to the above, or giving it a place in your valuable 
journal, 

You will oblige, 

West Derby, Dec. 5, 1842. An Old Subscriber. 

[We rather suspect that our correspondent will find some difficulty 
in obtaining a satisfactory answer to his queries, 1 and 2 ; we believe 
that theie has not been any defined distance settled. At a trial, much 
depends upon the hard swearing of witnesses on both sides, as to 
whether a building erected near a window does obstruct the light and 
free circulation of air. After hearing of evidence, it is left to the 
Judge and Jury who may try the cause to determine the point. In 
answer to the third query, there is no doubt that the owner of the soil 
has a right to build beneath the window or as high as the sill ; if in 
London, the roof must be 18 inches below or from the opening, to 
conform to the building act. — Ed.] 



SMITH'S PATENT WIRE ROPE. 
At the Society of Arts, on Wednesday, the 14th December, a 
paper by Mr. A. Smith was read, " On the propertit* of Win , M applied 
in the Manufacture of Rope for Mining and Railway I'm/ osa, Stan l- 
ing Rigging, Lightning Conductor*, Cablet, .St." After some pre- 
liminary remarks on the increment of strength, as compared with 
diminution of bulk, resulting from the processes of drawing and 
annealing the wire, Mr. Smith gave a table of the strenglh of single 
wires of various gauges, the breaking weights ! avingbeeu obtained by 

experiment with the testing machine. This was followed by a table 

of tests of the comparative strengths of the Govern nl hempen-rope, 

and Mr. Smith's wire-rope, from experiments ordered by the Admi- 
ralty in March, 1837. Another table gave the comparative size, with 
the weight, and cost per fathom, of iron-wire rope, hempen-rope, 



2« 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



and chain of equal strength. The general results are, that standing 
rigging of wire-rope, of equal strength with the hempen-rope, one- 
third of the size and half the weight', may he fitted at about two-thirds 
of the cost. 

In the nautical statistics of Mr. Smith's paper it is stated, in re- 
ference to the advantages of a reduced surface of rigging, that " the 
standing rigging now fitted in her Majesty's navy, presents a surface 
of upwards of S00,000 square feet, which is about equal to the surface 
of the sails of twenty-four first-class frigates ;" and in reference to the 
disadvantages of the absorption of moisture by the hempen-rope, that 
"one fathom of hempen-rope, about three inches in circumference, 
will absorb half a pound weight of water, and will contract one inch in 
length. The standing and running rigging of a first-rate measures 
about 30,000 fathoms, and will, consequently when wet, contract in 
length, on an average, about 8S0 yards, or nearly half a mile, and will 
absorb about seven tons of water, which, being principally carried 
aloft, will materially affect her sailing," &c. 

Mr. Smith explained the construction of an apparatus termed a 
" screw lanyard," which he substitutes for the ordinary lanyards and 
dead-eyes of the shrouds, for the purpose of tightening the wire-rope 
rigging. It consists of a piece of Russell's wrought-iron tubing, with 
a screw at each end, working in right and left screw sockets. 

The ship's lightning conductor is described as a copper-wire rope, 
securely fitted to the trucks and mast-head caps, and descending from 
the top-gallant and top-masts down the rigging, and over the ship's 
side, where it is inserted in a copper-plate, in contact with the 
sheathing below the water-line, &c. 

On Wednesday, the 21st of December, Mr. Smith continued his 
communication. He commenced by explaining the tenacity and elas- 
ticity of various metals, and experimented by a testing machine on 
wires of platina, gold, silver, copper, and iron. He first tried a piece 
ofplatina wire, twelve inches in length, -^ inch iu diameter, and 
weighing S dwts. a grs; this experiment, however, failed from an 
accident. The gold wire, of the same length and size, (weight 5 dwts. 
lOgrs.) broke at3S41bs.; silver, same size and length (weight 4 dwts. 
14 grs.), broke at 2G0 lbs ; copper, (3 dwts. 12 grs.) broke at 180 lbs. ; 
and iron, 3 dwts., at 310 lbs. A copper rod, one-fourth of an inch in 
diameter, was then tested, which withstood a tenison of 2,000 lbs. ; 
and an iron one, of the same diameter, did not break until a power was 
applied equal to upwards of 3,000 lbs. A wire bridge, of 33 feet span, 
was erected in the room, the construction of which Mr. Smith ex- 
plained. The wire rope, forming its principal support, weighed 50 lbs.; 
the angle-irons, 112 lbs.; and the other parts, including the braces, 
5(i lbs. ; and 112 lbs. for the platform or footpath, composed of boards 
— thus making the whole weight only three cwt., and which might be 
completed by four men, in about three days, at a cost not exceeding 
15/., and could, at anytime, be taken down or put up in half an hour. 
These descriptions of bridges were described as very useful for 
military purposes, and for throwing over deep cuttings in railways, 
&c, Mr. Smith stated, that for general practical purposes the 
cost might be taken at )/. per foot run, with a breadth of three feet. 
Two smaller models of bridges, on different principles of construction, 
were also shown. 



KEENE'S MARBLE CEMENT. 

At the Society of Arts a paper was lately read by Mr. White, " On 
Ktent' s Marhle Cantnt." It is described as a combination of sulphate 
of lime and alum. The gypsum undergoes the same preparation as for 
plaster of Paris, being deprived of its water of crystallisation by baking. 
It is then steeped in a saturated solution of alum, and this compound, 
when recalcined and reduced to a powder, is in a fit state for use. The 
cement has been extensively applied as a stucco, but the finer quali- 
ties (when coloured by the simple process of fusing mineral colours 
in the water with which the cement powder is finally mixed for work- 
ing) being susceptible of a high degree of polish, produce beautiful 
imitations of mosaic, and other inlaid marbles, scagliola, &c. The 
cement is not adapted to hydraulic purposes, or for exposure to the 
weather, but has been used as a stucco in the internal decorations of 
Windsor and Buckingham Palaces. From its extreme hardness, it 
has been found serviceable, when used for imbedding and setting the 
tiles of tesselated pavements, &c, and has been adopted for this pur- 
pose at the French Protestant Church, the new fire-proof chambers in 
Shnrtet's-court, and the Reform Club Honse. In the course of the 
discussion which followed, Mr. C. H. Smith and Mr. Lee adverted to 
the extreme hardness of the cement as its principal recommendation, 
when applied as stucco and for mouldings. 

[We have seen some of the imitations of mosaic and inlaid marbles 



referred to in the above paper; we can say, and truly, that they are 
beautiful, and in point of polish superior to scagliola; we have also 
seen some fine specimens of granite, imitations in plinths for halls, 
chimney-pieces, columns, pilasters, &c. ; and we must not forget to 
mention the imitation statuary mouldings, with polychrome ornaments, 
after the Greek. For the purposes of interior ornament, we consider 
this cement a great acquisition to the architect. We, therefore, 
strongly recommend the profession to visit Messrs. White's works, 
where may be seen various applications of the cement for decorative 
architecture, particularly two table tops, containiug several imitations 
of rare marble?.] 



THE SILLOMETER, DERIYOMETER, SUB-MARINE THERMOMETER, 
AND STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR, OF M. CLEMENT. 

At the request of a subscriber to give some information relative to M. 
Clement's Nautical instruments, for which Government lately made a grant, 
we make the following extracts from the Mechanics' Magazine : — 

1. The Sillometer is the title given to a substitute for the common log, 
which has been recently invented by a M. Clement, of Rochfort, and is so 
well thought of by the French Admiralty, that it has been ordered to be 
forthwith supplied to the different, ships of the Royal Navy of France. It is 
a most ingeniously constructed instrument, and promises to be of great 
practical utility. To describe it as well as we can in words : — 

A hollow copper ball, against which the water acts, is attached to a 
moveable plug of-the same metal, which slides in a copper tube that passes 
through the centre of the vessel to the keel ; to this plug is attached a lever, 
which, by means of a vertical rod, acts on a second lever placed on the deck 
of the vessel, and communicatiug with a spring ; the tension of the spring; 
constitutes an equilibrium with the pressure of the water on the ball, and 
serves to measure the rate at which the ship is moving, by means of a hand, 
the movements of which on a graduated dial, indicate, at every movement, 
not only the speed of the ship, but also the distance ruu in any given time. 

2. The second invention is called a Derivometer ; it is an instrument to 
ascertain a ship's leeway, and is moved by a paddle, that may be placed 
under the keel at will, and is supported by a plug sliding in a tube like that 
of the Sillometer, but turning with the paddle and the rod. The motion is 
transmitted from the paddle aud rod to two semi-circular dials, one of which 
indicates the leeway to larboard, the other to starboard. When at anchor, 
the instrument will show clearly the direction of the currents. 

3. The third invention is a Sub-marine Thermometer. It appears from 
the thermometrical observations of many scientific navigators, that in seas 
of unfathomable depth, the water is not so cold as over banks, and that 
over banks near the shore it is less cold than over those at a greater distance, 
but colder than in the open sea. M. Clement's thermometer is kept con- 
stantly under water at the same depth, and indicates the different tempera- 
tures of the water by means of a dial placed on the deck of the vessel, and 
always open to examination. The immediate action is communicated by 
wheels, the working of which turns two hands upon the dial, the one 
marking the single degrees, and the other the tens. The whole is enclosed 
in a tube attached to the side of the vessel, and the helix of the apparatus 
is at the lowest part of the tube, in immediate contact with the water, and 
always at the same height. 

4. The fourth invention consists of an instrument which indicates con- 
stantly the elasticity of the steam both in high and low-pressure engines, 
and the level also of the water in the boilers. The instrument may also be 
applied to the piston of an engine, so as to show the loss of power sustained 
by the steam in its way to it. A tube, similar to the manometer, is affixed 
to the instrument through which the steam ascends, and is introduced into a 
copper or brass box placed on the deck of the vessel, and upon which a 
graduated dial indicates, by means of a hand, to the officer of the watch, 
the effects of the engine, without his having to send below to ascertain it. 

M. Clement has obtained patents for these different inventions both in 
France and this country. 

The following experiments made by order of the Lords of the Admiralty 
on board of the Lightning steamer, we extract from the Government report. 
" Thursday, October 13, 1842. 
" About one mile and a quarter below Gravesend commenced a trial be- 
tween Massey's patent log and M. Clement's sillometer. After a run of two 
hours and a half (being off' Sheerness) — 

Miles. 
" Distance given by Massey's log . . . 15-^ 

" Distance given by sillometer . . .15 

" Distance from the Nore Light to Deal by sillometer 42 
" Distance by tables .... 41$ 

" At 25 minutes past 4 o'clock, p.m., altered the course four points, 
during which operation the sillometer showed a diminution of speed from 
8 miles per hour to 7 miles. At 50 minutes past 8 o'clock p.m., off South 
Foreland, commenced a trial between Massey's log and the sillometer. 

" On Friday morning took in Massey's log, and found the distance from 
abreast the South Foreland to about 7 miles to the eastward of the Owers— 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT S JOURN \1. 



2» 



by Massey's log 84$ miles; by sillometer 82J; by tables 85 miles- Moved 
sundry weights aft, viz., boat, brass guns, anchors, oars, &c. : for an instant 
the speed, as shown by the sillometer, diminished to 7"4 miles per hour, 
but it almost immediately increased to the former speed of 8 miles per 
hour. Moved the same weights forward, but could not perceive any sensible 
difference in the speed of the vessel. The speed, as shown by the sillometer, 
varied from 81 to 8'2 miles per hour. Tried the speed of the vessel by the 
common log, which gave 8} miles. The sillometer indicated exactly the 
same. At 10 o'clock, a.m., on Friday, when about two miles past the Nab 
Light, tried Massey's log, and found the distance to near the entrance of 
Portsmouth harbour — by Massey's log six miles nearly; by sillometer six 
miles exactly. During the passage round to Portsmouth, the speed of the 
vessel was purposely checked, by blowing off the steam, to see the effect on 
the sillometer. The speed, as shown by that instrument, was gradually re- 
duced from eight miles per hour to four miles, at which point it stood 
steady. On the order being given for full speed, the sillometer showed a 
gradual increase of speed, till it came to 8 miles per hour, as before. On 
the return of the Lightning from Portsmouth to Woolwich, the distance 
performed was found to be — hv Massev's log 119 miles; bv the sillometer 
118-6. 

" The sillometer has a dial upon deck, which constantly shows the 
number of miles per hour that the vessel is going ; consequently it is easy 
to discover, under all circumstances, what is the best trim of the vessel, and 
the most advantageous quantity and distribution of the sails for obtaining 
the greatest speed. As the sillometer shows immediately the effect which 
every alteration in the sails or trim of the ship has on its velocity, it follows, 
also, that ships fitted with the sillometer can constantly maintain the speed 
they may have agreed upon, and so keep company together, and maintain 
the same relative position, though, from the darkness of the night, or 
thickness of the weather, they cannot see each other. To ascertain the 
distance run after any number of hours, it is simply to take the number of 
minutes one of the watches of the sillometer has gained over the other, and 
to multiply that number by six, which gives the distance run in miles. 

" The Marine Thermometer. — The trials with this instrument on board 
the Lightning, commenced at 11 o'clock on Thursday morning, October 13, 
previous to leaving Woolwich harbour, and on taking the centigrade, it was 
found to be 12°. At 25 minutes past three o'clock p.m., in five fathom 
channel, cant-shoal, depth of water about 16 feet, it indicated 13-25°. In 
23 feet depth of water, as stated by the pilot.it indicated 15-25°; off 
Dover 16°; and in Portsmouth harbour, 142. From these indications it 
appears that the marine thermometer in its variations followed the inequali- 
ties of the bottom of the sea, so far as these inequalities could be ascer- 
tained from the heaving of the lead, or from the information of the pilot — 
that is, on the aproach of shoal water the thermometer fell, and on the ap- 
proach of deep water it rose, and distinguished the difference very dis- 
tinctly and rapidly, according to the transition from shallow to deep water, 
and rice versa. It may, therefore, be inferred that the marine thermometer 
would indicate the approach to rocks and icebergs, from the influence these 
bodies are known to have on the temperature of the sea for a considerable 
distance." The dial of the marine thermometer is also on deck, and shows, 
by inspection merely, the exact depth of water in which the vessel may be 
sailing at the time. 



Sunderland Harbour Floating Dock. — Application is intended to be 
made in the ensuing Parliament for an act to authorise the Wear Commis- 
sioners to convert the lower part of the Tidal Harbour of Sunderland into a 
Floating Dock, by a course of dams, piers of masonry, with navigable gates 
between, across the River Wear. The works are intended to confine or im- 
pound seven feet of water above the low water-mark of the average spring 
tides in this part of the harbour; 100 acres of water will thus be rendered 
available to shipping, producing at Pallion a depth of five feet in the Channel, 
and at the Folly End an average depth of 12 feet. Facilities for moving ships 
in and out of loading berths, and increased accommodation for ships of 
a larger class, will thus be secured. The navigable gates to be each 80 feet 
in width of opening, with sluices or slackers in them for letting off the water 
when required. These gates are proposed to be left open till three hours 
after high water, or until the water has ebbed out to the height above spe- 
cified. Ample time will, therefore, be given for ships passing outwards. 
The gates are to remain closed until the tide has again flowed to the level of 
the confined water, of three hours flood, when the tidal water will force them 
open, and the navigation of the stream will again proceed as at present. It 
is also proposed to construct a Tidal Dock or Basin, to contain 25 sail of 
vessels, for the purpose of having an entrance to the great Dock always 
available. Mr. Murray, the Commissioner's engineer, has prepared the 
necessary plans for the intended works. The Parliamentary plans have been 
lodged. 

The New Barracks at Preston. — We understand that the plans and 
specifications for the new barracks at Fulwood, near Preston, have at length 
passed, and received the confirmation of the Hon. Board of Ordnance. 
They will he on the most magnificent and complete scale, superior to any in 
the kingdom, to accommodate 2,000 men, with stabling for 750 horses. — 
Preston Chronicle. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINE] 

The Council of the Institution of Civil ,,■ awarded the 

following Telford ami \v m bier Premiums foi 

Robert Thomas A-tkinson, M. [nst. C. E., for his Paper " On the sinking 
and tubbing, or coffering of Pits, as practised in th of the 

North of England," a Telford Medal in Silver, and Book*. 

William Cotton, for his " Memoir of Captain Huddart," a Telford 
in Silver. 

Chevalier Frederik Willem Conrad, for his " History of the Canal of Kat- 
wyk, (Holland,) with an Account of the Principal Works upon it," a Telford 
Medal in Silver. 

James John Wilkinson, for his " Historical Account of the various kinds 
of Sheathing for Vessels," a Telford Medal in Silver. 

Thomas Casebourne, M. Inst. C. V... for his " Description and Drawings 
of part of the Works of the Ulster Canal," a Telford Premium of Books. 

Thomas Girdwood Hardie, Assoc. Inst. C. E., for his "Description and 
Drawings of an Iron Work in South Wales" a Telford Premium of Books. 

Charles Nixon, Assoc. Inst. C. E., for his " Description and Drawings of 
part of the Tunnels on the Great Western Railway," a Walker Premium of 
Books. 

Alexander James Adie, for his " Descriptions and Drawings of the Bridges 
on the Preston and Bolton Railway," a Walker Premium oi Books. 

John Brannis Birch, Grad. Inst. C. E., for his " Description and Dl 
of the Bridge at Kingston-on-Thames," a Walker Premium of Book,. 

Robert Richardson, Grad. Inst. C. E., for his "Description and |i , 
of part of the Works of the London Docks," a Walker Premium of Books. 

James Combe, Assoc. Inst. < . E. for his " Description and Drawings of 
Messrs. Marshall's new Flax Mill, at Leeds," a Walker Premium of Books. 

Charles Denroche, Grad. Inst. C. E., for his " Description and Drawings 
of the Apparatus used for Compressing Gas, for the purposes of Illumina- 
tion, &c," a Walker Premium of Books. 

Adrian Stephens, for his " Description of the Explosion of a Steam 
Boiler at the Penydarran Iron Works, South Wales," a Walker Premium of 
Books. 

George Ellis, Grad. Inst. C. E., for the Drawings illustrating th 
cription, Specification, and Estimates of the Calder Viaduct, on the Wishav. 
and Coltness Railway ; with the Series of Experiments on the deflection of 
Trussed Timber Beams for that work, by John Macncill, M. Inst. C. E.," a 
Walker Premium of Books. 

Thomas Chalmers, Grad. Inst. C. E., for the Drawings illustrating the 
" Report on the Sinking of two experimental Brick Cylinders, in an attempt 
to form a Tunnel across the River Thames, by John Isaac Hawkins, M. Inst. 
C. E." a Walker Premium of Books. 



THE NILE. 



The following account of the plans adopted by Mehemet Ali for carrying 
into execution the improvements of the Nile, first conceived by the Emperor 
Napoleon, is transmitted to Paris by Dr. Labot, who arrived latelj in 
The first great work is to be the establishment of a bridge of S3 arches, 
running from the point of the Delta to each of the opposite banks of both 
branches, similar to the Pont-Neuf at Paris. On each side of the spur, a 
sluice is to be formed for the purpose of Navigation. All the 83 arches are 
also to be furnished with flood-gates of iron or wood, to ! . opi m I or shut, 
according to the wants of traffic and navigation. A tunnel is to be cat 
through "the spur of the Delta, forming a communication between the two 
branches of the river. Canals are also to be cut from each branch running 
to the east and the west, with various minor channels, with sluice* for tin- 
commerce and irrigation of the country. Above the bridge, the Nile is to be 
embanked on each side, so as to keep the water always within a certain 
level. All these embankments will be faced with ma 'them 

solidity and beauty. Concrete will be used for all the mi' tnai tie werks, and 
the rest will he done with squared stone, rubble, and bricks. These mate- 
rials are found in abundance in Egvpt, and es en in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the works. Artificial pozzolano is in g ing ob- 
tainable in all parts of the country from pulverised bricks. This matter, 
which is analogous to that produced bv volcanos, being mixed with lime and 
rubble, forni what is called beton or concrete. Before li thi- 
pozzolano which costs 5 fr. the cube- metre on the -merry 
brought from Italv. at the expense of 

cost of the bridge has been estimated at 7,000,000 fr., and cannot exceed 
10,000,000 fr. When once the materii are coll eted, if will require no 
.,,, tj,ree years tbi 5000 men to complete this colossal undertaking. 
wnic j, , , ,. ,„■ will, the e, lebrated monuments ul . 

Ae, ling to a e.:l. elation .cccntly mole by a I .m.it I I 

thai the present irrigation of Egypt, though verj limited in comparison to 

what will now be accomplished, costs the labour of 200,000 oxen and 
100,000 men. 



30 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



MI SCELLANEA. 



The Tomb of Napoleon. — The construction of the tomb of the Emperor 
Napoleon is about to be commenced, and for the last few days a model of 
the work has been exposed to public view at the Invalides. An equestrian 
statue of the Emperor is to be placed in the middle of the great court, and 
on the pedestal will be represented the arrival of his ashes at the place where 
they now lie. The entrance of the crypt destined to receive the Emperor's 
mortal remains will be ornamented on each side by two gigantic statues and 
two lions coucbant. This entrance will be surmounted with an altar on 
spiral columns. The present grand altar and its rich canopy must be 
removed to admit of this arrangement. 

The Tuileries and the Louvre. —The Glohe notices a rumour, that du- 
ring the next session of the Chambers the plan for uniting the palaces of the 
Tuileries and the Louvre by a screen, resembling in architecture the facade 
front of the Quay de Louvre, and thus forming one of the linest squares in 
Europe, will be presented. The centre will, it is said, according to this 
project, be ornamented with an equestrian statue of the Duke of Orleans, 
and the works are to be entrusted to the direction of the Civil List. The 
expense to be divided into thirds : one to be borne by the Civil List — one 
by the State — and the last by the city, to be laid out in embellishments. If 
this project be adopted, the idea of purchasing the site bounded by the 
Pont-Neuf, the Quais d'Horloge and des Orfevres, and the Rue du Ilarlay 
will be relinquished, and the new wing or screen of the Louvre will be ap- 
propriated to the Royal library. 

The New Corn Exchange, Glasgow. — The spacious and beautiful 
hall which has been erected in Hope-street as a Corn Exchange, for the ac- 
commodation of those engaged in the grain trade, was opened on Wednesday 
23rd November, for the first time, when the respective stalls were taken 
possession of by their tenants, and a good deal of business transacted. As 
this building, independent altogether of the important object it is destined 
to serve, is an ornament of a very high order to that part of the city in 
which it has been erected, we deem it worthy of a special notice. The ex- 
terior is finely relieved by a handsome range of Roman windows, and is de- 
corated all round the ;pot with a massive balustrade, while the entrance 
which fronts Hope-street, is adorned with a beautiful portico, formed of 
Corinthian columns, 25 feet in height, finished with a corresponding en- 
tablature and pediment. The front has been designed in a style of great 
chasteness and purity, the work executed with much skill, and the entire 
building presents a noble and imposing appearance. The hall within is ex- 
ceedingly spacious, and has a very striking aspect, being of a construction 
altogether different from that of any other building in the city. It is en- 
tirely lighted from cupolas tastefully introduced into the panels of the ceil- 
ing, and ornamented by a magnificent lantern light 50 feet by 30, formed in 
the centre of the building, and supported by eight columns, fluted, and or- 
namented in the Corinthian style. The dimensions of the hall are 80 feet 
by 57 ; the height of the ceiling 22 feet ; and, viewed as a whole, it has an 
exceedingly light and elegant appearance. There have been erected round 
the hall 36 stalls for the grain merchants, so formed as to give facilities for 
exposing their samples, for writing, and otherwise carrying on business. 
They are let at the rate of 10/. each per annum, and we understand that 31 
of them have already been taken, the name of each tenant being painted on 
his stall. Underneath the hall, which is reached by a short flight of stairs 
from the pavement, is a large grain store, perfectly capable of containing 
nearly 800 tons of grain. The building, so creditable to the parties chiefly 
connected with the grain trade, with whom it originated, has been built by 
subscription shares of 50/. ; and the speculation bids fair for being a very 
profitable one. The architects are Messrs. Brown and Carrick, who, 
throughout the whole details, have manifested a degree of taste, skill, and 
ability, which cannot fail to add to their reputation. — Glasgow Chronicle. 

Statue of the Queen at Edinburgh. — A colossal statue of Her Ma- 
jesty Queen Victoria, is now being executed in freestone, by Mr. Steell, 
sculptor, and which is to be placed in the north front of the Royal Institu- 
tion, Prince's-street. One stone is upwards of 22 tons weight : and was 
brought fiom the Binny Quarry to town on a wagon drawn by 16 powerful 
horses, assisted at certain difficult parts of the road by a number of Mr. 
Lhind's men. It was safely lodged in a large wooden building. Bread-street, 
where Mr. Steell is already far advanced in the formation of this gigantic 
structure, and which, when completed, will weigh altogether upwards of 90 
tons. From the well known talents of the artist, the beauty and solidity of 
the Binny stone, and the commanding situation it is to occupy, this statue 
of our beloved Sovereign cannot fail to be an object of great attraction, and 
will complete the beauty of the splendid building it is intended to adorn. 

Architectural Remains in Asia. — The Commerce states, that 
" most favourable news had been received from M. Tessier, appointed to 
direct the expedition sent to Magnesia, in Asia Minor, in order to raise the 
remains of the temple of Diana Leucophica. It appears that many more 
objects had been discovered than was originally expected, amongst others 
several columns in complete preservation, with their capitals sculptured with 
extreme delicacy, besides 12 bas-reliefs admirably executed, and a number 
of statues. The most friendly aid had been afforded by the French author- 
ities in the Levant, and it is expected that a brilliant harvest is being reaped 
for the Academy des Beaux Arts at Paris." 



The New Royal Exchange. — Notices have been given by the city 
authorities for pulling down the mass of building in front of" the Bank 
(known as Bank-buildings) in the course of the spring, and the space, when 
cleared, is to be the site for the statue of the Duke of Wellington, imme- 
diately in front of the great portico of the Exchange. The progress made 
in the building itself is most astonishingly great, reflecting the highest credit 
upon Mr. Tite, the architect, and Mr. Jackson, the contractor. In the 
course of this year the work will be in great forwardness, and it will cer- 
tainly be finished in the summer of the following year. The sculpture of the 
pediment Mr. Westmacot undertakes to complete by the 1st of May, IS 14. 

Timber Tank. — A wrought iron cylinder, 51 feet long and 6 feet diameter, 
has been erected in Portsmouth Dock Yard, for the purpose of " Burnet- 
tizing" timber under pressure. It is composed of plates half an inch thick, 
and double rivetted, and the ends are of cast iron, with doors 2 feet 6 inches 
square, for the admission of logs. It is fitted with two air pumps of 14 
inches diameter, for extracting the air, and two force pumps for increasing 
the pressure when filled with the solution. On a trial lately made before 
the Admiralty engineer Mr. Kingston, the cylinder having been charged with 
20 loads of timber, the air pumps which are arranged to be driven by Lord 
Dundonald's rotary engine, were set to work, and a vacuum of 26' inches 
was obtained in 30 minutes. A cock in the connecting pipe was then 
opened, and the solution rushed into the vacuum from the cistern. When 
the cylinder was filled with the solution, the force pumps were set to work, 
and the pressure was raised to 200 lb. on the square inch. Under this 
pressure there was not the slighest leakage from any part of the cylinder, 
nor from the doors. The timber was removed on the following day, and a 
log was cut up, when it was found that the solution had penetrated to the 
very centre, and completely saturated it. The pressure at which the appar- 
atus is in future to be worked, is 100 lb. on the square inch, as this is found 
to be sufficient for the due saturation of the timber within 24 hours, under 
the process of previous exhaustion of the air. The whole of the work was 
executed by Messrs. W. Fairbairn and Co., of London, and the cylinder 
rivetted up by their patent rivetting machine, to which its great tightness 
may be attributed. 

New Iron Steamer, " The Magician." — An iron vessel, of 360 tons 
burthen, built by Messrs. Ditchburn and Mair, with engines of 110 horse 
power, by Messrs. Penn and Son, and fitted with Morgan's patent wheels, 
tubular boilers, and Howard's cooling apparatus, was tried during last month, 
and has proved to be a first-rate steamer; in point of speed she is not to be 
excelled. The following account of experiments we extract from the Wool- 
wich correspondent of the Times: — The experiments were made on the 16th, 
17th, and 18th of November. The vessel left Woolwich about ten o'clock, 
a.m.. on the 16th, and in about half an hour afterwards passed the Fhada- 
manthus, which had left Woolwich at nine o'clock. At about half-past 
11 o'clock she stopped for a few minutes at Gravesend, and then proceeded 
with a strong breeze ahead, and adverse tide, and at a quarter past one 
o'clock passed the Nore-light vessel ; arrived at Ramsgate at 25 minutes past 
four o'clock, when the weather was so severe, that none of the London steam- 
vessels arrived during the course of day. The weather continued so bois- 
terous during the 17th, that the Widgeon steam-vessel was under the neces- 
sity of putting into Ramsgate harbour at an early hour for shelter. The 
Magician, however, left Ramsgate shortly after 1 1 o'clock, a.m., the wind 
blowing at the same time a strong breeze from the eastward, and at 53 mi- 
nutes past 12 o'clock passed Dover Pier, with a very heavy sea running. At 
24 minutes past one o'clock, when opposite Folkstone, she put back for 
Ramsgate, where she arrived at 44 minutes past three o'clock. On the 18th 
the Magician left Ramsgate at 17 minutes past ten o'clock, a.m., with flood 
tide, and at 14 minutes past three o'clock, p.m., arrived off Woolwich. The 
average speed of the engines from Ramsgate to Woolwich was 35^ revolu- 
tions per minute, length of stroke three feet six inches, height of steam- 
gauge seven inches, height of barometer 28^ inches. The boilers are con- 
structed on the tubular principle, very small, and generate steam well. The 
consumption of coal was about 61b. per horse-power per hour, and the vessel 
was found to be extremely easy and dry in a heavy sea. The average speed 
of the vessel from Ramsgate to Woolwich, the distance being estimated at 
85 miles, in five hours, was equal to 14 knots, or 17 statute miles per hour. 

Dover. — Few persons are perhaps aware that our harbour commissioners 
have determined upon making the most extensive alterations and improve- 
ments for widening and generally enlarging the harbour ; so extensive, no 
dcubt, as to leave it beyond a matter of question that the Government intend 
making Dover harbour one of refuge. All the " old buildiugs," including the 
Dover Castle Inn, Amherst Battery, and the warehouses and buildings occu- 
pied by Messrs. Gilhee, Norwood, Spice, Dennis, Clarke, and others, are to 
be pulled down, and their sites thrown into the harbour. The whole of 
Union street also is to come down, with the exception of Messrs. Latham's 
Bank and the York Hotel. The railway will clear away Beech-street, the 
whole of the South Pier houses, and a part of Seven-star-street, which will 
include nearly all the shipwrights in Dover, not even excepting Mr. Duke, 
whose residence will also come down. These changes must have an extra- 
ordinary effect on all the trades of Dover, who will speedily be called into 
action for the purpose of supplying the " houseless wanderers" with places 
wherein to hide their heads. — Dover Telegraph. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



31 



New Locomotive Engine — 'The Man of Kent." — Messrs. Rennie 
have turned out another locomotive that promises to excel the " Satellite," 
sent out by the same firm about 12 months since, and which has been work- 
ing on the Brighton Railway with so much satisfaction and economy, the 
average consumption of coke being not more than 20 lbs. per mile, with a 
train of eight or nine carriages. It lately performed the distance from 
Croydon to Brighjpn, 40i miles, with six carriages, in 52 minutes, including 
three stoppages of three minutes each, which deducted, make the actual time 
running only 43 minutes. During the whole period of 12 months it has 
been running not one shilling has been laid out for repairs. " The Man of 
Kent" promises even to excel these excellent qualities of the " Satellite ;" 
it is a splendid specimen of engineering work, and possesses several im- 
provements ; among others is an important one of encasing the cylinders, 
which are 15 inches diameter, with a jacket, which will always be kept 
charged with hot steam ; a second improvement, is the introduction of a 
damper, so constructed, that the apertures of the tubes next the smoke-box 
may be wholly or partially eclipsed simply by the driver turning a handle, 
which regulates the draft of the engine to the greatest nicety ; a third 
improvement is in the regulator, which is generally circular consequently diffi- 
cult to keep tight — it is now a slide valve. The centre of gravity is kept 
down by the spring being below instead of above the axles, as usual. We 
hope next month to be able to give some account of its performance. 

South Eastern Railway Works. — The stupendous works now pro- 
ceeding for the formation of the South Eastern Railway between Dover and 
Folkstone are rapidly progressing, and exteusive preparations are making to 
throw down a large portion of Rounddown cliff, just beyond the Shakespeare 
tunnel, to make way for the sea wall. During last month experiments were 
made by the miners below the cliffs, under the superintendence of Lieut. 
Hutchinson, and General I'asley is expected to be present at the grand ope- 
ration ; this blast is to be effected by the enormous charge of 18,000 lbs. of 
gunpowder; it will be exploded by the electric spark from a galvanic bat- 
tery, carried by conductors 1,000 yards in length. The experiments have 
hitherto been quite satisfactory, and it is expected at once to dislodge a por- 
tion of the cliff many tens of thousands of tons in weight. 

Comparative Cost of English and Foreign Railways. — In Mr. 
Robert Stephenson's elaborate and important report, addressed to the direc- 
tors of the South Eastern Railway, on the system of railways, as now pro- 
jected by the French government, he gives an analysis of the cost of rail- 
ways in England, selecting three lines — the Northern and Eastern, the York 
and North Midland, and the Birmingham and Derby— as cases similar in 
their results to those in France now under consideration ; from this, and also 
an analysis of the cost both of the Belgian and French lines, it appears the 
average cost per mile of the English lines is 25,450/., the French lines, 
23,000?., and the Belgian lines, 16,206/.; thus showing a difference in the 
cost in favour of the Belgian lines over the English of no less a sum than 
9,244/. per mile, and over the French of 0,794/. 

Burning Lens worked by the Drummond or Oxy-Hydrogen 
Light. — A colossal burning lens, three feet in diameter, and weighing 5 cwt., 
has been erected in the Royal Adelaide Gallery, intended to be worked by 
the Drummond, or oxy-hydrogen light. Some private experiments of this 
power of the Drum mond light have taken place, when it was found that the bulb 
of a differential thermometer introduced into the focus, at a distance of 16 ft., 
was sensibly affected, and a piece of phosphorus introduced in the same 
point was fused. It has long been asserted that the heat accompanying 
light obtained by artificial means does not produce heat capable of being 
transmitted and concentrated through lenses ; these experiments fully prove 
the contrary. 

Price of Gas. — Gas is manufactured in Manchester by the Commis- 
sioners of Police, and though sold at from 5s. to 6s. the 1,000 cubic feet, 
yields a revenue of 12,000/., or 15,000/. per annum to the town. The large 
consumers pay 5s. the 1,000 feet. [In Dublin the charge, when burnt by 
meter, is 10s. the 1,000 feet, and the quality so inferior in illuminating 
power, as to require the holes in the burners to be about double the ordinary 
size. If our civic authorities would follow the example of the Manchester 
Commissioners, it might prevent the necessity for a burgh rate, and confer a 
boon on the gas consumers.] — Dublin Advertiser. 

An Immense Block of Granite has been landed at Mr. Tuckvill's 
wharf, Greenwich ; it is from the llaytor Company's quarries, Dartmoor ; 
measuring 10 feet 6 inches square, and weighs 22 tons. It is to be used as 
a covering for a mausoleum in Kensal-green Cemetery. 

Bi.i.l Rock Lighthouse. — During the lale heavy gales which have done 
so much damage to shipping, particularly between the 19th and 23rd of 
October, the sea sprays appear, by the monthly returns from the Bell Rock 
Lighthouse, tc have risen upon the building to ihe height of from 60 to 90 
feet every tide. M bile this heavy sea ran, one of those great detached masses 
of stone familiar to the lightkeepers by the name of " Travellers " was forced 
across the rugged surface of the rock, about 100 yards to the lighthouse, 
where it deslroyed part of the cast-iron landing wharf. This stone measured 
about 7 feet in length, 31 teet in breadth, 2i feet in thickness, and must have 
weighed about 4 tons. To prevent mischief by the movement of these great 
stones, Ihe lightkeepers are provided with quarry tools, with which they 
brc l;e it up and arrested ils progress, but it was no easy task from the run of 
the sea. The heaviest seas which visit Ihe Bell Ruck are from the North- 
east, but the present gale was chiefly from the North west ; and ii is not a 
little remarkable that the Frith of Forth was but little affected during (his 
storm above the Island of May. 



Quarrying Stones.— Another remarkable example of the contributions ol 
science to the arts of life is derived from the properties of 1,- 
in the tast to quarrying blocks of stone, when the object is I i i 

blocks from the surrounding m is i. A groove is rut some 2 Inches In depth in 
the required direction: this done, the groove is filled with lit, I 
lighted until the rock is highly heated. The rock then is, of course, ex- 
panded by the action of the heat; the fuel is then swcpl i 
water ■immediately poured into the gro v e The sudden contraction causes 
the block instantly to split oil. The same principle is daily exhibited on our 
tables. If a heated glass be suddenly filled with cold water, it inline 
breaks in pieces. In this way blocks SO ft. long and ii thick are easily taken 
off with no other labour than that of chiselling mil the gri ove. A 
example ot the application of science to the economy of power is 
in France in the quarrying of millstones. They are required, as you are well 
aware, to he circular ami flat— cylinders with a very small altitude compared 
with the diameter— and the stone from which they are made is exceeding!) 
hard. The mode of quarrying them is this :— A very high circular column 
of stone is wrought out of the requisite diameter. To slice oil porl 
this, such as are required by the common s'one saw, would he a v 
immense labour, a quite different agent is employed. At regular successive 
distances grooves are cut around the column, into which arc driven dry- 
wooden wedges at evening, The dew which falls during the nighl being ab- 
sorbed by the wood, causes it to expand with a power so irresistible, that 
all the stones are found properly cracked off in the morning. —Dr. L\kdnek- 
lectures in the United Slides. 

Seyssei. Asphalts. — Many of our readers, may remember that some years 
ago, and previously to the introduction of asphalte into this country, we 
expressed our admiration of the pavement, composed of that substanci in 
Paris, and especially of that in the Place de la Concorde, the whole of which 
has been long since paved with asphalte. It now behoves us lo point out the 
piece of Seyssei asphalte laid down in April, 1838, in Whitehall, opposite 
the Horse Guards, as equal to the pavement in the Phce de la Concorde, 
or in any part of Paris, and considering that its thickness is only half an 
inch, its having so long stood the traffic of so great a thoroughfare without 
any apparent change, except a greater smoothness of surface, is very re- 
markable. — Times. 



NOTICES ON THE STEAM ENGINE, Sec., IN REPLY TO 
CORRESPONDENTS. 

We have been requested to correct certain alleged errors in our review 
of the Appendix E, F, to Tredgold, given last month. In reference to the 
engines of the Dee and Solway, a Greenock correspondent says — " The air- 
pump rods are cased with gun metal, and the iron at the lower end is secured 
by a brass flange jointed and screwed to the bucket, so that no part of the 
iron is exposed to corrosion from the salt water. The upper and under 
portions of the D valves are connected with three rods. (Is the writer of 
that article aware that Maudslays have only one rod in the engines of the 
" Great Western ") The holding down bolts were made as requested by the 
engineer appointed to inspect the engines." 

Our readers will probably recollect that our objection to the air-pump 
rods of these engines was, that they were cased at all. We have known 
instances in which this casing stripped off, and have been informed that some 
such accident did actually occur to the engines of the Dee or Solway. The 
expedient referred to by our correspondent, of covering up the end of the 
rod with a brass flange will, we fear, go but a little way in obviating the cor- 
rosion to which we adverted, for it is not at the extreme end of the rod, but 
at the neck of the rod, where any injurious corrosion takes place. The 
water insinuates itself to a certain depth between the brass of the bucket- 
eye and the iron of the rod, and eats its way up beneath the casing. We 
have known air-pump rods to be rendered unserviceable by this species of 
corrosion, when their extreme ends were comparatively uninjured. 

The allusion to the practice of Messrs. Maudslay is, we suppose, intended 
to show that our strictures were shallow and hypercritical, t'pon this point 
we shall leave our readers to form their own opinions, and shall content our- 
selves with expressing our gratification that Messrs. Scott and Sinclair have 
relinquished their old system in favour of that which we have all along 
recommended. It forms no part of our function to inquire at whose instance 
the holding down bolts, or any other part of an engine have been constructed 
in an objectionable manner ; our purpose is not to find fault with any one par- 
ticular party, but merely to express our conviction that certain practices are 
bad, and ought to be exploded. We war not with individuals but witli 
errors. 

Another Greenock correspondent informs us that the formula 

45 ( i — g J given in the notes on " Steam Navigation " in our last 

month's number has been " altogether misapplied." because, indeed, we have 
alleged it to express " the rise or fall in temperature due to compression or 
rarefaction, without reference to initial density." Our correspondent favours 
us with an algebraic formula to prove his position, but our pages do not 
contain the allegation he charges upon them, we, therefore, think it needless 
to give the paper an insertion. 



32 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Januart, 



LIST Or NEW PATENTS. 

GRANTED IN ENGLAND FROM NOVEMBER 25tH TO DECEMBER 22nd, 1842. 

Six Months allowed fur Enrolment, unless otherwise expressed. 

Felix Napoleon Target, of Blackheatti, gentleman, Leon Castelaine, of 
Backlane, ShaJwell, chemist, and Adolphe Aubril, of Hack-lane, aforesaid, 
artist, for " a new method of refining or manufacturing sugar.'' — Sealed 
Nov. 25. 

James Smith, of Coventry, card stamper, for " improvements in weaving 
ribbons and other ornamented fabrics." — Nov, 25. 

Charles Heard Wild, of Birmingham, engineer, for " an improved mode of 
constructing floors for fire-proof buildings." — Nov. 25. 

I.-ham Baggs, of Wharton-street, in the county of Middlesex, chemist, for 
" improvements in producing light." — Nov. 25. 

Frederick Oldfield Ward, of St. Martin's-lane, gentleman, and Mark Free- 
man, of Sutton, in the county of Surrey, gentleman, for " improvements in 
candlesticks, apparatus, and instruments employed in the use of candles and 
rushlights. — Nov. 25. 

Pandia Theodore Ralli, of Finsbury-circus, wine-merchant, for " improve- 
ments in the construction of railwag and other carriages, and in apparatus con- 
nected therewith." — Nov. 25. 

William Henry Fox Talbot, of Lacock Abbey, Wilts, Esq., for " improve- 
ments in coating or covering metals with other metals." — Nov. 25. 

Thomas Sbausell, of Birmingham, agent, for " certain improved machinery 
for cutting or shaping leather, paper, linen, tastings, silks, and other fabrics." 
—Dec. 3. 

Ebenezer Timmis, of Birmingham, manufacturer, for " improvements in 
apparatus used for arresting the progress of and extinguishing fire." — Dec. 3. 
Edward Cobbold, of Melford, in the county of Suffolk, clerk, M.A., for 
" improvements in instruments for writing or marking, part or parts of which 
improvements are applicable to brushes for water-colour drawing." — Dec. 3. 
John Stubbins, of Nottingham, hosier, for " improved combinations of 
machinery to be employed for manufacturing certain parts of articles in 
stocking or lace fabrics." — Dec. 3. 

Don Pedro Pouchant of Glasgow, civil engineer, for " a certain improve- 
nent or improvements in the construction of machinery for manufacturing 
.sugar." — Dec. 3. 

John Sealy, of Bridgwater, merchant, for " an improved tile." Two 
months. — Dec. 3. 

Charles Heard Wild, of Birmingham, engineer, for " an improved switch 
for railwag purposes." — Dec. 3. 

Thomas Howard, of Hyde Chester, manufacturer, for " improvements 
in machinery for preparing and spinning cotton, wool, flax, silk, and similar 
fibrous material." — Dec. 3. 

William Hancock, .Tun., of Amwell-street, gentleman, for " improvements 
in bands, straps, and cards for driving machinery and other mechanical 
purposes." — Dec. 3. 

Frederick William Etheredge, of Frindsbury, gentleman, for " improve- 
in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, and other similar plastic sub- 
stances." — Dec. 3. 

William Henry Stuckey, of Guildford-street, Esq., for " improvements in 
filtering water, and other fluids." — Dec. 3. 

William Pope, of the Edgeware-road, ironmonger, for " an improved stove." 
—Dec. 6. 

William Oxley English, of Kingston-upon-Hull, distiller, for " improve- 
ments in purifying spirits of turpentine, spirits of tar, and naphtha." — (A 
communication.) — Dec. 8. 

William Coley Jones, of Vauxhall-terrace, practical chemist, and George 
Fergusson Wilson, of Vauxhall, gentleman, for ••improvements in operating 
■upon certain organic bodies or substances, in order to obtain products or 
materials therefrom for the manufacture of candles and other purposes." — 
Dec. 8. 

William Smith Harris and Septimus Hamels, both of Leicester, cotton- 
winders and copartners, for " improvements in the manufacture of reels for 
reeling cotton and linen thread." — Dec. 8. 

William Kempson, of the Borough of Leicester, manufacturer, for " im- 
provements in the manufacture of muffs, cuffs, ruffs, tippets, mantillas, pele- 
rines, dressing gowns, boots, shoes, slippers, coats, cloaks, shawls, stocks, 
cravats, capes, boas, caps, bonnets, and trimmings for parts of dress." — 
Dec. 8. 

George Purt, of St. Mary-at-Hill, soda water manufacturer, and William 
Hall of Woolwich, engineer, for •'improvements in producing aerated liquors." 
—Dec. 8. 

Richard Barber, of Leicester, reel manufacturer, for " improvements in the 
manufacture of boots, shoes, and clogs." — Dec. 8. 

John George Bodmer, of Manchester, engineer, for " improvements in the 
manufacture of metallic hoops and tyres for wheels, and in the method of 
fixing the same for use, and also improvements in the machinery or apparatus 
to be employed therein." — Dec. 8. 

William Edward Newton, of Chancery-lane, civil engineer, for " improve- 
ments in the construction and arrangement of axles and axletrees for car- 
riages, carls, and other vehicles used on rail or other roads. — ( A communi- 
cation.) — Dec. 8. 

William Lomas, of Manchester, worsted-spinner, and Isaac Sbimwell, of 



the same place, worsted-spinner, for " improvements in the manufacture of 
fringes, cords, and other similar small wares, and aim in the machinery or 
apparatus for producing the same." — Dec. 8. 

John Grantham, of Liverpool, engineer, for "improvements in the con- 
structions and arrangements of the engines and their appendages for propel- 
ling vessel* on water." — Dec. 8. 

James Brown, of Sobo, Birmingham, engineer, for '^improvements in 
steam engines and steam propelling machinery." — Dec. 8. 

Benjamin Fothergill, of Manchester, machine-maker, for " improvements 
in machines called mules, and other machines for spinning cotton, wool, and 
other fibrous substances." — Dec. 8. 

Perciv.i.l Moses Parsons, of Waterloo-road, Surry, civil engineer, for " im- 
provements in steam engines and boilers, and in motive machinery connected 
therewith." — Dec. 8. 

Charles Keene, of New Bond-street, hosier, for " improvements in the 
manufacture of hose, socks, drawers, gloves, mitts, caps, comforters, and 
cuffs."— Dee. 15. 

William Palmer, of Sutton-street, Clerkenwell, manufacturer, for, "im- 
provement in the manufacture of candles." — Dec. 15. 

Thomas Caldwell, of Bombay, in the East Indies, merchant, for " im- 
provements in the construction of presses for compressing cotton and other 
articles."— -Dec. 15. 

Moses Poole, of Lincolus-inn, gentleman, for " improvements in dressing 
millstones. — (A communication.) — Dec. 15. 

Charles Maurice Elizee Sautter, of Austin Friars, in the City of London, 
gentleman, for " improvements in the manufacture of sulphuric acid." — (A 
communication.) — Dec. 15. 

Guillaume Simon Richault, of the Sabloniere Hotel, Leicester-square, 
editor of music, for " improvements in apparatus for exercising the fingers of 
the human hand in order to facilitate their use in the playing of the piano 
forte and other instruments." — (A communication.) — Dec. 15. 

James Winchester, of Noel-street, hatter, for " improvements in steam 
boilers, and in the methods of applying steam or other power to locomotive 
purposes." — Dec. 15. 

Edward Robert Rigby, and Charles John Rigby, of Gracecburch-streef, 
brush manufacturers and copartners, for " improvements in the manufacture 
of certain articles in which bristles have been or are now used." — Dec. 21. 

Gabriel Hyppolyte Morcau, of Leicester-square, gentleman, for " improve- 
ments in propelling vessels." — Dec. 21. 

Gabriel Hippolyte Moreau, of Leicester- square, gentleman, for " improve- 
ments in steam generators." — Dec. 21. 

John Squire, of Pougbill, Cornwall, engineer, for " improvements in steam 
boilers or generators." — Dec. 21. 

Taverner John .Miller, of Millbauk-street, Westminster, oil merchant, for 
" improvements in apparatus for supporting a person in bed. or when reclin- 
ing." — Dec. 21. 

William Bridges, of Birmingham, button-tool-maker, for " improvements in 
buttons." — Dec. 21. 

Henry Purser Vaile, late of Fleet-street, gentleman, for " improvements in 
combining mechanical instruments for obtaining power." — Dec. 22. 

Joseph Beaman, of Smeihwick, Stafford, ironmaster, for " an improvement 
in the manufacture of malleable iron." — Dec. 22. 

William Godfrey Kneller, of Wimbledon, chemist, for " improvements in 
the manufacture of soda in the evaporation of brine, and in the concentration 
and manufacture of sulphuric acid." — Dec. 22. 

Robert Wilson, manager at the works of Messrs. Nasmyths Gaskell and 
Co.. at Patricroft, near Manchester, engineer, for " improvements in locomo- 
tive and other steam engines. — Dec, 22. 

James Morris, of Cateaton-street, merchant, for " improvements in locomo- 
tive and other steam-engines." — Dec. 22. 



THE VARIATION OF THE COMPASS. 

Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal. 

Mean Magnetic Declination for the month of September, 1842 — 23° 14' 11" 

The observations of the Magnetic Dip are suspended, when they are resumed 
the results will be recorded as usual. 



New Hydrostatic Engine. — At the Taff Vale Railway, we learn, by the 
Cambrian, that a very complete hydrostatic engine is now at work, for the 
raising and tipping of coal, to be shipped from the terminus of the Taff 
Vale Railway, at the Bute Docks, Cardiff. It is only just set to work, but ex- 
hibits the principle of the hydrostatic balance very beautifully, and with the 
most perfect practical results. 



33 

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1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



.33 



BUILDINGS IN BELGIUM. 

By George Godwin', Jun\, F.R.S., &c. 

" Perhaps no study reveals (o us more forcibly the social condition anil 
true feeling of passed generaiions than lhat of their monuments."— M. Guizot. 

Chapter II. 




Concerning the age of the Cathedral, there has been some con- 
troversy. Monsieur B. C. Dumortier, a member of the Belgic Cham- 
ber of Representatives and of the Royal Academy of Brussels, (and in 
company with whom the writer had the good fortune to examine the 
building) published first in 1S37, ' some remarks on the Cathedral, 
and then in 1841, a second pamphlet,- with a view to prove that the 
nave of the existing building belonged to the 6th century. These 
essays display much learning and ingenuity, but more enthusiasm, and 
this latter has served to blind the writer to all that militated against 
his desire to obtain unlimited reverence for his favourite building, 
and like an unruly Pegasus, has carried him far away from the goal 
he sought, namely the truth. Absence of direct statement by early 
writers that the nave was destroyed, serves to prove to M. Dumortier, 
(as in some similar cases it has been urged by other continental anti- 
quaries) that it has not been rebuilt, and so far from the fact that 
pointed arches form an essential feature in it being deemed sufficient 
to weaken his opinion, it is proof strong as holy writ that the system 
of pointed architecture arose in Belgium, and that in the cathedral of 
Toumay is to be found its first out-budding. In confirmation of his 



1 " fftiue de Bnuelles," Dec. Is:. 7. 
- •• Dissert nio i sur Cage de la Cat! e~Irale 

No. 65.— Vol. VI.— February, iSM. 



:" Bruxsller, 1841. 



opinion, M. Dumortier informed me, that a charter had been receutly 
discovered dated 1257, proving that the architect of Cologne Cathe- 
dral was a Belgian. It sets forth that the monks of Cologne, in con- 
sideration of the services performed by Master Gerard, of St. Trend 
CGtrardus de Sancto Tradone), in directing the construction of their 
Cathedral, had assigned to him a certain estate of land. 

Although apart from the present purpose, I cannot avoid repeating 
here a portion of the King of Prussia's speech when laying the first 
stone of the new works in completion of the last mentioned wonderful 
building. "Here where the ground stone lies," said the king, "hen; by 
these towers, will arise the noblest portal in the world. Germ any builds 
it — may it be for her, with God's will, the portal of a new era, great 
and good. Far from her be all wickedness, all iniquity, and all that 
is ungenuine and therefore un-German. May dis-union between the 
German princes and their people, between ditVerent faiths and diffe- 
rent classes, never find this road; and never may that feeling appear 
here, which, in former times stopped the progress of this temple — aye, 
even stopped the advance of our Fatherland. Men of Cologne, the 
possession of this building is a high privilege for your city, enjoyed 
by none other, and nobly this day have you acknowledged that it is 
so. Shout, then, with me, and while you shout will I strike the 
ground-stone, — shout loudly with me your rallying cry, ten centuries 
old, "Cologne for ever I" And then, while a thousand voices re- 
echoed " Cologne for ever! " the ancient crane on the top of the south 
tower was once again put into motion, and was seen slowly raising a 
ponderous stone. The amount both of time and money required to 
complete the Cathedral renders the issue sosaewhat doubtful. Let us 
hope, however, that this fear may be unfounded, and that this mag- 
nificent building may gradually gain its intended proportions — an em- 
blem of unity, a worthy offering to God, and an ornament to the world. 

To return, however, to Toumay ; there is sufficient evidence to 
induce the belief that the Cathedral was founded at the end of 
the 3rd century, and rebuilt about the middle of the 5th century, 
with the aid of Clovis, by St. Eleutherius. Chilperic in 578, endowed 
the Cathedral largely, and his original deed of gift " cum sigillis," 
remained amongst the archives of the chapter until they were burnt 
in 1566. 3 Louis le-dcbonnaire added to the cloisters of the Ca- 
thedral in SI 7, and Charles the Simple further endowed it. Soon 
after this, however, namely in 8S2, the Normans ravaged Belgium 
with fire and sword, and inspired such universal dread, that the 
people, adding to their prayers "from the fury of the North-men, 
Good Lord deliver us," fled hi all directions. Toumay, rich 
and important as it then was, did not escape; the walls and the 
chief buildings were destroyed, and the inhabitants were forced to 
abandon the town, to which it seems they did not return until the 
beginning of the luth century. At the time of this invasion tliere can 
be little doubt the Cathedral was pillaged, and partly if not wholly 
demolished; and it is probable that its re-erection was not attempted 
until quite the close of the 10th century, in which the inhabitants 
returned, or rather the beginning of the 1 1th. All analogy shows that 
earlier than this, the nave and transepts could hardly have been com- 
menced, and that it was probably much later before they were com- 
pleted. 4 If analogy, however, were deemed in sufficient t o remove 

"Triie deeds must have been very numerous, if we believe a contemporary 
writer, who says that the melted wax from the seals formed a stream down 

' « It is but fair towards M. Dumortier to give, in his own words, his argu- 
ment against the assumed destruction of the Cathedral by the Nurmaiw :— 

" L'histoirc de la translation dn corps de Saint Eleuttew sous leveque 
Hedilion en 870, immediatement avant 1 invasion dea Najrmanda, nous fait 
connaitreqn'acetteepoquel'on avail demoh la Candle de Saint biienne, 
qui etait iituee i la suite de la cathedrale. Voici comment aW.me u 
chroniuue write au Xle siecie : Presulatwu t,„ ■ 

prudenti t-t just,, posshlenle, basilic, l„ati St,,,!,,,,,, ,,, ,,ll,„„„irt,r ,. 
,msl rrclcsium Chrhti ^nitrieis .,v,« / «r, / «c nrfims Man,,; ,t,str,,cta ,s 



Lesoin que prend le chroniqueur a nous apprendre la destruct m tU a 
chaf*ile de Saint Ktienne .annexee (P) a la ■<-*■ bed rale, tadique churmentla 

conservation tie < 



lle-ci. Si ce v.istc mununu'itt, aont 1 existen :e est u< 



"■'•t au VI,' eta" IXe siecie, avalt ate detrnlt lor. de linvas.on des Now 
mands le chrouiquenr se serait-il borne 1 nous apprendre la destruction d un- 
dases parties f C'est id que s'applique se vied adage j tnol 



partie; 

Elevatic corporis beati EUutlurii tor 
Libra Sancti Martini Tornactnsis. 



epUCO/li ft COtlfit. 



34 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



the ground for controversy respecting the age of the cathedral, it would 
seem to be destroyed by the recent discovery of a M. S. entitled 
" Ritua Officii divini ecclesice Tornac," and dated 1656. This gives 
a list of tile various fetes formerly celebrated in the Cathedral, and 
points out the 9th of May (which was then annually celebrated), as 
the anniversary of the dedication of the church, in the following 
words: " Dtdicatio ecclesice, est feslivus dies in populo intra muros. 
Triplex est cum octavti et duplex prinue classis ; " and then, "fideliscel 
novce, anno 1066." Monsieur T. Le Maistre d'Anstaing, who mentions 
this MS. in his very interesting work on the Cathedra!, 5 remarks that 
doubtless there were more consecrations than one, as for example that 
of the choir, and those after partial restorations ; but that this being 
the first, was properly regarded as the most important, and, being duly 
observed, had been handed down to the date of the MS. alluded to. 

In a comparatively short space of time after this date, if the his- 
torian Jean Cousin is to be believed, the choir becoming too small 
and probably being injured by the events of troublous times, was 
cleared away to make room for a more magnificent structure. Cousin 
states, that the first stone of the new choir was laid in 1110; and that 
it was finished about 80 years afterwards or more. His authority for 
this statement, however, does not appear. According to certain old 
chroniclers quoted by M. d'Anstaing, it was vaulted in 1242, at the 
expense of Walter de Marvis; but it would seem that divine service 
had been performed in it previous to that date, its dedication being 
ascribed to the year 1200. 

At the end of the twelfth century, pointed architecture was but just 
developing itself, so that we must conclude either that the choir 
of the Cathedral of Tournay is one of the earliest monuments of that 
style, or that the received statements are erroneous. I am iuclined to 
believe the former. 

In concluding these remarks on the Cathedral of Tournay, it is 
gratifying to be able to say, that the sum of £20,000 has been voted 
by the nation (to be expended in ten years) for the restoration of this 
noble building, and that under the direction of M. Renard, the archi- 
tect, there is every reason to expect it will be carried out eflicientlv. 

When speaking of the Town Hall at Louvain, the writer intended 
mentioning, that what is stated to be the original drawing of the west 
front of the Cathedral of that town is preserved there, together with 
a very elaborate and beautifully executed model of the same in stone 
as it was executed, with a singularly lofty tower and spire in the cen- 
tre, and another on either side of it ; only one of the side towers, 
however, is shown. The drawing is on vellum, ft. high and 2 feet 
'.1 inches wide, and is coarsely but carefully executed. The model is 
about 24 feet high and 7 feet 6 inches wide at the base, and is now in 
an excellent state of repair. The centre spire, which is said to have 
been above 500 feet high (an extraordinary elevation, exceeding, by 
100 feet, that of the spire of Salisbury Cathedral) was destroyed in 
160G by a storm, and in its fall ruined the side towers. 

clusio alterius. Ainsi il demeure demontre que la Catliedrale de Tournai ne 
fut pas detruite ft cette epoque. et qu'elle rtsista ft 1'invR.sion Normande. En 
effet. eelui qui a vu ce nolle edifice, et constdere l'Spaisseur des colonnes ce 
sa partie romane, la solid ite des materiaux employes a sa construction, 
n'hlsitera pas ft reconnaitre qu'avec de tels materiaux il existait des con- 
ditions de duree que Ton ne retrouve pas dans les eglises des provinces 
Rhenanes, et qu'ainsi s'explique pourquoi Notre Dame de Tournai a pu 
resister ft une epoque on tant d'autres editices relig ; eu.N ont succombe. Au 
lieu d'etre eonstruite romme les eglises des bonis du Rliin en un calcaire 
sablonneux. friable et de peu de duree, la basilique de Tournai est eonstruite 
en calcaire anthraxifere, espece de marbre ties dur, et laisant feu sous le 
briquet. Pom detruite un edifice aussi gigantesque, et compose de pierres 
aussi solides et aussi massives, il faudrait de milliers d'uuvriers et un iravail 
de plusieurs annees. Or, les Normands avaient tuute autre chose a t'aire que 
de passer leur temps ft un tel ouvrage. Aussi, tous les chroniqiietirs et les 
histonensde Tournai ont parle de la Catliedrale, etl'on ne trouve, dans leurs 
ecrils, aucune indication d'oii Ton pourrait induire que ce vaste monument 
aurait ele detruit et reconstruit ft la suite de 1 'epoque earlovingier.ne. Au 
contraire. preuve certaine que 1'editice etait dejft Lien vieux ft cette epoque. il 
est constant que le chceur roman fut demoli vers la fin du Xle sietle. et qu'en 
Ian 1110. 1 on commenca la construction du cliaur nctuel, 1'un des monu- 
ments les plus vastes et les plus hardis de 1'art goiliique.'' 

« " Recherches sur I'Histoire et V Architecture do I'Eglise Catliedrale de Noire 
Dame de Tournai. 1842. 

6 " Histoire de Tommy par Jean Cousin,'' Douay, MIX XX. 



The interior of the Cathedral affords an excellent specimen of 
pointed architecture. The choir is separated from the nave by a 
highly decorated rood-loft of three arches with numerous sculptured 
figures under canopies. Above the loft is a rood of very large size, 
with figures of the Virgin and St. John at the foot (without which a 
rood was not deemed complete) profusely adorned with colours and 
gilding. 

The font, situated at the west end of the nave, has an elaborate 
Gothic crane of iron attached to the wall near it, for the purpose of 
supporting the cover, now removed. One of the chapels in the north 
aile of the nave has a balustrade or low screen of coloured marbles, 
exquisitely sculptured in the style of Louis XIV. And under the arch 
which separates the choir from its side aile, on the north side of the 
grand altar, is a sculptured stone tabernacle of very elaborate richness, 
reaching the whole height of the arch, perhaps about 30 feet. It is 
a hexagon in plan, tapering upwards to a point, and is supported on six 
small pillars round its circumference, and one in the centre. 7 

The pulpits found in the Belgic churches are in many cases re- 
markable for their large size, the profusion of materials employed, 
and their elaborate workmanship, rather than for good taste and pro- 
priety. The pulpit in the cathedral under notice (situated as most 
of them are, on the south side of the nave) represents the conversion 
of St. Paul. The saint and his horse are on the ground; on the west 
side of thein stands the figure of a man gazing with astonishment, if I 
remember rightly, at the miracle; a huge mass of rocks and trees sup- 
porting angels and birds forms the chair itself. Behind rise two lofty 
fir trees, from the stems of which, about midway, extends the canopy 
or sounding board, adorned with angels and other carved decorations. 

The pulpit in the Cathedral at Malines (a most interesting town) 
represents the same subject, but is differently arranged. St. Paul and 
his horse are on the ground at the foot of a mass of rock forming the 
body of the pulpit. Our Saviour on the cross, the Virgin, and other 
figures, enter into the composition ; a stem of a fallen tree serves as 
a rail to the stairs : and a continuation of the rock work, from which 
the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove, descends over the head of the 
preacher, forms the canopy. 

In the church of St. Andrew, at Antwerp, the pulpit represents 
Andrew and Peter called from their nets by our Saviour. It is as- 
cribed to Van Hool and Van Gheel. The pulpit in the Cathedral of 
the same city is a curious composition, consisting of twining shrubs 
and birds, said to be the work of Verbruggen. This artist also exe- 
cuted the pulpit in St. Gudule, at Brussels, which represents the 
expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise, and is perhaps better 
known than any of those I have already mentioned. The pulpit at 
Notre Dame, in Brussels, is a representation of Elijah fed by ravens. 
In some cases part of the sculpture is in wood and part in marble ; as 
for example, in the Cathedral at Ghent, where the pulpit is of large 
size and elaborate design, embracing many figures. 

In 1S38 the writer laid before the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, a series of drawings illustrative of the ruins of the ancient 
monastery of St. Bavon in the city last mentioned, namely Ghent. 
These remains are situated in the old citadel on the eastern side of 
the town near the Antwerp Gate, a quarter not generally visited. 
They consist chiefly of a large rectangular building unroofed, the 
remains of cloisters, and a small octagonal building of two stories, 
(known as the chapel of St. Macaire) communicating with the cloisters 
and standing within the square court surrounded by them. The ac- 
companying sketch (Fig. 3,) represents the interior of the lower story 
of the chapel which is much more perfect than any other part of the 
building. It is vaulted with rubble stone with flat shallow ribs di- 
verging from the centre, and terminating in large corbels of columnar 
form. The vault has been covered with stucco, and ornamented with 
colours, now for the most part destroyed. One of the eight sides of 
the building is wider than the others, for the purpose of admitting a 
double archway of the cloisters, and a second side is occupied by an 

7 In the church at Leau, a place little known, there is a tabernacle of 
somewhat similar outline in the style of the Renaissance, and of very extra- 
ordinary workmanship. 



1843 ] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 




alt.ir, the top stone of which is marked, as is often the case with 
ancient altar stones, with five small crosses, one at each corner and one 
in the centre, the latter being the larger. 8 Each of the other sides 
has a semi-circular arched way in it. The building is paved with 
black and red tiles about 4 in. square each. 

In the rectangular building and cloisters which present the work of 
several periods, the columns where they remain are very short, and 
have leafed capitals similar to some in Tournay Cathedral. They are 
formed of the grey Tournay stone, and in some few instances have 
octagon shafts as is also the case in the Cathedral. The arches of 
the cloisters were pointed ; they were formed of brick, with stone ribs 
and corbels (sculptured with foliage and figures), and were of more 
recent date than the walls. The rectangular building is paved with 
red, yellow, and black, glazed tiles of various shapes and sizes (some 
being very small) disposed in patterns. 

The history of this building ranges over a considerable period. In 
the year G36, King Dagobert of France, sent St. Amand to Ghent to 
preach Christianity. St. Amand having made many converts, founded 
two monasteries, one of which was on the site of the remains in ques- 
tion. A few years afterwards, Allowin, surnamed Bavon, was induced 
by the teaching of St. Amand to quit the world, and having given the 
whole of his property to the latter monastery, obtained permission to 
construct a cell in the neighbouring wood, where he died in 054. The 
monastery then took his name, a church was dedicated to him, and the 
whole quarter was termed, for many years, the town of St. Bavon. In 
816, the monks fled to avoid the Normans, and took refuge in Eng- 
land. John of Gaunt was born in this monastery in 1341, and at the 



6 The crosses upon ancient altar stones were intended to mark the spots 
anointed with chrism at its dedication. A Pontifical printed at Home in 
1595, and now preserved in the British Museum, shows iliat a bishop when 
consecrating a church, was enjoined to mark will) his thumb dipped in the 
chrism, twelve crosses on the walls of the church, and others on the door, 
altar, <s.c. See Arclueologia, vol. XXV, p. 213. 275. 

11 The area of the cloister is about 10U feet square ; the diameter of the 
octagonal building is about 20 feet. 



beginning of the lGtll century the whole establishment was destroyed, 
in order to construct a citadel on the site.'" 

In the "Notice Hiztorique de Gaud" it is stated that in 1067, Bail- 
douin, Bishop of Noyou, and Liebert, Bishop of Cambray, consecrated 
the church of St. Bavon, and deposited there, in a private chapel, the 
relics of St. Macaire, who, it was supposed, had freed the city from 
the plague by his prayers, some few years before. The style of the 
octagon building before mentioned, still called the chapel of St. Ma- 
caire, agrees with this date satisfactorily. 1 ' 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK. 

FASCICULUS XLV. 

" I must have liberty 
With il, as large a charier as the w nds, 
To blow on whom I please." 

I. Although not propounded ix cathedra, the doctrine broached by 
the Premier Professor, has made quite a-sensation, filling all with sur- 
prise, and some with a panic feeling. It is the opinion of more than 
one in the profession that our architectural Professors are nearly all 
bewitched. As if it was not enough to have Hosking preach down 
Vitruvianism, we have now Cockerell preaching up rank architectural 
Radicalism. He goes to the extent of turning every thing topsv-turvy, 
without regard to those most comfortable of all things — our preju- 
dices. What is to become of our reverence for precedent and autho- 
rity, if copyism is henceforth to be proscribed, and every one expected 
to give us his own ideas. It may be all very well for those who pos- 
sess taste, and have ideas of their own; but then what is to become 
of those poor devils who have none ? If they must neither borrow nor 
steal, their fate will be hard indeed. While Professor Pugin would 
merely lead us back to the "dark ages," bidding us look for light and 
enlightenment there, the Royal Academy Professor would fain turn us 
adrift, to grope about in more than Egyptian darkness. Surely it is 
better to be tethered to a stake with a yard or two of rope, than to 
have the precious liberty of rambling at will blindfold among pitfalls 
and precipices. So, at any rate, think some. After copyism has 
served them so well, they must now hear it reviled by the ugly epi- 
thets of "dull" and "unmanly"! and that by a Professor, too! Why, 
he might as well have called it stupid and old-icumaniah, for that was, 
no doubt, his meaning. As to invention, that is, of a truth, most ven- 
turesome work, but then, be it remembered, 

" Things out of hope, are compass'd oft by vent'ring." 

II. It argues very great forbearance on the part of Welby Pugin 
that he has not had a fling at Abbotsford, for it is certainly quite as 
miserable and trumpery as any of the architectural " monstrosities " 
he has shown up in his "Contrasts," or quizzed in his "True Prin- 
ciples," although concocted out of the ideas of so many persons who 
were successively consulted by the " Great Magician," but who have 
shown themselves to be no conjurors. Stark, Terry, Burn, Blore, 
Atkinson, all prescribed in turn, and bedoctored till they bedevilled it. 
Whichever be the best of Scott's works, Abbotsford is decidedly his 
worst — mere "Carpenter's Gothic," and a "Tea-Garden Castle." 
Fortunate would it be for the credit of his own taste, and also for the 
credit of those employed upon that pet fancy of his, were it to be 
demolished at once, instead of being piously preserved as a monu- 



i" The abbot ;.nd monks were removed to the cathedral church of St. John 
the Baptist, in the city of Ghent, from that lime called the church of St. 

' ' l" cannot omit mentioning with reference to Ghent, that M. L. Roelandt 
to whom the city is indebted for many important buildings, (amongst them 
the must elegant little theatre and ball-room that I know of,) is en 
upon a new Palais de Justice of large extent. The window dressings ol the 
principal floor have mors than ordinary imp rtance given to them, ami form 
a principal leature in the facade, L'hej consist each ol twodiset 
Corinthian columns supported on corbels, with entablature and pediment, 
and corresponding pilasters on the lace of the building. 

5* 



3G 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



ment of Scott's virtuosity in architecture. Attempts in the Gothic 
style by Scotch architects are almost without exception intolerably 
bad, many of them utterly contemptible. Taymouth Castle, about 
which the newspapers made so much fuss a few months ago, is in 
point of architecture, most miserable. The noble owner of that big 
house possesses an infinitely superior specimen of architecture in a 
small one called the Forest Cottage, which he has lately erected in 
Inveroran. Homely in character, as its name denotes, yet at the same 
time something more than a mere cottage, it idealizes that character 
most happily, bringing forward some of its most picturesque traits, 
without any paltry affectation. It is withal eminently picturesque, 
which is more than can be averred of those things which pretend to 
be " Picturesque " by title, and for the nonce. 

III. That the lord of Abbotsford himself could be. sufficiently severe 
upon other persons' architectural whims, is evident from a postscript 
of a letter of his to Mr. Morritt, of Rokeby Park, and who was then 
at Brighton ; saying, " Will you do me a favour? Set fire to the 
Chinese stables, and if it embrace, the whole of the Pavilion, it will 
rid me of a great eye-sore " ! 1 As this was written in the February 
of 1826, immediately after the crash that laid low his fortunes, and 
reduced him to beggary — at any rate to that sort of nominal beggary 
which thousands would call luxurious affluence — hardly is it to be 
supposed that his so expressed opinion of the Pavilion at Brighton 
■was a mere sally of wantonness and gaiete de cam. The Pavilion 
might have been rendered a good specimen of the style it pretends to, 
and so far have been satisfactory, whatever may be objected to the 
choice of such style for such purpose. Instead of which it is a finical 
and insipid, not to say paltry imitation of that style, with little charac- 
ter than that of toyishness and gimcrack, certainly with no " hearti- 
ness of character" about it, nor any gusto. The "pimping pagoda taste" 
of George IV. is not yet extinct in the family, for a Chinese conser- 
vatory, or something of that sort, is now erecting in the gardens of 
Buckingham Palace, but whether it is of porcelain, or common crock- 
ery quality, is not said. 

IV. Were the reviewers to pay Mr. Gwilt in his own coin, they 
would say nothing of his book, except that, being the work of a living 
contemporary, delicacy prevented them from expressing any opinion 
relative to it; besides, their silence would be far more gratifying 
than any remarks, however complimentary, from a class of critics 
whom Mr. Gwilt himself denounces as a set of meddling blunderers 
and blockheads. He has shown himself most dreadfully sore upon 
the subject of reviewers and anonymous criticism, and for no other 
reason, it appears, than because an article in the Foreign Quarterly 
spoke in commendation of Schinkel and the German school of archi- 
tecture. Any other person than Mr. Gwilt would have been thankful 
for the information there first conveyed upon the subject, whether he 
agreed with all the writer's opinions or not: whereas the meek Jo- 
seph assailed him as virulently as if that article had been a personal 
attack upon himself, and spluttered in a very big strain about "small 
fry " writers and anonymous critics — or rather those who set up for 
critics, though utterly ignorant of the subjects they profess to treat. 
Does Mr. Gwilt then suppose that professional men never write in 
literary journals, on subjects connected with their own pursuits ? Is 
he not aware, poor man, that among the anonymous scribblers in the 
periodical he fell foul upon, there was no less a nobody than Sir Walter 
Scott ? Can he be so ignorant as not to know that Cowper, Byron, 
Southey, Moore, Hallam, Brougham, Horner, the Rev. Sydney Smith, 
not to mention Bishops, have been anonymous reviewers? It will be 
well for him should he not find out at last, that it had been better had 
he condescended to publish anonymously, himself. None will envy 
him the fame he will now get by not doing so. 

V. "Nothing is so tiresome," says Sir Walter Scott, " as walking 
through some beautiful scene with a minute philosopher, a botanist, or 
pebble-gatherer, who is eternally calling your attention from the grand 
features of the natural picture, to look at grasses and chucky-stones." 
Mutatis mutandis, this may be applied to those minute critics in 
architecture who attend chiefly to inferior matters, such as the pro- 
portions or correctness of an order as an order, without regard to any 



further effect, or its coherence with the rest of the building. Any 
thing of that kind which happens not to be in distinct conformity with 
standard, and therefore only general, rules, — which we are r.aher to be 
guided by than tied down to, is at once pronounced by them to be 
faulty and incorrect, yet at the same time thpy can tolerate infinitely 
greater faults, far more reprehensible licenses, and that which is the 
greatest defect of all, let the style be what it may, the utter want of 
all artist-like feeling. By a minute critic, however, is not to be 
understood one who examines merely the minutiae and details of a 
building — for that is more than every one of the tribe is capable of 
doing: but one who looks at every thing piecemeal, and who dwells 
exclusively upon individual particulars and detached circumstances, 
without taking into consideration whether there be any thing to call 
for, to justify, or to account for what he only perceives to be uncom- 
mon. Your minute critic is generally a staunch stickler for precedent, 
and not without reason, since precedent and authority are the crutches 
which help him along. Deprived of their aid, he comes to the 
ground. In any case out of the ordinary course he feels quite put out, 
and unable to make any thing of it, takes his revenge by pointing out 
what does not accord with usual practice, and therefore, as he will 
have it, a blunder or a solecism. How the minute philosopher 
chuckles when he detects some homceopathically small infringement 
of a mere pettifogging rule. Yet how obtusely blind is he apt to 
show himself in regard to every thing which does not come within 
the compass of rules and routine. 

VI. By no means would it be amiss were public spirit and archi- 
tectural zeal to be displayed in completing and giving the finishing 
touches to some of our modern buildings, as well as in the restoration 
of decayed ones. Many there are which admit of being greatly im- 
proved by corrections, and by omissions in them, more or less obvious, 
being supplied. Such is certainly the case with the National Gallery 
for one, and there even seems to have been some idea at one time of 
doing something more to that building, Barry having actually been 
consulted on the subject. Greatly might the United Service Club 
House be improved by giving it a cornicione, and throwing more spirit 
and richness into its other features. Nay, perhaps even the Conser- 
vative might be converted into a tolerably satisfactory design, were 
carle blanche for such alteration to be granted to some one who pos- 
sessed both ingenuity and taste. At all events we may now expect to 
find that that building has served as a wholesome warning to the ar- 
chitects of the forthcoming new Conservative Club House in St. 
James's Street, and that they will show themselves Radical Reformers 
in point of architectural taste. 



EXPRESSION IN ARCHITECTURE. 

The expression, or as it is sometimes termed, the language of 
architecture, is a subject which has engaged the attention and em- 
ployed the talents of many writers, both amongst professors of the art 
and others, nor is it at all uncommon to hear it said that every build- 
ing which makes any pretensions to style and taste, should express by 
its design and character, the purpose for which it is intended. Al- 
though it is by no means my intention to deny that buildings of almost 
every class are capable of great and varied expression, yet to suppose 
that this expression may be varied so as to indicate all the different 
purposes of modern buildings appears to me as absurd as to deny all 
power of expression to the art. The characters of sublimity, majesty, 
grandeur, gaiety, or gloom, may be and frequently are imparted to a 
structure by the skill of its designer; but this is very different from 
the building indicating the intended puipose of its erection. We 
may see this by considering that gloom and solemnity are features 
equally characteristic of a prison or of a tomb, that grandeur and 
majesty are qualities of expression as appropriate in a palace as in a 
senate house, whilst gaiety and elegance are generally considered as 
characters equally to be impressed on the decorations of the private 
house and of the theatre. A great number of buildings must, indeed, 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



always share in the same external style and expression, though erected 
for and adapted to very different purposes. We might as well expect 
the face of each individual whom we meet to express his particular 
pursuit and profession, and lay open to us his thoughts and intentions, 
as to look upon the facade of a building as the index of the purposes 
for which it was erected. The human face, indeed, is considered, 
and with unquestionable propriety considered ;;s the index of the soul, 
as the outward sign by which we may read the feelings of the man, 
and being accustomed from the dawn of reason, perhaps intuitively, 
perhaps from experience acquired in infancy, to consider the features 
as indicative of the various passions, and our more mature years con- 
firming this experience, we become so firmly convinced of the truth of 
these principles as to rely on the inferences we draw from them; and 
believing all men subject to the same feelings, the same joys and 
sorrows as ourselves, we make no distinction in our application of 
them ; but consider, that whatever may be a man's rank, his race, his 
sation, or his name, without regard to climate or complexion, whether 
he be an inhabitant of the polar circles, or the torrid zone, we may 
read in his face the passions of his soul. But though he may thus 
plainly and universally read the feelings of the man, the cause of 
those feelings is yet hidden from us ; and although the expression of 
the features we look upon may induce in us corresponding emotions, 
we are unable to divine its origin. We may thus see the emotions 
of joy or fear spread rapidly through a crowd ignorant of their cause; 
each individual being immediately affected by his neighbour's ani- 
mated look and gesture, or though himself remote from danger, be- 
coming at once alarmed by the fear expressed in surrounding faces, 
which indicate that something unknown is to be dreaded, by its por- 
tentous indistinctness, rendered yet more fearful. In the arts of 
painting and sculpture, the artist copying the human face and figure, 
gives to bis productions the expression he may choose, and in pro- 
portion to the intensity of that expression is the emotion raised, but 
the cause of such expression is sought for in the accessories, or com- 
binations of the piece ; and our experience of human feelings leads 
us to judge whether the passion expressed is in accordance with its 
exciting cause. If then in these most expressive arts the feelings 
excited do not lead us to the reason which induced the artist to give 
such particular expression to his work, if we are liable to be deceived 
in interpreting the meaning of allegorical painting and sculpture, how 
shall we in architecture, where neither nature nor experience teach 
us to decide, how shall we say what particular character shall indicate 
a particular building. We have here no standard of expression; the 
ideas of different nations on this subject are as various as their lan- 
guages: and in examining the remains of ancient edifices, we do not 
decide upon the purposes for which they were built, from their ar- 
chitectural character, but the acccessories and combinations of their 
construction. 

The Gothic style, which is by us considered as peculiarly charac- 
teristic of a church, would most assuredly not be viewed in the same 
light by an ancient Greek. One of our large churches, or cathedrals, 
would unquestionably produce emotion in the breast of any man who 
had a soul to feel ; but this, I am persuaded, would arise from the 
grandeur of the structure, from the insignificance into which the spec- 
tator sinks while gazing through "the long drawn aisle," or looking 
up to the " arched and ponderous roof," and from the majestic evidence 
of superior constructive skill around him, and not from any feeling 
that such a style proclaimed, by its silent but unerring expression, 
that he was in the House of God. As on the human face we may 
read the feelings of the mind, may trace gaiety, gloom, resolution, or 
despair, so may we be impressed by the design of a building with 
the emotions corresponding to sublimity, grandeur, magnificence, or 
elegance ; but as we cannot determine the cause of the passions 
expressed upon the human features, so we cannot impart to any 
structure, vary its character as we may, the power to express whether 
it be a temple, a palace, a senate-house or an exchange. And as 
mankind differ as to the expression proper to be given to a statue or a 
painting, so will they disagree as to the character proper for a build- 
ing, nor can we hope that architecture shall speak in the same 



37 

language to us all, until all shall not only have been educated alike 
but shall have acquired the same prejudices, habits, tables, and 
feelings. 

A. D. 



THE VELOCITY OF WATER IN VERTICAL PIPES. 

We have received a voluminous communication from Mr. Shuttle- 
worth, purporting to be a reply to the notice in our December number, of 
his system of railway propulsion. The extreme length of his letter, 
which occupies thirty closely written pages, would be a total bar to 
its insertion, even were it an argumentative treatise instead of being 
almost entirely discursive. We have received from another corres- 
pondent, however, a communication on the same subject, deserving 
much more attention, in which the writer states argumentatively his 
objections to two of the positions introduced incidentally in the ar- 
ticle on Mr. Shuttleworth's hydraulic railway. The question of the 
velocities acquired by water flowing down vertical pipes is, indeed, 
important and interesting; we shall therefore, after allowing our corres- 
pondent to speak for himself, pursue the inquiry, not only for the pur- 
pose of defending our previously expressed opinions, but with the 
view of arriving at some, satisfactory conclusions on a subject that 
has given rise to much discussion, and respecting which, as it appears 
to us, very erroneous notions continue to be entertained. 

The following is the letter to which we refer. 

"London, December 21s/, 1^12. 

"Sir — Agreeing with the writer of the remarks on Mr. Shuttle- 
worth's Hydraulic Propulsion system, which appeared in your Journal 
of last month, that it is a pity to see so much talent, ingenuity, labour 
and expense lavished upon an invention evidently impracticable, I 
must at the same time call into question the reasoning by which the 
writer has arrived at this conclusion, or at least that part of it which 
relates to the flowing of water through a vertical pipe ; I do so more 
particularly, as the subject is important, and, I believe, new: also 
because, from the editorial character of the article, it might mislead 
many of your readers. I shall endeavour to show that the writer has 
committed two important errors in the fifth paragraph of that article ; 
first, in explaining the uniform flow of the water in the column, by 
the cohesive attraction of the particles of water. Secondly, in 
saying that this uniform velocity is half that due to the height of the 
column of water flowing through a small orifice, he appears to think 
that, supposing the height of the water constant, the issuing velocity 
diminishes as the aperture increases. Now, it is evident that such is 
not the case, as by increasing the diameter of the orifice, the friction 
of the sides decreases in a greater ratio than the area of the orifice 
increases. This is so evident, that I believe it requires no further 
explanation. 

"Assuming the Irishman's privilege of going backwards, I shall first 
endeavour to demonstrate the second error, by proving the velocity 
of the issuing water (and therefore, as will be proved in the second 
part) of the whole column, to be expressed by the formula \ x, 
where x expresses the height, modified by the resistance of the air 
and friction. The friction, however, may be omitted, as being very 
trifling in a vertical pipe, when compared with the retarding effect of 
the atmosphere. 

"When the water first enters the pipe, there is a slight decrease of 
velocity, in consequence of the " vena contraeta," which in all works 
on hydraulics, is generally allowed for, by changing the Q in the 
above formula to 5; it then assumes a vertical direction, its velocity 
increasing as the square root of the height, until the resistance of the 
air, increasing as the square of the velocity, becomes equal to the 
momentum ot the water. An equilibrium then existing between the 
accelerating and retarding forces, the velocity would be uniform. As 
will be seen from the following equations, it would require an im- 
mense length of vertical pipe before this uniform velocity could be 
produced. Let c represent tiie velocity, x the height, * the specific 



3S 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Fkbruary, 



gravity of water expressed in pounds, and h the number by which yon 
must divide the square of the velocity, in order to find the resistance 
of the air; it is generally taken as equal tu 5001b. 

"You have then three equations and three unknown quantities. 

1st. s X D = ''i resistance of the air at the moment of equilibrium. 



3rd. D-' = 64 x taking 8 as the multiplier. 

.". J*8 S = 64 x, from which x the height at which the equilibrium 
between the accelerating and retarding forces exists, would be found. 
As might be expected this number would be very great. The above 
equations are a'so useful in finding the velocity due to any given 
height when the water flows directly into the air, but in the case of 
the hydraulic railway, where the vertical pipe deflects into one hori- 
zontal, the velocity of the water issuing from the vertical pipe will 
be gradually diminished, in consequence of the friction of the hori- 
zontal pipe, and therefore the velocity of the whole column (as will 
be seen) will be reduced to that of the water issuing from the extre- 
mity of the horizontal pipe. 

I shall next proceed to show that cohesion does not account for the 
uniform flow of the whole column so simply, and consequently not so 
well, as the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water. 
For suppose that in some part of the passage of the. water through 
the pipe, two consecutive portions separated, a vacuum would be 
formed between them, consequently the atmosphere wo8ld act as an 
accelerating force on the upper portion, and as a retarding force on 
the lower portion, and evidently would cause the junction of the two 
parts — the vacuum then ceasing, the whole column would move toge- 
ther. A familiar illustration of this explanation is afforded by the 
well-known experiment of half-a-crown, and a piece of paper of the 
same form placed at the back, falling together to the ground. It is 
not the action of gravity alone which makes them fall together, but 
the pressure of the atmosphere on the half-a-crown. It is, I believe, 
clear, if these results be correctly deduced from sound principles, 
that cohesion does not satisfactorily explain the uniform flow of the 
column of water, and certainly does not reduce the velocity by one 
half, and consequently demonstrates the errors of the fifth paragraph, 
alluded to at the commencement of this letter. Some curious results, 
explaining the uniform flow of the column, even in the case of the 
atmosphere not acting on the surface of the water, might be deduced 
from the above equations, by differentiating them. 

" You would oblige me by inserting this letter. 
" I remain, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

«T. F n." 

Before we reply to the two points to which our correspondent par- 
ticularly directs attention, we must correct a misapprehension lie ap- 
pears to have, respecting the statement of the diminution of velocity 
by increase of aperture. What we stated was, "that if the size of 
the aperture approximate to that of the pipe, the velocity will be di- 
minished, and that if the aperture be of the same size as the pipe, so 
that the whole column must fall as rapidly as the issuing fluid, the 
velocity will be diminished one half, without making allowance for 
friction." 

We never intended to assert, as our correspondent appears to 
imagine, that the velocity of water through a small aperture would 
be greater than through a large one, unless the aperture he increased 
so much as to bear a sensible proportion to the size of the containing 
vessel. 

We shall reverse the order in which our correspondent has con- 
sidered the subject, and direct attention in the first instance to the 
cause of the continuously equal flow of water down a vertical pipe, 
because the main question rests on the admitted uniform flow of the 
fluid. The initial and the final velocities being the same, there must, 
as we contend, be a deviation in this case from the usual law that re- 
gulates the velocities of falling bodies. With respect to the cause 



of this equal fall of water, the difference between us is rather a dif- 
ference in form than in substance. Our correspondent admits that 
the flow is uniform, but he attributes it entirely to the pressure of the 
atmosphere; we attribute its immediate cause to the cohesion of the 
particles of the fluid, without which, the pressure of the atmosphere 
could have no effect. Were it not for the coherence of the particles 
of the water, they would immediately separate in falling, and the 
particles would fall independently and with different degrees of ve- 
locity. Their coherence prevents this. Each particle of water in the 
pipe coheres to the particle immediately above it, with sufficient force 
to overcome the minutely different degrees of gravitating momentum, 
due to the difference in their respective times of falling. The effect 
of this continuity of coherence, transmitted from particle to particle, 
is to form a running rope of water in the pipe. This rope of water, 
if we may be allowed the expression, being supposed of equal size 
throughout, must have an equal velocity in every part of its course; 
for as water is practically incompressible, a motion communicated to 
one part of the fluid in the pipe will be communicated to all other 
parts as effectually as if it were a solid moveable column. It is true 
that the pressure of the atmosphere tends materially to prevent the. 
separation of the water flowing down a vertical pipe, in the manner 
stated by our correspondent; but were it not for the coherence of the 
fluid particles, the pressure of the atmosphere would have no effect. 
Small round shot, for example, would not fall down a vertical pipe in 
a continuous stream, but in separate particles, and with differing velo- 
cities. The experiment of the half-crown and piece of paper, ad- 
duced by our correspondent as an illustration of his explanation, is 
not, we conceive, applicable to the purpose. It is not the pressure of 
the atmosphere on the paper that causes it to fall in the same time as 
the half-crown, for it is well known, that in a vacuum, even a feather 
will fall to the ground as soon as a guinea. The cause of the paper 
falling through the air in the same time as the half-crown, must be 
attributed not to the pressure of the atmosphere, but to the avoidance 
of resistance from the air, in consequence of the paper following 
closely in the wake of the half-crown, which sustains all the resistance. 

It will be a curious, and we believe a new point, to ascertain to 
what extent atmospheric pressure influences the flow of water down 
vertical pipes. Many of our readers may have noticed the farce 
with which water in a reservoir is drawn into the orifice of a long 
vertical pipe as the fluid flows down. This force results from the 
weight of water in the pipe, and from the pressure of the atmosphere 
on the surface of the water in the reservoir ; the one tending to se- 
parate the cohering column of fluid, and to produce a vacuum, the 
other pressing in the water to counteract this effort. If the hand be 
held on the orifice it is pressed against the aperture with a force cor- 
responding, within certain limits, to the height of water in the pipe. 
Were the length of the pipe greater than 33 feet, so that the weight 
of water surpassed the pressure of the atmosphere, a Torricellian 
vacuum would be produced, between the surface of the water in the 
pipe and the hand, and the latter would be [drawn, or forced, against 
the orifice with a pressure equal to that of the atmosphere. No ad- 
ditional leugth of pipe would theu increase the pressure. The va- 
cuous space between the hand and the water in the | ipe would be in- 
creased, but the pressure would evidently remain the same. The 
inferences to be drawn from these premises, are — first, that the velo- 
city of the flow increases with the length of the vertical pipe, until 
the column of water balances the pressure, of the atmosphere ; se- 
condly, that when an equilibrium is established between the column 
of water and the pressure of the atmosphere, [the maximum effect is 
produced, and no additional length of pipe will add to the velocity of 
the flow from the reservoir. 

Having thus disposed of the first_objection raised by our correspon- 
dent, we shall proceed to consider the point on which we more essen- 
tially differ. Our position is, that the velocity with which water is- 
sues from a vertical pipe is half the final velocity due to the height of 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



30 



the column. Our correspondent disputes this position; but instead 
of adducing arguments to prove that it is an " important error," he 
takes for granted the very question in dispute, and thereupon founds a 
formula for determining another question, with which the present has 
no immediate connexion. We affirmed, that the velocity of water 
flowing through vertical pipes differs from the velocity of water is- 
suing from an orifice, in the bottom of a large column of eqnal 
height; we stated, also, the cause of this difference, and its amount. 
Our correspondent, by way of refuting this opinion, assumes thai there 
is no difference ; and then proceeds, on the ordinary data for calcu- 
lating the velocities of falling bodies, to estimate the height from 
which a body must fall, before an equilibrium is established between 
the accelerating force of gravitation and the resistance of the air. 
We shall not imitate this summary process of disposing of the sub- 
ject in dispute, but shall endeavour to show that, according to the 
generally recognized laws of motion, the velocity of water issuing 
from a long vertical pipe, cannot be the velocity which is due to the 
height ; and we shall then show the cause of this apparent deviation 
from the usual law. 

In the first place, it must be borne in mind, that it is admitted, that 
a pipe having the same diameter throughout, continues full during the 
flow of water through it; therefore, as water is incompressible, the 
velocity of the water must be the same at the top of the pipe as at 
the bottom. Suppose the pipe to be 10 feet vertical, and to be 
covered with water just sufficiently to keep it constantly full. Then, 
as the velocity due to a height of 16 ft. is, in round numbers, 32 ft. 
per second, if the water issue from the pipe with that velocity, the 
same velocity must be communicated to the fluid in all parts of the 
pipe, as it forms part of the hypothesis that the velocity is uniform. 
We should, therefore, be obliged to assume the existence of some 
force, which could communicate to the water flowing into a tube from 
a state of rest, a velocity equal to that it would acquire after falling 
freely through 10 ft. It can scarcely be asserted, that the pressure of 
the atmosphere would communicate this addition \\ velocity, for the 
upward pressure on the fluid at the bottom of the pipe must always 
counterbalance the downward pressure on the top ; and were the pipe 
a very long one, the upward pressure would be the greater, owing to 
the increasing density of air at lower elevations. There is, indeed, 
no rationally conceivable force called into action but gravitation ; and 
if the whole column of water instantly acquire a velocity, which is 
due only to a fall through its whole length, the force of gravitation 
must, iu some unaccountable manner, be doubled ; for the momentum 
of a column of water, moving with a uniform velocity of 32 feet per 
second, is equal to the mean momentum of the same weight, were its 
motion to increase progressively from a state of rest to a velocity of 
64 feet. There is not, however, the slightest ground for assuming 
that the force of gravitation produces any such effect. The final ve- 
locity of a body falling freely through 16 feet is, within a fraction, 
32 feet per second, the mean velocity of the fill will therefore be one 
half, or 16 feet per second ; and that, we contend, is the velocity with 
which a continuous and equal column of water would fall through a 
vertical pipe 10 feet long; putting out of consideration the friction 
of the pipe and the resistance of the air. In the case of water is- 
suing through an orifice, the velocity due to a height of 10 feet is 32 
feet per second, when the areas of the column and of the orifice are 
greatly disproportioned ; but it appears from the preceding reasoning, 
that the whole column of fluid would issue with only half that velocity, 
which was the point to be proved. 

Having, therefore, shown that t lie conclusion at which we have ar- 
rived may be deduced as a necessary consequence of the continuous uni- 
form flow of water in vertical pipes, we shall next proceed to consider 
the conditions of water when flowing down vertical pipes, and when 
issuing from an orifice ; and we shall endeavour to arrive at the same 
conclusion by a different procpss of reasoning. 

It was demonstrated by Daniel Bernoulli, that the impulse of a 



"vein" of fluid falling perpendicularly, is equal to the weight of a 
column whose base is the area of the vein, and whose height is twice 
the fall producing the velocity. For example ; if r be taken as the 
final velocity of the efflux acquired by falling freely from a height /;, 
then it is well known that a body falling with the final velocity, during 
the time of the fall, will pass through a space equal to 2 h, or twice, 
the height. As the water commences and continues to flow through 
an orifice with the final velocity due to the height, the quantity of 
water falling through the aperture in a given time is double the quan- 
tity that would flow through it if the flow commenced with the initial 
velocity of a falling body, and progressively increased to its final ve- 
locity. 

Bernoulli's hypothetical vein of fluid was without any tan- 
gible boundaries, and the particles of the fluid in the vein were sup- 
posed to be pressed against, and changing places with, all the other 
particles in the containing vessel. It is this transmission of the pres- 
sure through the fluid, that causes the difference between the imagi- 
nary vein of fluid and a re.il pipe passing from the orifice to the sur- 
face. When the communication between the orifice and all other 
parts of the vessel is free, the water near the orifice is forced out, net 
only by the weight of the particles immediately above it, but all the 
particles of fluid are pressing towards the aperture and contributing 
towards the effect. The space occupied by the particles of fluid 
forced through the aperture, is immediately filled by other particles 
sustaining equal pressure. The continuity and equality of the pres- 
sure are thus preserved, which consequently ma : ntains an equal and 
continuous flow, the. height of the fluid being supposed constant. 
The velocity at the first moment of efflux is the same as would be 
acquired by a body falling freely from the surface, because the whole 
gravitating effects of the perpendicular vein of fluid instantly act on 
the portion of water above the orifice, and this action is continued, 
because the pressure remains free and constant. When a vertical 
pipe passes from the orifice to the surface of the water, so as to ex- 
clude the action of the surrounding fluid, the conditions are essentially 
changed. Suppose such a pipe to be filled with water, the base of 
the vein of water within, when at res/, would sustain the same pres- 
sure as another equal area on the bottom of the vessel, the heights 
being equal. But as the force then acting on the lowest lamina of 
the fluid is produced solely by the pressure of the laminae of fluid 
above, were the lowest one to separate from the upppr by the impulse 
of this pressure, the force would instantly cease, for the lamina im- 
mediately above the lowest not being impelled with equal force, 
would not have the same velocity. The adhesion of the particles of 
water would, however, prevent the falling vein of fluid from being 
divided, because the difference of the force acting on one minute 
lamina, and that acting on the. fluid particles immediately above, 
would not equal the cohesive attraction which holds them together. 
The vein of fluid would, therefore, cohere ami fall through the ver- 
tical length of pipe as a solid mass. Again ; as the upper part of 
the vertical vein of fluid in the pipe would be as free to move under 
the influence of gravitation, when the supporting base was re- 
moved, as the lower portions of the vein, and as the force would 
be exerted in the same time, the velocities they would re^po lively 
acquire, would be the same ; and they would fall through equal spaces 
in equal times. The length of pipe we have assumed to be 16 feet, 
therefore, it would be emptied by the fall of water in one second, 
the final velocity on issuing fro:-; the pipe would be 32 feet per 
second, and the mean of the initial and final velocities woul 1 be 10 
feet per second. 

If we suppose the water just to cover the top of the pipe, so as to 
keep it constantly full, the flow of water would then, it is admitted, 
be uniform instead of being accelerated, as in the preceding illustra- 
tion. The water at the lower portion of the pipe would be retarded 
in its fall, by the continuity of cohesion between the particles 
fluid in the failing vien; or, in other Word*, the velor I 



40 



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[February, 



fall at the bottom of the pipe, would be diminished, and a greater ve- 
locity than is due to the fall, would be imparted to the fluid in the 
upper part of the pipe, to produce a mean velocity. The mean be- 
tween the initial velocity and 32 is 16. Thus, in whatever mode the 
question is considered, we arrive at the same conclusion, that the ve- 
locity with which water issues from a vertical pipe, (not exceeding 
33 feet in length,) is one-half the velocity due to the height of the 
column. 

We trust we have proved, even to the satisfaction of our corres- 
pondent, that there are no errors in our reasoning on this subject; 
and that he was induced to think so, in one case by a misapprehension 
of our meaning, and in others by a hasty consideration of the main 
proposition: which appears, though in reality it does not, to deviate 
from the recognised laws of hydrodynamics. The theory of the flow 
of water through pipes well deserves a more full consideration than 
we have now time or space to bestow upon it, and to which we shall 
probably return. 



JAMES NASMYTH'S PATENT DIRECT ACTION STEAM 
FORGE HAMMER. 

The truly valuable qualities possessed by wrought iron as the ma- 
terial of all others the best adapted to withstand force, has rendered 
its use as a mechanical agent almost universal, so important are the 
purposes it serves in enabling man to combat with the elements, and 
as it were bend them to his will, that we may almost measure the 
progress of civilization in any nation by the quantity of that inesti- 
mable material they convert to their use ; hence it is that Great Bri- 
tain owes no small portion of her power, wealth, and mechanical 
supremacy to her superior knowledge of the use and capabilities of 
this the most serviceable of all substances. 

National improvement is always indicated and accompanied by 
increased consumption (by reason of increased application) of wrought 
iron ; by its use man first merges from the savage state, and by its 
extended employment the most civilized nations not only maintain, 
but advance in their improvement. It is, perhaps, unnecessary here 
to remark how entirely we are indebted to wrought iron for the ser- 
vices of the steam engine ; and its innumerable progeny of happy 
results, to say nothing of railways and steam vessels, in the very hulls 
of which, as well as in other ships, it is rapidly manifesting its su- 
periority over wood, and so giving to the world another magnificent 
evidence of its all but universality of application. Hence it is that 
few mechanical improvements are of more real importance than those 
which relate to the manufacture of wrought iron, not only in respect 
to its production in the first instance, but also to our increased facili- 
ties, and means of working it into such forms as may be rendered 
desirable and necessary. 

By a property almost peculiar to wrought iron, namely its all but 
unmeltableness, its applications would have been very limited, by rea- 
son of the difficulty we should have experienced in fashioning it into 
any required form, but by another peculiarity, namely its capability 
of being welded, we have the loss of convenience arising from its 
unmeltableness more than made up to us, and where we add to this 
its extreme malleability, by which property and by the assistance of 
heat, it is capable of being forged into any required form, our com- 
mand over it is only limited by our means of applying the requisite 
force, whether by compression, as in the case of the process of rolling, 
or by blows, as in the case of forging by the hammer ; this latter pro- 
cess being by far the most important, not only in respect to its afford- 
ing us the means of giving to masses of wrought iron the requisite 
shape and form, but also, when the process of hammering is carried on 
with due energy, while the iron is at a welding heat, the effect of such 
hammering is productive of a most important improvement in the 
quality of the iron, as regards its tenacity and consequent capability 
of resisting strains without the risk of fracture, this gain of strength 



arising from the more intimate contact or union brought about between 
the particles of the iron, by reason of the more perfect expulsion of 
all those impurities which otherwise, by separating the particles or 
fibres of the iron, so impair its strength. Hence we have one of the 
many important reasons why it is so desirable that we should have the 
means of hammering iron when at the proper welding heat, with ail 
due energy, whatever be the size or form of the mass in question. 

The great success which has attended the application of the steam 
engine in the case of steam ships, and in other instances, has pro- 
duced a demand for enormous forgings of wrought iron, such as paddle 
shafts, cranks, &c. that no small difficulty is now felt in the execution 
of large parts of them, having attained to such a magnitude as to be 
all but beyond the power and capability of the largest forge hammers 
to execute them. 

The approach of this point of ultimate capability has long been felt, 
not only by the vast difficulty and expence by the ordinary means, 
such enormous forgings being so frequently attended by the destruction 
of the machinery employed, but also by the frequent occurrence of 
unsoundness being the certain result of inadequate means, and the 
exceeding the limits and capabilities of the machinery hitherto em- 
ployed for the purpose, arising from a defect inherent in the principle 
on which such machinery has been constructed, the evils of which 
have been rendered more and more apparent by every successive 
attempt to enlarge the apparatus, with a view to endeavour to enable 
it to cope with the increase in the magnitude of the forgings it was 
required to execute. 

It was with the view to remove those defects in the principle on which 
such forge hammers were constructed, and to produce such a hammer 
as should, in the most simple manner, attain all that was desirable in 
our means of forging the very largest class of work, and that in a 
manner infinitely more convenient, perfect, and economical, that led 
me to contrive my direct action steam hammer, which I shall now pro- 
ceed to describe, and which has realized my most sanguine expec- 
tations of its advantages. 

In order to give such of my readers as are not minutely acquainted 
with the subject, a more clear view of the advantages possessed by 
this direct action steam hammer over those of forge hammers of the 
ordinary construction, I must refer them to Fig. 1, which is intended 
to represent a forge hammer of the largest class, and generally 
arranged according to the most improved principle. According to 
the scale on which this sketch is made out, such a hammer would be 
fully what is called a seven ton hammer, and consequently adapted 
(so far as its principles of construction will permit) for the execution 
of the largest class of work. 

One chief and universal feature in all such hammers, is, that the 
power which causes them to rise and fall, and so give out blows on 
the work on the anvil, consists of rotary motion, which originating in 
the rectilinear motion of the piston of the steam engine, is conveyed 
to the hammer by and through the medium of revolving shafts, 
wheels, &c, and finally reconverted into its original up and down 
motion by means of the cam wheel, marked D in the sketch ; thus, by 
a very roundabout course we have brought our power back again 
into the form it first existed, namely, rectilinear motion, or as nearly 
so as the radial action of the hammer will permit. And what advan- 
tage have we obtained by causing our power to travel to its object by 
such a roundabout course ? none that I ever could see ; and as to the 
disadvantages, they are many and most serious. In the first place, 
there is great loss of power, on account of the very unfavourable 
manner in which the momentum of the fly-wheel on the cam shaft D 
communicates its motion to the helve of the hammer, by a jolting 
action most unfavourable to the economical communication of power; 
add to which the vast space of the forge shop, occupied by all the 
intermediate apparatus of a complete steam engine, with its requisite 
fly-wheels, shafts, beams, and very costly foundations, which, in order 
to endeavour to maintain the apparatus in due order, has to be made 
of more than ordinary substantiality ; so much so that, to resist the 
destructive effect of the vibration given to the entire machinery by 
the action of the hammer, the foundations have to be made so solid 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



11 






1 "~7 



lit 



^fc: 




' 



Fig. 1.— View of the Old Tilting Hammer, 





Fig. 2.— Nasmyth's Direct Action Steam Hammer. 

as to cost, in some cases, nearly as much as the whole metallic part of 
the apparatus. 

With respect to the action of such a forge hammer, as seen in 
Fig. 1, it will be found that one grand defect in principle exists, 
namely, that when engaged in hammering a large piece of work, as 
that seen in the sketch, by reason of the work occupying the greater 
part of the clear space between the anvil face and that of the ham- 
mer, we have thereby a slight blow when we are doing a large piece 
of work, and a heavy blow when we are hammering a small or thinner 
piece of work, which is just the very reverse of what we could de- 
sire. And in the execution of large work this is found to be a most 
serious evil, in as much as, from the nature of the case, we would wish 
to have the most powerful and energetic blows that it is possible to 
command. The result of this is, that neither is the mass rendered so 
sound as we could desire, nor is it brought to its required form except 
by repeated heatings, at the very great sacrifice of time and iron, in 
so far as, ere the limited blows of the hammer have produced the re- 
quired change of form, the welding heat has gone off, and all blows 
after this tend rather to loosen than compact or solidify the mass. 
Again, we have, another very serious evil, namely, the very confined 
limits of the space between the hammer face at its highest, and that 



Fig. 5.— Self-acting. 



of the face of the anvil, which renders it quite incapable of admitting 
or operating upon a mass of any great breadth or height; and besides 
having the machinery of the hammer quite in the way, in many 
cases we have also this other disadvantage, namely, that except for 
one thickness of work, the hammer face and anvil are not parallel, as 
will be evident on referring to the sketch, and considering that the 
face of -the hammer acts radial to the centre, S, Fig. 1, in which it 
rocks. This evil is to a small extent obviated, by means being given 
to raise up the tail or centre, S, but this process is not only difficult, 
but can only be done between the heats. 

With a view to relieve all these defects, I have contrived my direct 
action steam hammer, which is represented in one of its many forms 
and applications in Fig. 2. 

It consists simply of a cylinder C turned as it were upside down; 
that is, its piston rod comes out at the bottom of the cylinder instead 
of (as in most cases) out of the top ; this cylinder is supported over 
the anvil K by two upright standards, O, the end of the piston rod 
being attached to a block or mass of cast irou, 13, guided in its descent 
by planed guides or ribs cast on the edge of each standard. This 
block of cast iron is the hammer or blow-giving part of the apparatus, 
while the cylinder, with its piston and piston rod, supplies in the most 



42 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



simple, straightforward, and direct manner, the power by which the 
striking block B is lifted, or raised up. Gravity performs the down- 
ward action for us in a most direct manner. In order to set this steam 
hammer in action, steam of such a pressure as, operating upon the 
underside of the piston, will a little ■ more than balance the weight 
of the block B, is conveyed from a suitable boiler, (situated in any 
convenient part of the premises,) through the pipe P into the valve 
box, in which a slide valve of the most simple form works. The 
valve being up, permits the steam to press upon the underside of the 
piston, and up goes the block B to any height (within the limits 
of the length of the cylinder) which the forge man may require. 
The handle E is now moved in the contrary direction, which not only 
prevents any further admission of steam, but also permits that which 
had entered, to escape by the pipe L; the instant this is done, the 
block B descends with all the energy and force due to its weight and 
the height through which it falls, and discharges its fall and entire 
momentum upon the work then on the anvil, with such tremendous 
effect, as to set the blows of all previous hammers at utter defiance .' 
In fact, the power of such a hammer is only limited by the size we 
please to make it, as tie principle is capable of being carried out to 
any extent; whereas, in the case of such hammers as in Fig. 1, they 
have their limits, by reason of the very mass of material causing them 
to be weaker se, by the intestinal contraction of the iron which com- 
poses their mass, and which in their action is so destructive and 
trying to such a form ; the consequence is they generally break over 
just behind the neck. 

I have only alluded to the means which this steam hammer gives 
of obtaining tremendous blows. But energetic and powerful as it is, 
it is at the same time one of the most striking examples of the mana- 
geability of the power of steam; inasmuch as, when we desire to have 
any variety in the intensity of the blow, varying from the most gentle 
m;<-cracking tap ! to the most awful smash, we have simply to 
work the valve handle in proportion, and by so regulating the exit of 
the steam we can let down the block, like closing a well hung window, 
or arrest its downward progress in an instant at any part of its stroke, 
and retain it there at any required height at any required time; on 
the other hand, by duly regulating the entrance of the steam, we 
can lift the block to any required height, from the face of the anvil 
or surface of the work, and so regulate the amount or rapidity of the 
blows accordingly. 

The form and arrangement of the steam hammer, as given in Fig. 
2, is such as present experience shows to be most convenient, ac- 
cording to the scale on which the sketch is made out, the distance 
between the standards O O gives a clear space of 12 feet, namely, 
six feet on each side of the centre of the anvil, and six feet height 
clear over head, as figured in the sketch. But these proportions may 
of course be varied at will, as the principle of this steam hammer 
affords every facility to extention or otherwise. The space on each 
side of the anvil, in front and behind, being quite clear of all ma- 
chinery, gives every facility to the introduction and management of 
the work, when we progress, as will be evident and fully appreciated 
by practical men. 

The comparatively small space which the entire apparatus of the 
steam hammer occupies, may be judged of by a glance at the sketch, 
Fig. 2, as compared with that of the ordinary construction in Fig. 1. 
Had 1 turned the standards in the sketch, Fig. 2, so as to give a side 
or edge view, the contrast in respect to space occupied would have 
been much more striking. As regards the comparative original cost, 
any one the least accustomed to such matters will at once see the vast 
advantage in that respect in favour of the steam hammer, to say 
nothing of its vast superiority as to efficiency and little liability to 
derangement; in fact, so simple is it, that there is scarcely anything 
to go wrong. One great source of its durability in this respect is the 
manner in which the mass of the block is raised, namely, through the 
medium of the most elastic of all bodies— steam ; which, in place of 

1 About five to six per cent more pressure than will just balance the block 
gives all due activity to the upward or lifting action of the block. 




*5! i 







any destructive jerk, as in the case of motion conveyed by impulse 
through solid media, so apparent and destructive in its effect in the 
case of the apparatus of the ordinary forge hammer, with the 
steam hammer the lifting motion is performed so smoothly as to be 
absolutely silent in its action, as if the great block had forgot, for the 
while, that it had any weight at all. I do not intend here to rival the 
celebrated Caterfelto by wondering at my own wonders ! but truly 
the action of this simple but most powerful machine, is not a little 
striking, both in its action as well as effect. I think experience will 
prove that I am not too far yielding to sanguine expectations when I 
state, that the vast facilities which this invention gives to the treat- 
ment of large masses of wrought iron, will introduce quite a 
new era in the manufacture and working of wrought iron. We have 
now, by means of this steam hammer, a power and capability of pro- 
ducing forgings of wrought iron of any dimensions, whose soundness 
will give the best evidence of the value of the invention in that re- 
spect, and from the vast facilities of executing the most ponderous 
and acquired forms the saving of time and finish which can be at- 
tained under such a hammer will also prove that a great step has 
been made in the mechanical arts. In conclusion, it may perhaps be 
as well to remark on the valuable and important influence which such 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



43 



a hammer will have upon the quality of iron, as in the case of boiler 
plates anJ such like, the quality of which, as regards soundness, en- 
tirely depends on the efficient manner in which they have been ham- 
mered and consolidated in the primary process of faggoting or shing- 
ling, namely, the forming into one perfectly solid mass, the block of 
iron from which such boiler plates, &c. are rolled. Nine tenths of the 
defects which are met with in boiler plates, and which have caused 
such disastrous results, namely, defects from blisters, have arisen or 
may be traced to imperfect consolidation resulting from inadequate 
means of hammering the original mass into a truly solid block, by our 
having the power to force out all the scoria, which, otherwise lodging 
between the pile of pieces of which the faggot is composed, gives rise 
to the most serious defects, which every practical man has had to de- 
plore. It will, in like manner, be scarcely requisite that I state any 
of the advantages that will arise in our having, by means of the ener- 
getic action of the steam hammer, a perfect security against unsound 
anchors, the importance of which requires no words to set forth. In 
short, we have now at command an almost new power, inasmuch as, 
by means of this steam hammer, we have an accession to our means 
of dealing with power in the form and state of percussion, such as has 
never been attained before, and that in the most simple, straightfor- 
ward, and effective manner. 

Fig. 3 shows the application of the hammer A for forging an iron 
shaft laid over the anvil or block B, and is made self-acting, as will be 
seen by a reference to the cut, that when the tappets D D come in 
contact with the pin or spring on the block E, the steam valve C is 
opened or closed. 

Fig. 4 shows the application of the steam hammer for coppers, 
pans, &c. The hammer M works in the guides P P, suspended by the 
rods R to the beam above, like an inverted truss: the action of the 
man pnlling down the lever N opens the valve, so as to admit the 
steam for raising the piston and with it the hammer. 

I may remark, that one boiler can be made to work any number of 
steam hammers, as the steam has only to be conducted to each by 
pipes, and the power let on and shut off in the same manner as gas ; 
and in most iron forges, the waste heat of the furnace will more than 
furnish the requisite steam. There are many other applications and 
details connected with this important invention, but reluctance to 
further trespass on your readers' attention, and the space of your 
columns, causes me to defer to a future opportunity. 

But I trust the high importance of the subject will plead my excuse 
for the length I have allowed my remarks to extend to. 

With most sincere respect, 

Bridgeicater Foundry, I am, very truly yours, 

Palercroft. — Jan. 17. James Nasmyth. 



OBSTRUCTION TO WINDOWS. 

Sir — Your Old Subscriber at West Derby does not, I think, quite 
understand the nature, of a right gained by prescription to a window 
overlooking a neighbours' land. In the case put by him, the right is 
not, as I conceive, so much to the window as to an easement of light and 
air through the window, and consequently "much (query, all) must de- 
pend upon the hard swearing of witnesses on both sides, as to whether 
a building erected near a window does or does not obstruct the light 
and free circulation of air." Indeed I doubt very much whether proof 
that a building had been erected within two feet of the window would 
be proper evidence to rely upon, unless it were also proved that the 
said building had prevented a certain quantity of light and air from 
finding its way to the window. With regard to question 3, it is ob- 
vious that the right being to light and air, and not to space, a building 
may be erected as high as the upper side (beyond the limits of the 
building act) of the window sill, it being impossible that such an erec- 
tion should obstruct the free passage of either to the window. 

6th January, 1843. I am, Sir, 

Yours very obediently, 
R. R. A. 



ON THE SEWERS OF THE METROPOLIS. 

1. Rtporl to the Secretary of State from the Poor Lam Commissioners 
on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Popula- 
tion of Great Britain. 

2. jlddress on the above Report in reference to those parts which incul- 
pate the Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, delivered at a Meet- 
ing of the Court of Sewers for Westminster, <yc. By the Chairman, 
Thomas Leverton Donaldson, Esq. 

We are heartily glad that the subject of the sewers of the metro- 
polis is likely to become an object of inquiry by the administrative 
authorities, a course for which we have long been anxious. In con- 
sequence of a voluminous report by Mr. Chadwick, the secretary of 
the Poor Law Commissioners, containing many very stringent remarks 
on the drainage of the metropolis, the ire of many of the function- 
aries has been excited. It is very evident that there must be some- 
thing radically wrong in the management, when we find such vast 
sums of money yearly raised in the metropolis under the name of 
sewer rates, while the extension of sewage is so very slow. It will be 
our endeavour to show, without entering upon all the points in dispute, 
that the present laws and system of building sewers are most oppres- 
sive and expensive to builders, and consequently the important system 
of draining house by sewers is avoided, and instead thereof, cesspools 
are resorted to, and every scheme which can be thought of to save the 
expense of building a sewer. Under such circumstances, we are 
sorry that Mr. Donaldson, for whom we have great respect, should 
have betrayed himself so far as to become the champion of the pre- 
sent system. The report of Mr. Chadwick, indeed, like the apple 
of discord, seems to have been productive of much asperity and bit- 
terness of feeling. 

Our present object will be to prove that some broad and general 
measure must be at once adopted for the regulation of the sewage of 
the metropolis, and that all petty legislation on the subject of drainage 
should be suspended. We must not have the metropolis split into 
half a dozen commissions. Now that the subject is fairly opened, we 
do sincerely hope that the Secretary of State will not listen to the re- 
solution passed at the court of commissioners for Westminster sewers 
on the 13th ultimo. 

" That the Court requests an investigation under the authority of 
Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department into the 
charges brought against the Westminster Commissions of Sewers in 
the report of the Poor Law Commissioners on the sanitary condition 
of the poorer classes, and to ascertain the best means of cleansing the 
streets and roads by aid of sewers, and also the most advantageous 
form of sewers for the public interests." 

This is giving the real matter at issue the go by, we want not the 
isolated works of the Westminster Commissioners, but what we do 
want is an examination into all the metropolitan commissioners, to see 
whether they cannot be advantageously consolidated into one body. 
We have now on the northern side of the river Thames, the City, the 
Westminster, the Holborn and Finsbury, the Regent Street, the Tower 
Hamlets, and the Stebon Heath Commissions; here we have six dif- 
ferent commissions, and it [is consequently impossible to lay down 
any one system of drainage for the whole metropolis; fur to do so it 
is requisite to have the cousent of all the different commissions, 
which would require months to obtain, even supposing it possible that 
they should all agree. We have running right through the very 
centre of the Westminster sewage, a sewer of a large class, and at 
considerable depth, constructed about 25 to 30 years since, belonging 
to the crown, and capable of draining an immense district; yet this 
sewer cannot be touched by the Westminster Commissioners; then 
again we have, as Mr. Donaldson tells us, in his report, the West- 
minster sewers running from the Thames up Tottenham Court lio.ul, 
to the New Road, then the Holborn and Finsbury Sewage commences, 
and after the sewer passes through the latter district, it comes to the 
county drainage, so that any improvement in the drain g .: of the up- 

' C* 



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[February, 



lands of the county could not be made without first, the Westminster 
Commissioners constructing a new sewer, or lowering an old one, then 
the Holborn and Finsbury doing the same. So, also, if either com- 
missions wished to divert the upland waters, by constructing catch 
■water drains, so as to prevent too great a flow down any particular 
district, and prevent the lower parts of the metropolis from being in- 
undated, it cannot be done, and the consequence is, that each com- 
mission is obliged to cut about and alter the old sewers, to get rid 
of tbe evil in the best way they can. 
Mr. Donaldson tells us that 

" During the present century, and particularly since the removal of 
old London Bridge, every opportunity has been taken to lower the 
outlets. For instance, the Essex Street sewer, between 18 Hi and 
1836, has been lowered from its outfall at the Thames to near Great 
Russell Street. Bloomsbury, in length 5,800 feet. The eastern branch 
of the Hartshorn Lane Sewer, between 1831 and 1839, from Long 
Acre to the New Road, by the line of Tottenham Court Road, &c, 
in length 4,200 feet. Another branch of the Hartshorn Lane sewer, 
between 1820 and 1837, from the south end of the Haymarket to 
Oxford Street, by the line of Princes Street, Wardour Street. &c, in 
length 3400 feet. The whole of the King Street sewer, between 
1830 and 1S32, from Westminster Bridge to St. James's Park, 1200 
feet. The Wood Street sewer, between 1824 and 1827, the College 
Street sewer, between 1824 and 1832, and the Romney Row or Horse- 
ferry Road sewers, in 1840, have been lowered and rebuilt of enlarged 
dimensions from their outlets for their whole extent, being a length of 
6850 feet, presenting in these lines alone a total of only 21,450 feet." 

Here, then, we have a fearful summary of expenses incurred in 
lowering the old sewage only, and we think an inquiry might be use- 
fully directed to see if all the commissions had been united, whether 
it would not have been far cheaper and more effective to run new lines 
of sewer from the river Thames through districts which had no 
sewers and to have joined the old sewage at some distant point, 
and thereby have relieved the old sewers in the lower levels. 

By this arrangement, we should have had the old sewers still re- 
maining, which might have answered the purposes of draining either 
high or low lands, and have obtained an immense additional length of 
new sewerage at the same expense. We do not mean to say that in 
all cases under the present system of separate commissions, this could 
have been effected ; but it is a fair subject for enquiry, and can only 
be got at, by having a thorough examination of all the plans and 
levels of the present sewerage, in every district, connected with the 
metropolis. 

Mr. Donaldson subsequently calls our attention to the vast works 
that have been executed for the improvement of the King's Scholar's 
Pond Sewer; let us give his own words. 

" But the greatest work ever executed by this or any other com- 
mission has been that effected on the King's Scholar Pond Sewer, 
which has been wholly rebuilt for an extent of upwards of three 
miles, from the River Side to the Regent's Park within the last 
24 years. It has been so vastly deepened and enlarged since the 
year 1816, that property of the most valuable description, in the 
neighbourhood of the sewer, at Pimlico, including Buckingham 
Palace, the lower floors of which are below the highest tide level, 
and most of tbe streets adjacent to the sewer between Piccadilly 
and the Regent's Park, have been benefitted to an incalculable ex- 
tent. Formerly the whole neighbourhood was inundated by every 
sudden fall of rain, so that many of the houses in Berkeley Square, 
Brutou Street, Avery Row, South Molton Street, Wigmore Street, 
South Street, Baker Street, and Spring Street, were greatly depreci- 
ated in value; and some houses in Berkeley Street and Bruton Street 
remained unoccupied for many months together, in consequence of the 
well-known fact, that in the summer months those premises were 
subject to have their lower floors burst up during thunder storms, and 
the water to rise so as to extinguish the kitchen fires, &c. 

" One of the great means for remedying these evils was designed 
and carried into effect by Mr. Dowley. I especially allude to the 
entire removal of two immense stone piers, which had at some former 
time been built in the water way of the sewer, and which piers sup- 
ported certain parts of the heavy and lofty walls of the houses in 
Grafton Street, St. George's. These piers, one measuring 53 feet in 
length, the other of a more square form, whereby the water way was 
divided into two channels, were formerly .considered advantageous 



to the property lower down the line of sewer, bv penning back the 
torrent of water in times of storms. The work of taking out these 
obstructions as also removing two great projections, and putting in an 
inverted arch throughout the whole length of sewer between Hay 
Hill and Bruton Street, in length 550 feet, at a greatlv increased 
depth, was performed from within-side the sewer, which had its course 
under buildings. These works proved of such vast importance to 
the sewage of the district, that what was formerly reported to be 
impracticable by several eminent engineers, amongst whom were the 
late Mr. John Rennie, Mr. Jessop, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Bevan of 
Leighton Buzzard, and others, was actually and substantially carried 
out, and was afterwards inspected by some of these gentlemen, as 
also by a numerous committee of the commissioners, who not only 
approved of the work that had been so done, unseen by any one other 
than by the workmen employed, but were somewhat surprised that 
so bold au attempt had been successfully accomplished. 

" In the prosecution of the operations necessary for reconstructing 
this one line of sewer, various instances may be cited to show that, at 
all events, the management and execution were entrusted to an officer 
of this court who knew something of his profession, and to any one, 
who is acquainted with that part of the district lying between Pic- 
cadilly and Oxford Street, it must be manifest, that cases requiring 
ability, foresight, science and practical experience frequently arose. 
I mean such difficult cases as passing a sewer seven feet six inches 
wide in the clear with side walls two bricks thick, at a depth of 22 
feet and upwards, along White Horse Street, Piccadilly, a street only ' 
20 feet wide. Again, carrying the same sewer through Sun Court, 
Curzon Street, which is less in width than that of the external di- 
mensions of the sewer itself. And, further on, this sewer winds its 
course under and close to buildings of great magnitude, nearly the 
whole way from the lower end of Berkeley Square to Oxford Street 
and in most instances at a depth of from 10 to 12 feet below the foun- 
daiions of the contiguous buildings. Surely, these were works, which, 
by their nature and extent might be considered of a scientific and 
high order of civil engineering, and such as have only been ap- 
proached by some recent works, perhaps, of the city commission of 
sewers." 

With all due deference to the talents of Mr. Donaldson, we are in- 
clined to doubt the latter part of his statement, that these works 
" might be considered of a scientific and high order of civil engineer- 
ing." Instead of enlarging this sewer, and rebuilding it, with all its 
original sinuosity, the course we should have preferred, would have 
been to have run a new sewer from where the Scholar's Pond sewer 
crosses in Oxford Street, near South Molton Street, along Oxford Street, 
and united it with the Regent Street sewer belonging to the crown. 
No doubt we shall be told, this could not be done, as the Westminster 
Commissioners have no power to enter the Regent Street sewer, this 
then would at once have proved the great necessity of uniting the 
several commissions ; now, if this plan could have been adopted, it 
would have relieved the large pressure of water flowing down the 
sewer, and inundating the houses as represented in Mr. Donaldson's 
report, and would have saved the great expense incurred in removing 
the large piers under the houses in Grafton Street, and rebuilding the 
tortuous part of the sewer in the vicinity of Curzon Street; and 
another advantage gained, would have been in giving Oxford Street a 
sewer, which had none. Similar relief might have been given to 
other portions of the large sewers which were overpowered with the 
upland water, and new sewers given to such portions as had none be- 
fore ; for instance, another sewer might have been constructed, to 
have commenced about Berkeley Street, and run along Piccadilly, and 
discharged itself into the Regent Street sewer, near the Quadrant, 
connecting with it the sewers of the side streets, which would have 
relived the Scholar's Pond Sewer and have given Piccadilly a sewer 
which it was deficient of until lately. And again, the sewer of Pall 
Mall might have been diverted into the Regent Street sewer, although 
it comes to within a few yards of it the sewage is carried into the 
Scholar's Pond Sewer, and has to travel a distance of a mile and a 
half before it discharges itself into the Thames, whereas, if the 
former plan had been adopted, the discharge into the Thames 
would have been within half a mile. If these collateral sewers 
had been built, the vast sums of money in reconstructing a consider- 
able portion of the Scholar's Pond Sewer, and building the large ap- 
proaches described in Mr. Donaldson's address, might have been saved 



18-13.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



■r, 



and part of the cost devoted to the new sewers we have described. We 
think that we could point out several other improvements that might 
have been adopted, if the commissions had been united : but we have 
already trespassed beyond our original intention upon this portion of 
the subject, and must now turn our attention to the more important 
part respecting the form, construction, and expense of the present 
sewers of the Westminster Holborn, and Finsbury, and Regent Street 
commissions. 

We will first proceed to enquire into the present cost of con- 
structing sewers, and see how far they might be modified, so as to in- 
duce builders of small tenements to construct sewers, in preference to 
cespools; in order to do this, we are at once brought to another bone 
of contention between the present combatants; one commission con- 
tends that the oval sewer is the best form, whilst another flatly con- 
tradicts it, and says that sewers with upright sides are the best; we 
must therefore first hear what Mr. Donaldson says upon the subject. 

" With respect to the form of section of sewers, our commis- 
sioners have very wisely adhered to that, which experience has 
proved to them to be substantial and best calculated for the purpose. 
We are to recollect that under-ground constructions must be built so 
as to last for ages, otherwise a continued re-building of sewers causes 
a constant breaking up of the streets, and obstructions to thorough- 
fares, and a suspension to a certain degree of the commerce of the 
trades-people on the line. The sewers must be large enough not 
merely for the ordinary service of relieving soil drainage, but also for 
carrying off the torrents of water, which fall during violent storms. 
Hence a large capacity must be given them. Again, this large di- 
mension is not without a further use in enabling the officers and 
workman to inspect and repair them with sufficient facility, the 
width even of our second sized sewers enabling two workmen to pass 
each other. As regards the upward sides of the sewer, it must be 
borne in mind that all circular work constructed of brick can only be 
formed by making the joints more open at the extrados than at the 
intrados, for the square shape of the brick does not lend itself to 
other than rectangular construction. Now these open joints are filled 
■with mortar in a moist state, and before it is set, the earth to the 
depth of several feet is filled in, the centres are struck, and the con- 
sequence is an irregular settlement of the whole work ; whereas with 
spreading footings, an invert at bottom, a circular arch at top, and up- 
right side walls, most of these inconveniences are avoided, and the 
sewer, even if the earth be washed away at the top or sides, as 
sometimes happens from the bursting of one of the large main pipes 
of the water companies, stands upright and alone on its board base, 
whereas the oval sewer must have inevitably fallen over. I may also 
add two other important reasons for giving as much square con- 
struction as possible to the body of the sewer, and these are, greater 
security against imperfect workmanship, and detection of false thick- 
nesses of work at sides. Besides, in the event of its being judged 
expedient to increase the depth of a sewer by putting in a new bottom 
by underpinning, this operation becomes comparatively easy with 
upright side walls — almost impracticable when they are curved. 
Much stress is laid in the report upon the curved side walls as ma- 
terially aiding the rapidity of the current. But, in fact, the ordinary 
sewage rarely rises above the invert, and when it does, there is such a 
force in the volume of water, that no perceptible obstruction is offered 
by the absence of the complete circular form." 

If, on comparing the sewers of the Westminster Commissioners, 
Fig.l and 2, with those of the Holborn and Finsbury Commissioners, 
Fig. 2 and 3, it must be seen that Mr. Donaldson's remarks about 
circular work are completely futile, for his objections apply equally 
to the arch and invert of the Westminster as they do to the Holborn 
and Finsbury; and as to the sides, the radiating of the courses in the 
oval form is so trifling, that it is not worth naming. And again, can 
Mr. Donaldson tell us if such an accident ever occurred, as the burst- 
ing of a main pipe, and of washing away the earth to the extent 
of endangering an oval sewer. We have frequently heard, that 
during the construction of the upright sewers, of their falling in ', but 

1 We could find several cases of the Westminster sewers falling in during 
their construction, and the upright ndes bul- inn in, as at Notting Hill, and 
also in the vicinity of the King's Road, Chelsea. But we are told by th 
worthy chairman, that tlr-y ucre limit by private indivj luals, and not by the 
commission. Lei us ask Mr. Di naldson. under whose direction and super, 
ntendance arc they built? Dare a builder alter the lorm, or lay a brick con. 



never heard of such a case with the oval Bewer. 20 years ago, we 
happen to have been engaged in th i of about 1000 feet 

of sewage of the oval form, as shown in Fig. 
5, built upon the crown lands in the vicinity 
of Regent's Park, and up to the present time 
we have never heard of a single failure, 
either during the construction or since; we 
think this fully justifies us in pronouncing that 
the oval form is most effective, and in point 
of expense infinitely to be preferred. Now 
let us compare the expense of both forms, we 
will take the cost of the materials and labour 
the same in both cases, Is. per foot reduced, 
or 13/. 12-. per rod of brickwork, and Is. per cubic yard fur digging, 
strutting, and filling in or removing the surplus ground, the top of the 
sewer being taken as ti feet below the surface of the ground. 

Westminster Sewers. 
Fig. 1, first class. Fig. 2, second class. 





1 7 feet brickwork 
3 J- yards digging 




15 feet brickwork 
3 yards digging 



Holborn and Finsbury Sewers. 

Fig. 3, first class. Fig. i, second class. 




12 feet brickwork 
3 yards digging 



9 feet brickwork - - 9 
2J yaids digging - - 2 4 



Fig. 5, 2 the Regent Commission sewer is built in two half brick 
rims, and contains about the same quantity of brickwork as fig. 4, and 
may be taken at the same cost. Thus it will be seen that in adopting 
the oval form, there is a saving of 5s. id. per ft. in the first-class sewer, 
and 6s. Sd. per foot in the second-class sewer. Can there then be, 
after perusing the above calculations, a doubt as to which form of 

trary to the directions of the commissioners' surveyor; tf this be the case, 
the commissioners tire responsible for the work and the form of the sewer, 
and not the builder. 

- We give the preference to the oval sewer. Fig. 5, over that of Fie. 4, as 
the larger part of the oval is downwards, which allows a greater flow o( 
water to pass oil quicker ; we also consider that the extra hall-brick thick- 
ness of the sides of Fig. 3, oval sewer, perfectly useless, and night with 
safety be omitted, which would reduce the cost of the sewer, U. Sd. per foot. 



46 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



sewer the preference ought to be given ? then why oppress the 
builder by compelling him to construct such expensive sewers as the 
Westminster Commissioners require ? Why not, as we said before, 
give some encouragement ? Nay, we would create every inducement 
to the builder of small tenements to construct sewers, and we feel as- 
sured that if the expense of building sewers could be reduced to 10s. 
per foot, making the charge for small houses of 15 feet frontage on 
tach side of the sewer under four pounds, that every builder 
would adopt sewers in preference to building cesspools, as the diffe- 
rence in expense would then be so trifling; but on behalf of the 
builder, we contend for a still smaller form of sewer than even 
the second size oval sewer, for in many cases where the distance 
required to be drained is not above 20U feet from a main sewer, with 
a good fall, we would allow an oval drain of half the altitude and 
breadth of fig. 5, to be constructed with a half-brick rim, or an 18 inch 
barrel drain, with manholes every 50 feet ; the expense of such drains 
would be 21. 5s. for houses on each side of the drain for the 18 inch 
barrel drain, and 1/. 10s. for the small oval form; this form of drain, 
is amply large enough for 25 to 30 small tenements, including the 
surface drainage ; therefore, why put the builder of small tenements 
to the vast expense of erecting "second-size sewers, enabling two 
workmen to pass each other," when "the ordinary sewage rarely rises 
above the invert," for which the Westminster Commissioners charge 
10s. per foot for houses on each side, or 71. 10s. for a fourth-rate 
house. 

We have dwelt more particularly upon sewers for small houses, as 
it is to these houses that a cheap form of sewage is wanted, for the 
expenses attending upon sewers, forming roads, paths, paying fees to 
district and paving surveyors, leases, and a variety of other incidental 
charges, which do not immediately belong to the construction of the 
house, fall almost equally the same on the small as on the. large house, 
and raise the cost of the latter so enormously, that much higher rents 
are obliged to be obtained from the small tradesmen and operatives 
than woidd otherwise be required if these charges could be reduced. 
We could give an instance at the present moment, where parties who 
have built some fourth-rate houses immediately contiguous to a main 
sewer of the Westminster Commision, will not incur the expense of 
the sewage by paying 10s. per foot, but prefer constructing cesspools. 

It will be a question well worthy of inquiry to ascertain what num- 
ber of houses there are on each side of any of the sewers that have 
been built or rebuilt by the Westminster Commission, and see how 
many of those houses have taken advantage of the sewers. We are 
fearful the return would show very few. If this be the case, it will be 
the best proof that the enormity of the charge of 10s. per foot de- 
manded by the commissioners, is of an oppressive nature, and if 
they continue to make this demand, we are fearful that very few 
houses in poor neighbourhoods will ever have drains to enter the 
sewers, and that all the calamities pictured in the report on the 
sanitary condition of the poor, will still rage with fearful violence. It 
is not for surface drainage that new sewers are so much wanted as to 
get rid of the nuisance of building cesspools under the basement, and 
in the close and confined yards at the backs of the small houses. 

We cannot allow these observations to close, without offering a few 
remarks on the regulation for constructing drains. We believe all 
the Commissions compel each house to have separate drains, no 
matter how far the house may be from the centre of the sewer. We 
recollect, a few years since, seeing the ground opened to the distance 
of at least GO feet long, and 10 feet deep, opposite to every house in 
the Grand Junction Road, Paddington. Now, if the commissioners 
would have allowed a 15-inch drain to have been constructed from the 
sewer for every three houses opposite the centre house, with a 
branch drain, nine inches clear, at the end next the houses, there 
■would have been a saving of 100 feet run of digging and making 
good roads, and a drainage equally as effective, if not more so; for it 
is not so likely that the single 15 inch drain would have got choked as 
the three 9 inch drains. And again, why not allow a 12 inch drain to 
be constructed opposite the party wall, between two houses, for the 
drainage of the two, some compulsory law might be made for com- 



pelling both owners, if there should be two, to contribnte their share 
to the repair or cleansing the drain, if it were required. By some 
modification of this nature, a vast expense would be saved both to 
builders and owners of houses, as the principal expense in carrying a 
drain into the sewer is generally the opening of the ground and mak- 
ing good the roadway. 

We have, in the present notice carefully abstained from entering 
into an examination of the Flushing apparatus, the feasibility of 
cleansing the streets by means of the sewers, and also the considera- 
tion of uniting the paving of the metropolis with the sewers under 
one commission, the same as is now done in the City of London, for 
all these points require to be gone into at considerable length at some 
future opportunity. We hope we have been successful in establish- 
ing that sewers may be constructed far more economically, and equally 
as effective, as the present form of the Westminster sewers, and that 
considerable improvements might have been adopted in rebuilding 
and relieving the old sewage, and at the same time increased to a 
large extent the sewage, without any additional expense, and if we 
have done so, satisfactorily, it then behoves us to press upou the 
government to take up the inquiry on a broad scale, employ com- 
petent parties to report upon the subject, and see how far a grand, 
measure might be laid down for the improvement of the whole of the 
first metropolis in the world. 



CONCRETE, ITS INTRODUCTION, COMPOSITION, USES, 
AND COMPARATIVE EXPENSE. 

Concrete was first used in this country by Sir Robert Sinirke,at the 
erection of the Penitentiary at Millbank, afterwards at the under- 
setting of the walls of the New Custom House, and has been generally 
used by the above named architect in the public buildings since erected 
under his care, especially at the club house of the Oxford and Cam- 
bridge University in Pall Mall, where the whole area of the building, 
and to the extent of two feet beyond the line of the lowest footing, 
was covered to a depth of 2i feet, the depth being increa5ed to 4 feet 
under all the walls that rise to the roof; in the specification of the 
last named building it is thus described. " For the grouted stratum 
clean river gravel is to be provided, and mixed with lime ground or 
pounded to a fine powder ; it is to be well mixed with the gravel, twice 
turned over before it is wheeled to the excavation, and it is to be 
thrown from a height of not less than (3 feet in every part. A man to 
be kept treading down and puddling the mass as it is thrown down ; 
the proportion of materials to be 6 parts of gravel to one of Dorking, 
Merstham, or Haling stone lime." It has now become, in the present 
day, the most favourable expedient resorted to for artificial foun- 
dations. Mr. Ranger, of Brighton, improved the above hint by using 
hot water to facilitate the setting, for which he took out a patent for 
making artificial stone. A detailed account of the application of Mr. 
Ranger's artificial stone to the building of docks and river walls at 
Chatham and Woolwich, is given in the 1st vol. of the Journal, being 
a paper by Lieut. Denison, from the Papers of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers. Analogous to concrete is beton, from which it differs, in 
broken stone being used instead of gravel, in the proportion of two of 
stone to one of lime or pozzolana of Italy, a description of which, 
taken from the Franklin Journal, appeared in Vol. 3, page 2ti5, 
of your valuable periodical. Since the introduction of concrete, some 
little difference of opinion as to the proportions of materials and man- 
ner of mixing them has arisen among engineers. I therefore give the 
composition from several specifications: — No. 1. The concrete to 
consist of 5 parts of clean gravel, perfectly freed from loam or clay, 
with a proper proportion of small gravel and sand, as well as large, 
and one part of lime measured dry, the lime to be mixed into a per- 
fectly smooth uniform paste, as for the mortar, but with more water, 
and then thoroughly mixed with the gravel. — No. 2. The concrete to 
be composed of sandy gravel and well burnt lime, in the proportion of 
3 of the former to 1 of the latter. The gravel to be free from all 
earthy matter, and the pebbles not to exceed one inch ill diameter. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



The lime is to be used in a hot state when slacked, and to be imme- 
diately mixed, using no more water than is sufficient to incorporate 
them. After being twice turned, it is to be wheeled on to a stage 
10 feet high, and let fall into the trench ; it is not to be puddled or 
disturbed in any way until perfectly set. — No. 3. All concrete must 
be composed of gravel perfectly clean, and mixed with fresh well- 
burnt lime in the proportion of 6 of gravel to 1 of lime. The lime and 
gravel to be mixed in a dry state, and a sufficient quantity of water 
afterwards added. — No. 4. Concrete to be composed of good lime, 
gravel, and sand, in the proportion of y to ~ of lime, and it should be 
laid in about 12 inch layers or courses, and pitched from a height of 10 
to 12 feet, neither should it be disturbed until properly concreted and 
set. 

In the above five opinions, including that of Sir Robert Smirke, we 
have the relative proportions of gravel and lime, varying from 3 to 9 . 
and No. 1 states the lime and water to be first mixed, in which No. 2 
nearly coincides, whilst No. 3 insists on the gravel and lime being first 
mixed, and then the water added ; Nos. 4 and 2 coincide that the 
concrete is not to be disturbed after it is thrown into the trench, 
whilst Sir Robert Smirke expressly states that parties are to be em- 
ployed puddling the mass. The whole are agreed in specifying that 
the material is to be thrown from a height. From considerable prac- 
tice and experience in the mixing of concrete, I think that the lime 
need not be ground, but simply mixed with the gravel, and then, by 
the addition of water, it will fall to an impalpable powder, also that 
it is unnecessary to be at the expense of puddling the mass after being 
deposited in the trenches, neither is there any advantage to be derived 
from discharging the mixture from a height, both of which operations 
increase the expense of the concrete, and as the concrete in the act 
of setting expands in bulk, I think that alone a sufficient proof of the 
inutility of both of the above mentioned operations, their tendency 
being to condense the mass, whilst its own natural tendency is to 
expand. With respect to the proportion of lime and gravel, I think 
the less lime the better will be the concrete, and that the proportion 
of 8 to 1 of lime is decidedly better than 3 of gravel to 1 of lime. As 
to the quality of materials employed, the lime must be stone lime, 
fresh from the kiln ; that from chalk will not do, and hydraulic or lias 
lime is to be preferred to stone limes. With respect to gravel, if ob- 
tained from a pit, the ochereous or ferruginous is to be preferred, and 
if loam is present, so as to soil the hand, the gravel must be washed, 
if the gravel be obtained from rivers by dredging, alluvial and vege- 
table deposits are to be avoided; and if the gravel contain vege- 
table refuse, it must be screened or washed. Shelly sharp gravel is 
the best, the proportion of small or large pebbles, and the due quan- 
tity of sand, is soon learned with a little practice. 

As to the uses of concrete, it is principally adopted as an artificial 
foundation, and from four to six feet is a sufficient depth, and ex- 
tending two feet beyond the space to be occupied with the building. 
The following testimony of the utility of concrete, is from Weale's 
Bridges, page 31. "Piling will probably never be found more safe 
than a body of concrete ; the latter cannot be too much esteemed, for its 
durable and almost imperishable nature, besides being quite as safe and, 
perhaps, more durable than piling;" and from the paper of Lieute- 
nant Denison, before alluded to, we have the following ratification of 
its uses. "Concrete cannot be advantageously employed as a build- 
ing material." " It may be employed with advantage in backing 
retaining walls." I. K. Brunei, Esq., C. E., has used concrete as a 
foundation, nearly exclusively and universally in the bridges on the 
Great Western Railway; and in the celebrated bridge of Maiden- 
head, the land arches are backed with concrete, to the depth of 10j 
feet, and the abutments of the large arches are also backed with 
concrete. In culverts underneath embankments, the same able engineer 
has extensively used concrete as a backing material, the brickwork 
being kept thin, and then enveloped in a mass of concrete, in the 
form of a polygon, of six sides, or, of the form of two truncated 
cones, with their bases joined. 

Concrete was used on the Great Western Railway, wherever it could 
be employed, as a backing material ; its use is now rapidly extending 



47 

to the provinces, and bids fair to supersede all other means now em- 
ployed for making a foundation; it is much improved by being mixed 
with oxide of iron, smith's scales, and roasted iron stone, or any ma- 
terial containing iron. As regards the comparative expense, brick- 
work being the most common building material, has been taken as the 
standard of comparison with concrete for price, and its cost in most 
districts will be found from one-third to one-sixth the price of brick- 
work, taking a cubic yard as the quantity of each material, the latter 
will cost 5s. and the former 21s, both, to a great extent, bein* regu- 
lated by the vicinity of brickyards, and the facility of obtaining 
gravel. I have known concrete executed at3s.3rf., 3s. Gd., 4s., 4s. Gd., 
5s.,7s.Gd., 8s. Gd., and lis. Gd. per cubic yaid, although the most 
common price is 7s. Gd.; as to brickwork, the general price is 21s., 
and the range is from 14s. to 27s. Gd. per cubic yard. The London' 
price being 25s. per cent, dearer than the country. The facility of 
obtaining lime regulates the cost of concrete ; the price of lime per 
cubic yard, measured dry in clots, at Dorking in Surrey, is 11*.-, 
Barrow in Leicestershire 21s.; Bulwell in Nottinghamshire 9s. Gd.- 
Breadon in Derbyshire 15s. Gd; Harefield in Buckinghamshire 16s'. 
Gd. ; Fulwell, Durham County 9s. The measures of lime, also, vary 
much ; in some places it is sold by the cubic yard, measured dry, 
which is decidedly the best method adopted ; it would be desirable if 
it was universal. It used to be sold in London by the hundred, as it 
was called, not of weight, but a measure, a yard square, and a yard 
and one inch deep, which will be equal to 16 or IS bushels, but it is 
now sold by the cubic yard. The Fulwell and Barrow lime is sold 
by the quarter, eight of which make a ton and a half. Lime is also 
sold by the boll and chaldron; a chaldron will be about 3A tons, a 
single horse cart about six bolls. In agricultural districts, the bushel, 
boll and quarter are used ; in colliery districts, the chaldron and ton are 
the standard of measure. With respect to the cost of gravel, pro- 
vided it can be obtained on ground belonging to the company, the 
getting, screening, and cartage will cost Is. 6d. to 2s. per cubic yard; 
if it be obtained from the gravel pits of the country, the charge will 
be per ton, from 2s. Gd. to 2s. 9J., if screened 3s. 3d. to 3s. I0d., if 
broken Gs. lOd. A cubic yard will weigh from 24 to 27 cwt. If the 
gravel is dredged or brought from the shores of a river, the cost will 
be 2s. Gd. per yard, or nearly the same as from the pit. The prices 
of the various operations of getting, screening, and washing gravel 
are respectively 10d. and 12d. per cubic yard. The price of excava- 
tion is also included in the price of concrete in all railway specifica- 
tions, which will be about 4d. per cubic yard, as generally the exca- 
vation is of limited extent, and consequently more expensive than an. 
extensive excavation, and when the gravel is obtained on the ground 
of the Company or proprietor, the excavation is a double operation, 
the hole having to be refilled with other materials in lieu of the gravel 
obtained. From the experience of several thousands of yards and 
variety of situations, I find the cost of mixing the materials, or as it is 
termed concreting, to be Is. per cubic yard, and taking the proportion 
of material at 5 to 1, the following will be a fair estimate of the cost 
of concrete : — 

s. d. 
1 cubic yard of lime - - 12 6 

5 do of Gravel at 2s. Gd. • 12 6 
Labour mixing at Is. per yard - GO 

G yards of excavation at id. - 2 

Waste, contingencies and profit, at Is. 6 



6 cubic yards, at Gs. Gd. - =: 39 
Concrete will set in 24 hours; the specific gravity is 125, or about 
the same as brickwork, although brickwork is sometimes 1G5 lb. per 
cubic foot. Lieutenant Denison gives the strength of concrete S = 
IW 
Abd- 
paving, tlie proportion is as 1 to 13. 

The following works may be consulted ; Colonel Pasley, on Calca- 
reous Cement: Weale, 1839; — Aikin on ditto, in Transactions of So- 



The constant S being 9-5, and comparing concrete to York 



18 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



cisty of Society of Arts; — Lieutenant Denison's Notes on Concrete, 
from papers of Corps of Royal Engineers, Journal, Vol. !, p. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Reid, ditto, see alsu the Journal, Vol. 1, page 131; 
a letter on concrete, by a Constant Reader, Vol. 3, page 2l>5, Vol. 5, 
pages 5S, 276. 

I am, &c, 
St. Ann's, Neircastle-tijJOii-Ty ne. O. T. 



WIRE ROPE LIGHTNING CONDUCTORS. 

Sir — Having seeu, in some of the recent numbers of the Mechanics,' 
J\tagasine, a long discussion as to the priority of claim, respecting 
the wire rope as a substitute for metal rods, in conductors, I beg to 
call your attention to a paragraph, which appeared in a work, pub- 
lished by Sir John Hersehel, more than 10 years ago. He says thus ; 
that wire rope has long been used at Munich in preference to metallic 
rods, for lightning conductors. I think this proves that the subject 
has been long tried and practised, before Mr. M. J. Roberts brought 
forward the subject. 

Your insertion of this will oblige 

A Subscriber. 



WROUGHT IRON AXLES. 

Sir — It is worthy of remark how slowly well proved facts, individually 
acknowledged and acted upon, become generally admitted ; it is to be 
regretted that we are not more communicative of those events which 
strike us in our daily practice, and which, if announced as soon as 
discovered, would so materially and rapidly tend to general im- 
provement. There is, perhaps, no instance in which this can be more 
clearly exemplified than in the use of wrought iron; it is scarcely 
possible to refer to the subject without an example being readily laid 
before you. Every manufacturer has had more or less his attention 
drawn to the fact, that in its various applications wrought iron is sub- 
ject to become brittle. Iron spindles, piston rods, fire bars, crow bars, 
chisels, and many other things, are known to lose their fibrous quality 
after being in use for a length of time, varying according to the nature 
of the service they have had to perforin. By some it has been con- 
sidered that the iron originally employed was of bad quality, and the 
circumstance when discovered has not been otherwise attended to 
than by replacing the broken piece ; but in many instances the phe- 
nomena lias been clearly established, closely examined, and well 
attended to, and that for years together, without, however, having 
become a generally acknowledged fact, sufficiently positive to justify 
the opinion that wrought iron, applied for certain purposes ought only 
to be allowed to perforin a previously determined quantity of work, 
after which it becomes requisite to re-forge the piece. 

In most cases the fracture may be unattended with danger to human 
life, but in others, as in connexion with railways, where hundreds of 
lives may depend on the strength of an axle, it daily becomes more 
evident that extraordinary precautions must be resorted to for the 
purpose of avoiding accidents, and 1 would, with regard to railway 
axles, suggest (as a precautionary measure) the propriety of limiting 
the distance they should be allowed to run previous to their being 
thrown out as unfit for service, and that whether apparently in good 
condition or not. Such is the perfection with which these axles can 
now be manufactured, that when a suitable quantity of iron is used, it 
may be confidently asserted that every axle turned ont of the shop 
after due examination may be considered to be sound, and that by 
limiting the work it is allowed to perform, the fracture of an axle 
would become a very improbable event. 

Having been lately in Paris, I mentioned the circumstance to M. 
Arnoux, the directing manager of the extensive works belonging to 
the Messageries Laffite & Caillard, persuaded that from a person 
whose attention has been for so many years engaged on this subject, 
I should obtain some positive information ; he showed me a number 
of axles which he had caused to be broken, after they had performed 




their allotted quantity of work ; they all broke short and brittle, the 
fracture invariably indicating the progress of the disease. The frac- 
mmences at the lower angle of the axle on the side of the 
traction, which is evidently in fixed axles the point of greatest fatigue, 
and in those axles which have given way under the weight of the 
load, the fissure has in some instances nearly traversed the axle before 
it broke entirely, and it is then very easy to trace the accident from 
its engine. I will endeavour to describe its usual appearance by the 
following diagram; the arrow shows the direction in which the car- 
riage moves. 

The fracture invariably originates at the angle 
a, and appears to progress at intervals by zones 
as shown by the lines in the diagrams, the first, at 
the point a becoming perfectly black, the colour 
of each being lighter as they gradually extend 
from this point, and as the contact of the two 
sides of the fracture becomes more intimate, the 
( t' grain of the iron towards the angle a is coarse, 

and has a large crystalline texture, which diminishes in size as the 
fracture approaches the angle b, at which point the metal remains 
slightly fibrous, having evidently undergone a more rapid deterioration 
at its point of greatest strain. 

M. Arnoux informed me, that in consequence of this effect, to which 
he has for a long time paid great attention, he has come to the con- 
clusion that an axle can only safely run a distance of 30,000 leagues, 
or about 75,000 English miles ; when an axle has run that distance, he 
invariably takes it out, places it between two new bars of iron, and 
welds them together so as to form a new axle. If the carriage usually 
runs over a paved road, such as is frequently met with in France, the 
axle is not allowed to run so great a distance, and a certain degree of 
wear in the collar then determines the period at which the axle is 
thrown out, not in consequence of the wear of the collar, but because 
that degree of wear has proved, by experience, that it is prudent to 
renew the axles in order to avoid a fracture. 

Here, then, we have the proof of an important principle in the 
application of wrought iron, being well established and long known to 
one, and probably to many individually, without having come to the 
knowledge of railway engineers, who are thus compelled to arrive at 
this important truth by dint of actual experience, obtained through 
the medium of a series of lamentable accdents, and they could not 
acquire their information in any other way, unless made acquainted 
with the circumstance by those who have previously purchased their 
knowledge. 

The question, then, admitting the above statement to be correct, 
will be, how great a distance it may be pruden; to allow railway axles 
of different descriptions to run; and to solve this question, it will be 
advisable, in the first instance, to adopt a term which may certainly 
be within the limit of perfect safety, until the greatest distance that 
can be safely adopted may have been determined by a series of well 
conducted experiments. 

Iron exposed to great heat undergoes the same kind of deterio- 
ration. I examined, in the same establishment, several bars taken 
from a furnace in which they heat their wheel hoops ; the part of the 
bar directly exposed to the fire offered the same crystalline appear- 
ance as the broken axles, which gradually diminished towards the 
end that was out of the fire, and the end of the bar which was out of 
the fire altogether, had the appearance of good tough iron. The por- 
tion which had suffered most from its direct contact with the heat, 
having been doubled over and welded entirely, recovered its fibrous 
quality, and stood a cold bend as well as any iron that had not been 
in the fire. 

Should you find this communication worthy a place in the Journal, 
you will oblige, by its insertion, 

10th January, 1843. 



Your obedient servant, 

H. H. Edwards. 



1S43.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



49 



SELF-REGULATING EXPANSION SLIDE VALVE. 
Fig. 1. 








7'"F\ 





Improvement in the steam engine is so much sought after, so many are 
engaged in the pursuit, and economy in the consumption of fuel is a question 
of so much importance, that no apology need be offered on presenting a plan 
to attain that object, and which has been found here or elsewhere to be an 
absolute improvement. 

The simple apparatus which I am about to describe, (for which I obtained 
two patents abroad,) has been applied very successfully, and is now getting 
into extensive use. I believe it to be unknown in this country, except to a 
few persons to whom I have explained it ; and as it will on most occasions 
be found to be useful, I propose to make it known through the medium of 
your truly valuable columns, which being open to communications of the 
kind, and much read, I should be happy to introduce this to your readers 
through so respectable a channel. 

The advantage of using steam expansively does not require demonstration, 
it is too universally acknowledged to admit of any doubt ; I must, however, 
enter a little into the subject, to point out the benefit to be derived from 
the application of my slide valve, but will endeavour to be as concise as 
possible. 

An engine working without expansion, receives the steam on its piston 
during the whole length of stroke, its speed being regulated by contracting 
more or less the passage through the throttle valve, thereby to a certain ex- 
tent wire-drawing the steam. The speed of the engine is effectually regu- 
lated by this means, but a considerable quantity of steam is thereby thrown 
away, as I will endeavour to show. 

It frequently happens that an engine is lightly loaded, and as the loss to 
which I allude is comparatively greater with a light load than with a full 
one, on account of the wire-drawing becoming more complete, I will take 
for example an engine working with such a load as will require the orifice 
through the throttle valve to be sensibly contracted, in order to keep down 
the speed of the piston. 

When the engine passes over her centre, the motion of the piston is very 



slow, and the orifice of the throttle valve will allow the steam to rush into 
the cylinder in sufficient quantity to exert its full pressure ; but as the speed 
of the piston increases, the quantity of steam admitted becomes insufficient 
to fill the space at full pressure behind the piston. 

The piston continues increasing in speed until it reaches the middle of the 
cylinder, where it is the greatest, from that point to the end of the stroke 
the speed decreases until the motion is reversed j there is necessarily a point 
of the stroke at which the speed is so slow, that the quantity of steam ad- 
mitted through the throttle valve will be proportionate to the speed of the 
piston, and from that point until the end of the stroke, as the speed of the 
piston decreases, the steam will accumulate in the cylinder, and the pressure 
will increase; but at that moment the position of the leverage of the crank 
is such, that the increasing pressure of the steam produces comparatively 
little effect on the speed of the engine, and at the moment at which the 
pressure reaches its maximum, the slide valve is reversed, and the contents 
of the cylinder are thrown into the condenser. 

The quantity of steam thrown into the cylinder at the beginning of the 
stroke is not lost, because it continues to act expansively on the piston, and 
becomes a portion of that volume of steam which determines the speed of 
the engine and the relative steam passage through the throttle valve ; hut as 
I said above, the volume of steam thrown in towards the end of the stroke, 
only serves to fill the cylinder uselessly at the moment when its contents are 
about to be thrown iuto the condenser. 

If the engine happens to have a light fly-wheel, the evil is considerably 
increased, because the speed of the engine will sensibly decrease towards 
the end of the stroke, the orifice of the throttle valve will be enlarged by 
the action of the governor, and an increased volume of steam will he ad- 
mitted into the cylinder just in time to he thrown away. 

By working the steam expansively, the above-mentioned loss is avoided ; 
and if the resistance to be overcome was constant — as for instance, to raise a 
given quantity of water to a given height in a given time — then the fixed ex- 
pansion would answer every purpose ; and this is, perhaps, the only instance 
in which that can he said to be the case. 

Generally speaking, the load is variable, and when that is the case, the 
point of the stroke at which the steam is cut off should also be variable, so 
that the steam employed should exert its full pressure while it is being ad- 
mitted to the piston, in order to produce the full effect of expansion from 
the moment it is cut otf until the end of the stroke. 

For this to be carried out efficiently, the engine itself must determine the 
point of the stroke at which the steam should be cut off, and the governor is 
sufficient for the purpose. I think I may infer, that the valve hereafter de- 
scribed, will be found useful for all engines which require a governor to 
regulate their motion. 

The present system of advancing the eccentric, and constructing the 
working valve, so that the steam is cut otf at about three fourths of the 
stroke, is an immense improvement, but stops short of what is wanted, par- 
ticularly for those engines which work with high steam. 

The elasticity of steam being subject to the same law that governs the 
elasticity of atmospheric air, as determined by Mariotte, the elasticity being 
proportionate to its density, then a volume equal to 200 under a pressure = 
2, will be reduced to 100 under a pressure = 4, and will expand so as to 
represent 400, the pressure being reduced to = 1. 

This being the case, let us suppose the length of the stroke of the cy- 
linder of a steam engine divided into 20 equal parts, and that steam of four 
atmospheres is acting upon the piston during the whole of the stroke ; the 
consumption of steam will be represented by 20 x 4 = 80, and the sum of 
the forces will also be 20 x 4 = 80 ; in this case the consumption of steam 
will be as 1, and the power exerted will also be 1. 

Take the same cylinder, and admit steam of the same pressure during 
xi = J of the length of stroke, the quantity of steam expended will be 
15 x 4 = 60, and the sum of the forces will be 15 x 4 = 60 for the first 
15 spaces, and 16-77 for the remaining o. 
The consumption of steam will be 60 = 1. 
The power exerted will be 60 + 16-77 = 76'77 = 1-27. 
(See diagram No. 1.) 

Again, in the same cylinder, admit the steam only during J£ = J the 
length of stroke, the quantity of steam used will be 10 x 4 = 40, and the 
sum of the forces will be 10 x 4 = 40 for the first 10 spaces, and for the 
remaining 10 spaces it will be 26-75. 
The consumption of steam in this case will be 10 = 1. 
The power exerted will be 40 + 26-75 = 6675 = 166. 
(See diagram No. 2.) 



50 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



No. 2. 



4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

3-75 

3-52 

3-34 

3-1/ 

3- 

6-78 















1 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


2 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


V 4 / 


6 


4 


G \ 3333 / 


7 


4 


7 \ 2-857 / 


8 


4 


8 \ 2-5 / 


9 


4 


9 \ 2-222 / 


10 


4 


, 10 \ 2- / 


11 


\ 3-636 / 


11 \ 1-818 / 


12 


\ 3-333 / 


12 \ 1-666 / 


13 


\ 3076 / 


13 \ 1-538 / 


14 


\ 2-857 / 


" 1 1-428 J 


15 


\ 2-666 / 


15 1 1-333 




10 


\ 2 ' 5 / 


16 


1-25 




17 


\ 2-352 1 


17 


1-176 




18 


\ 2-222 


18 


1-111 




19 


I 2-105 


19 


1-052 




20 


1 2- 


20 




1' 





46-23 



Carry this again further out, by admitting the steam only dining ^ 
= i of the stroke, and we shall find for the expenditure of steam 5x4 = 
20, and the sum of the forces for the first five spaces will be 5 x 4 = 20, 
and for the remaining 15 it will be 26-2S. 

The consumption of steam in this case will be 20 = 1. 

The power exerted will be 20 + 26-28 = 46-28 = 2-31. 

(See diagram No. 3.) 

To obtain the greatest possible advantage from steam it is requisite : 
1st. To employ it expansively. 

2nd. To admit it into the cylinder at its full pressure without being wire- 
drawn. 
3rd. That the portion of the stroke during which it is admitted freely, 
should be determined by the engine governor. 

The construction of this self-acting slide expansion valve, will be under- 
stood by inspection of Figs. 1,2: 

A, being the face of the cylinder. 

H, the slide valve, acting exactly the same as the ordinary slide valve. 

Ii a moveable metallic plate, worked by friction against the back of the 
slide valve H, as far each way as will be permitted by the cam or tappet a, 
the position of which will be determined by the governor. 

When the points of the tappets are approached so as to hold the plate I, 
the sUde valve H, alone will move, and the steam will act only during a very 
small portion of the stroke of the piston. 

When the points of the tappets separate, the plate I, will be carried along 
with the valve, until brought in contact with the tappets, and the greater the 
distance between the points of the tappets, the longer the steam will be ad- 
mitted into the cylinder. 

When the tappets are sufficiently thrown back to prevent the plate I, from 
reaching them during the whole length of the stroke of the valve, the fixed 
bracket K, will then place the plate I in the middle of the slide valve, and 
the steam will be admitted during the whole length of stroke of the piston, 
with the exception of what portion may be cut off by the advance of the 
eccentric. 

The two spindles which carry the tappets a, pass through stuffing boxes 
reserved on one side of the valve box, and are turned by two sectors fixed 



on their extreme ends, and working into each other ; the tappets therefore 
move simultaneously in contrary directions, a lever fixed to the top sector 
being worked by the governor, so as to separate the points of the tappets a, 
as the speed of the engine diminishes, and to approach them nearer toge- 
ther as the speed increases, and in this way steam will be admitted in such 
volumes into the cylinder, as will effectually regulate the speed of the engine 
without ever contracting the orifice of the throttle valve. 

This summary explanation is quite sufficient to show the principle upon 
which this valve is constructed, and by what means the purpose is effected ; 
what follows, is a somewhat more detailed account of the same, useful only 
as entering a little more minutely upon the subject, and giving some in- 
structions to be attended to in its construction. 

To facilitate the setting of the metallic plate I, attention must be paid to 
the position of the tappets a, because upon their position depends the 
proper effect of the valve. The upper sector G, is keyed on the end of the 
spindle, and the lever F, is fixed to the sector by two screws b, running 
through oval holes in the sector, which permit the spindle to be turned a 
little either way, so as to move the points of the upper tappets a little nearer 
to, or a little further from the plate I. 

On the lower spindle the same facility is obtained, by keying a plate on 
the spindle, instead of fixing the sector itself, and then by fixing the sector 
to the plate by two screws, giving play in the holes as above, the bottom 
tappets can also be varied as may be required. 

To cause the plate 1 to adhere to and follow the vale H, in its motion, a 
l spring K, is fixed on the back of the plate I, and the two ends of the spriug 
slide in a groove, formed by two side pieces fixed to the slide valve ; this 
spring is so disposed as to press the plate against the back of the valve. 

I have occasionally applied this valve to engines that required to have 
more steam thrown on to one side of the piston than on the other, and have 
thereby been able to do away with a considerable counterweight — for in- 
stance, in direct engines, where there is considerably more weight in the 
down than in the up stroke, I have found it very useful ; and in another 
case, in which a cold water pump was attached to one end of the beam, and 
lifted water from a very deep well. 

The motion of the valve being determined by an eccentric, is exactly the 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



51 



same as that of the piston determined by the crank, but with this condition, 
that the valve is at its greatest speed while the piston is at its lowest. 

If the circle described by the crank pin is divided into equal parts round 
its circumference, the motion of the piston, commencing from the end of the 
cylinder, will increase as the versed sine of the arc described, until it reaches 
the middle of the cylinder, while that of the valve will be as the sine of the 
arc; and as the difference of the versed sines is constantly increasing, while 
the difference of the siues decreases, the result will be, that the motion of 
the plate I, on the back of the valve, must be less the longer the steam has 
to act upon the piston. The spindles of the tappets must therefore be 
worked by a motion of the same description as that of the eccentric, and 
this is obtained by means of the bell crank, A, B, the long arm A being 
worked by the governor, aud made to describe an angle of 90 c , the arm 13, 
being horizontal when the governor balls are open, and vertical when they 
are closed ; a graduated quadrant C, being fixed against the valve box, a 
hand fixed to the extremity of the arm B, of the lever A, B, will show 
during what portion of the stroke of the piston the steam is admitted into 
the cylinder. 

The pin being pulled out from the lower joint of the lever E, the lever F, 
will be thrown up by the action of the plate I, against the tappets ; the plate 
being no longer stopped by the tappets will be directed into the middle of 
the slide valve by the fixed bracket K, and the steam will be admitted to the 
piston until cut off in the usual manner by the slide valve. 

When it is requisite to stop the engine, this pin must be withdrawn, be- 
cause it is requisite that the plate I, should be always in the middle of the 
back of the slide valve to be ready for starting ; the small quantity of steam 
that would otherwise be admitted would not suffice to start the engine. 

This valve, which I have applied to a great many engines, and which has 
also been applied by others, answers perfectly well ; it is, therefore, not 
merely a speculative idea that I am laying before your readers. 

I applied one pair of them to a locomotive engine, but the result was not 
so favourable as I anticipated ; not that this valve is not applicable to this 
kind of engine, but because I applied it in an improper manner, and without 
having beforehand taken into due consideration the several points in which 
the locomotive differs from other engines. I considerably increased the 
power of the engine, but did not save fuel, which is one of the principal 
objects I had in view. I made the cylinder too large ; and did not suffici- 
ently provide for the very great speed with which the piston of a locomotive 
travels, so that I produced in the slide valve the wire-drawing of the steam, 
which I avoided in the regulating valve ; it must also be observed, that a 
sufficient blast must be determined in the funnel, to secure the generatiou of 
a sufficient quantity of steam ; this was provided for, but in an improper 
manner, being only obtained by contracting the orifice of the blast, which 
would only enable me to obtain a proper effect under a given load and upon 
a constant gradient ; and as on a railroad these two conditions are con- 
stantly varying, it is evident that the area of the orifice of the blast should 
vary also, not only when the steam is worked expansively, but on all occa- 
sions. I therefore took out a patent for an apparatus, by the use of which, 
the blast could be regulated with the greatest nicety, and obtained permission 
to make a series of experiments with the apparatus, on one of the most 
powerful locomotives, unfortunately not the one to which the expansion 
valve was applied, and the result was, what might have been anticipated ; 
the variable blast did not require any assistance, and acted perfectly well in 
every respect ; whereas the expansion valve, which requires absolutely the 
variable blast, did not produce its full effect without it. 

From the very liberal conduct of the company, I am persuaded, that if I 
had remained longer in France, they would have authorized me to complete 
these experiments; but family affairs having called me back to England, they 
remain in an imperfect state, as far as regards locomotives. I, however, 
went far enough with the experiments to feel convinced, that by the appli- 
cation of the expansion valve in conjunction with the variable blast, a con- 
siderable improvement would be effected in the locomotive engine. 

London, I9tt October, 1842. H. H. Edwards. 



Improvement in the Manufacture of Gas. — A workman employed 
at Esk Mill, Edinburgh, named J. Lothian, is said to have perfected a most 
important improvement, whereby a saving of one-half of metal, fuel, and 
fire, is effected by a new construction of the flues, and situating of the retort. 
His principle of building flues is also said to be well worthy the attention of 
those having small establishments, where gas is required. A few days since, 
he made, in -U hours, by one small retort, 8IG cubic feet of gas, the same 
being prepared from various substances. 



THE YORKSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sir — However well-intentioned the regulation may be, that all who are 
admitted into this society " must be members of the Established High 
Anglo-Catholic Church," it appears to me to be one of a very questionable 
kind, whether as regards propriety or expediency. What is exactly meant 
by the Anglo-Catholic Church. I for one, know not, the term being to me al- 
together a novel one; but let it meau what it may, it seems that Anglo- 
Catholicism does not interfere with the "peculiar sentiments " of those 
who profess it ! This, however, is touching upon different ground ; what I 
have to object to, is the mixing up religion at all with sccidar matters, for 
the doing so is apt to lead to the former being made use of as a mere 
stalking-horse, and rendered subservient to worldly interests. 

Had the restricting sine qua non been that all members must be tho- 
roughly acquainted with Ecclesiastical architecture, that would have been a 
very intelligible and proper regulation, and would have answered every pur- 
pose, if it really is supposed that no one who is not likewise a member of 
the Anglo-Catholic Church, can have suitable feeling for, or do justice to 
that particular style of the art. Or if such be not the case, why should 
the society exclude architectural talent and ability merely because they may 
not happen to wear the badge of what it holds to be religious orthodoxy ? 

If such affected strictness be not cant, I know not what is. As far as 
religion is concerned, it would perhaps be more honest and more consistent 
on the part of the Protestant church, sternly to reject at once and alto- 
gether, whatever, in any degree, partakes of, or reminds us of Roman- 
Catholicism, its idolatrous worship, its vain and puerile superstitions. In- 
stead of deploring the barbarous spoliations and ravages committed by 
iconoclasts and puritans, we ought to abstain from attempting in any degree 
to revive or encourage a taste for a style of architecture, to which we can 
never do complete justice, but at the very best must always remain immea- 
surably behind the original models, if merely because we neither have oc- 
casion for, nor can possibly admit into our churches, that*amplitude of space, 
and that prodigal display of architecture and art, which, if it does not im- 
periously demand it, Romanism regards as manifestation of piety. For our 
churches, we require no long array of ailes and chapels ; neither splendid 
sacristies, nor gorgeous altars: we have neither processions, nor saint- 
worship ; in fact, do not even know anything of, or in any way recognise, 
many of the saints to whom our churches are nominally dedicated, or rather 
merely called after for form's sake, and in order to distinguish one building 
of the kind from another in ordinary discourse. What are St. Giles, St. 
Pancras, St. Olave, St. Chad, &c, to us Protestants, except so many names, 
which might as well be those of Egyptian kings ? 

Therefore, if such matters are of no moment— no scandal to our Protes- 
tantism, why should we now become all at once so excessively scrupulous in 
regard to what are equally matters of indifference ? If it can be shown 
that it is indispensably necessary a man should belong to the Anglo-Catholic 
Church, in order to acquit himself worthily in building churches, let it be 
done. 

Rickman, who understood Gothic architecture and our ecclesiastical build- 
ings, as well or better than most in the profession— although Gwilt has not 
thought either him or his work worth any mention— was brought up in the 
tenets of quakerism, which, though it did not prevent his being employed 
professionally at some of the colleges at Cambridge, would now have ex- 
cluded him from the Yorkshire Architectural Society. 

It mav he said that all this has scarcely anything in common with the 
objects of your Journal, and it certainly ought not ; but if people will mix 
up religion'and party spirit, such matters must unavoidably be agitated, and 
find their way into publications like your own. If qualification of any kind 
be required from those who seek to become members of the Yorkshire Ar- 
chitectural Society, it would surely be sufficient precaution against the admis- 
sion of the unworthy, were it made a law that every one— at least every 
one actually belonging to the profession— should send in as a testimonial of 
his ability, some original study or design in ecclesiastical architecture; and 
if his taste should be found orthodox, lie might be allowed to pass muster 
without inquiry as to the orthodoxy of his religious tenets. 
I reman 

Q. E. V. 



7 



52 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



CANADIAN BOARD OF WORKS. 

Sir — As you have uniformly taken high and strong ground when discus- 
sing the policy of constructing public works by Government, viewing the 
system as injurious to the community as it is degrading, and indeed, ruinous 
to the profession, the following remarks on some of the works now in pro- 
gress or to he soon undertaken by the provincial government of Canada, 
may not be without interest to your readers. I believe this the more readily, 
as you some time since (Vol. Ill, p. 122 et seq.) copied an article from the 
American Railroad Journal, showing the, in every way, injudicious and de- 
moralizing effects of the system here, which paper I should have had much 
pleasure in condensing for, and otherwise adopting to the English reader, 
had I supposed the communication useful to you otherwise than as a refer- 
ence. What I now offer on the public works of Canada, will only too 
clearly show, that it is not easy to speak too strongly of the wretched system 
of carrying on these undertakings by agents ot government, and with the 
public money, without any other responsibility than that to party. 

My remarks will be confined almost exclusively to the " Improvement of 
the St. Lawrence," by canals round the rapids above Montreal. These 
canals are three in number. 

1. The Lachine canal, round the Lachine rapids, connecting Montreal 
with Lake St. Louis, a distance of nine miles. This canal has been in 
operation nine or ten years, and the locks are 100 feet long in the chamber, 
30 feet wide, and 5 feet deep. 

2. The Beauhamois canal, on the other or south-east side of the St. Law- 
rence, connecting Lake St. Louis with Lake St. Francis, round the Cascades, 
Cedars, and Cotean rapids. This canal was commenced in July last, will be 
from 12 to 15 miles long, is- to have locks 200 feet long in the chamber, 45 
feet wide, and 9 feet deep on the sill — total lockage 82 feet, prism of canal 
120 feet at water line, 80 feet at bottom, and 10 feet deep. Estimated cost 
£255,900 currency = £214,000 sterling. 

3. The Cornwall canal connecting Lake St. Francis with the river above 
the Longue Soult rapids. This canal is nearly or quite finished, is 11$ miles 
long, with locks 200 feet long, 55 feet wide, and 9 feet water on the sill. 
Prism of canal 140 feet at water line, 100 feet wide at bottom, and 10 feet 
deep. Lockage about 48 feet, cost above £400,000 currency, without any pro- 
tection to the inner slopes ; a precaution found indispensable on the enlarged 
portions of the Erie canal, (which are only 70 feet at water line, 42 feet at 
bottom, and 7 feet deep. Locks 110 feet long, and 18 feet wide.) The 
excavation of the Cornwall canal was very heavy. 

Besides these, there will be several short canals round some of the worst 
points in the river, whicfij for the next 35 miles, has a current of from three 
to eight miles per hour. The aggregate length will be about 40 miles, and 
the total lockage about ISO feet. 

You will observe that the Beauhamois canal has been commenced on the 
south side of the St. Lawrence, in justification of which the chairman of the 
board of works wrote the letter, a copy of which, in a Montreal paper, I 
forward to you. The gentleman, in consequence of whose remonstrance 
this was written, engaged me to examine the question, and, finding no data, 
or indeed, any engineering information whatever in that paper, I was under 
the necessity of making such surveys as wonld enable me to give an opinion, 
which was to the following effect, that, the incidental works being trifling, 
and the lockage of course the same on both sides, the difference in cost, 
£105,000, must he sought for in the earth-work. But, the total cost of 
this on the north side, was, by my estimate, only £110,000, or, by the prices 
of the board of works, about £95,000, so tha't the difference of £100,000 
became quite impracticable, as is indeed at once obvious to any eye at all 
accustomed to judge of ground. After my reports were laid before the 
select committee at Kingston, the board sent in their " estimates," unaccom- 
panied by any report, in which they make out their case ; by, 

1. Comparing the worst known line on the north side; that is, the last 
line run by the board, and designated as No. 10 in the letter I send you, 
with the best line on the south side, thus making a difference of £40,000 
against the north side. 

2. By comparing a canal 15 miles long on the north side, reaching from 
still water to still water, with a canal 12 miles long on the south side, having 
its western terminus at the foot of a strong current, with extensive rocky 
shoals between the mouth of the canal and Lake St. Francis, difficulties, 
which I showed in my evidence, it would cost at least £40,000 to overcome. 

My reports will be found in the evidence, a copy of which will be sent to 
you, and they will enable you at once to sift the facts from the vast quantity 
of irrelevant matter, with which the board have endeavoured to mystify the 
very simple points on which the investigation turns. 

1 will now request your attention to a dispatch of the Colonial Secretary 
to the Governor-General, dated 2nd of April, 1S42, in which Lord Stanley- 
writes : " It can hardly he doubted that works so extensive, and calculated 
to produce such important results, ought to be superintended by the best 
professional assistance which it is possible to obtain. Her Majesty's govern- 
ment entertain no doubt of the anxious desire of the Canadian Board of 
Works to discharge with fidelity the arduous duties which will devolve upon 
them ; but I can as little doubt the anxiety which they must feel to have 
associated with them in such a trust, the bes"t professional assistance which 
it is in the power of the mother country to furnish. 

" It is therefore, my intention, in anticipation of the acquiescence, which 



I cannot for a moment doubt, of the colonial legislature, in the general ar- 
rangements suggested by Her Majesty's government, to send over an officer 
of engineers, whom, as Her Majesty's commissioner, I trust the legislature 
will have no difficulty in associating with the board of works, in the superin- 
tendence of the works to be undertaken ; and whose experience may pro- 
bably enable the undertakings to be conducted with the efficiency and 
economy which must be alike the interest of the colony and of this 
country." 

Sir Charles Bagot replies, 2Stb of April, 1842 : " Of course, as her Ma- 
jesty's government provide the funds with which the public works are to be 
conducted, it is but reasonable that they should have a share in the 
management of it, if so desired." 

His excellency then goes on to object strongly to a " military engineer," 
and suggests a " civil engineer," an expense it is well known the home 
government w ill not incur ; in the mean time the work is commenced before 
even the centre line or the levels have been established. 

Lord Stanley writes on the 2nd of July, 1842 : " In your dispatch of the 
28th April, you admit the necessity of appointing an engineer officer, as 
commissioner on the part of Her Majesty's government, to superintend the 
execution of the works which may be undertaken, and point out the reasons 
which induce you to prefer a civil to a military engineer. 

" On this subject, I have only to observe, that if provision be made by 
the legislature for the payment of such an officer, (which, I agree with you, 
will be very desirable,) Her Majesty's government would have no preference 
for a military over a civil engineer, nor any wish on the subject, but to pro- 
cure the services of the most competent person who could be engaged for 
this purpose." 

Now, I have no hesitation in asserting, that, had this officer been sent out 
the canal could not possibly have been placed on the south side of the St. 
Lawrence. For, the examinations which he would have found it his duty to 
make, before giving his acquiescence, would have shown him that the south 
side had no advantages in an engineering point of view ; and no English 
engineer, civil or military, could well tolerate the position of the Governor- 
General, that "ceteris paribus" he should "probably" (!) give the pre- 
ference to the north side. The stern reply of Lord Stanley to this flippant 
remark, in which he expresses " bis regret " at the " sacrifice of the military 
advantages " of the line on the north side of the St. Lawernce, cannot fail 
to strike you as proper and manly, as well as decidedly called for. 

But the great object of the work is commercial ; and, in this point of 
view, the examinations of the engineer of Her Majesty's government, would 
have shown him, that the line on the south-east or lee side of the St. Law- 
rence, must on that very account, and with any expenditure, be somewhat 
inferior to the line on the north-west side ; in other words, that the " mili- 
tary advantages," so highly prized by Lord Stanley, were to be " sacrificed " 
not to aid, but rather to injure the commercial interests of the country. So 
general is the belief in the want of common honesty evinced in this trans- 
action, that the large sum (£30,000 or £40,000) already expended on the 
south side, constitutes now the only argument in favour of continuing it on 
that side of the river. I am, however, of opinion, that this will avail little, 
if Lord Stanley send out an engineer — civil or military, I care not which — 
who. with even a little practice, is not deficient in self-respect and integrity. 
Such a man will soon discover, that a canal adapted to the trade of the 
country, will be worth more, both as regards facility of working, and — what 
is most important — low tolls; which latter must obviously be in proportion 
to the cost, than a canal of the present preposterously colossal dimensions. 
Hence, even £100,000 may be spent on the south side; and the commercial 
as well as national interests may be advanced by the construction of a canal 
on the north side, in such a manner and of such dimensions as prudence, 
experience, and common sense shall point out. 

Lord Stanley will hardly brook being told, that, the canal having been 
commenced, it is useless to look back — that it is better now to submit to the 
imposition, infamous though it be, than sacrifice the work already done — 
that the honour of the government will be sufficiently appeased by dismissing 
the board of works with disgrace, and similar arguments of those whose 
only escape from a wretched bargain — if so mild a term may be applied — 
lies in the momentary and imaginary value which the construction of a 
"ship canal" to the "great lakes" along the Seigneury of Beauhamois 
may give to that property in the London market. But should Her Majesty's 
government sift this matter thoroughly, not only may the canal on the south 
side be stopped, but Sir Robert Peel — the unwavering friend of private enter- 
prise, the grand secret of British supremacy — whose policy would never have 
originally given the imperial security for £1,500,000 sterling, " cette pilule 
dore'e," as it was contemptuously termed by a leading French member of 
parliament — may feel himself called on to cancel the endorsement, when he 
discovers that the munificence of the home government serves only to the 
direct injury of the commercial interests of the colony ; to the neglect of the 
military interests of the present state ; of the agricultural interests of the 
colony ; and, worst of all, to the demoralization of the colonial government 
and people. For, not only does the present course resemble that of the 
worst of the subsequently repudiating states, but there is superadded a 
degree of cool and mendacious effrontery almost incredible, on which, in- 
deed, the main chauce of success now rests. Thus, after reading Mr. Killaly's 
letter, you would be surprised to learn, that, the "French engineer" is 
supposed to have been a Canadian surveyor, his very name being even un- 
known. Survey No. 2, by Mr. Mills, led that gentleman to give the pre- 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



53 



ference to the north side, (Nos. 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10, have obviously no bearing 
on the question.) No. 5 was by a country surveyor, and he merely points 
out some disadvantages in one route on the north side. No. 6, Mr. Baird 
never examined the north side ; and, though in Kingston at tiie time, was 
not called in by the board ; the superior " economy, and facility of navi- 
gation," consist in a violent current and lee shore ; that a vessel which can 
navigate the canal, can neither get in nor out at the western terminus ; that 
the three channels are pure fabrications, and that this is not the first ex- 
tensive public work " undertaken through a district entirely settled and in- 
habited by Canadians of French origin." The Champlain and Lawrence 
railway runs through such a country, and was built almost exclusively by 
these Canadians ; the Chambly canal also traverses such a country. On the 
latter work I served as assistant engineer in 1834 ; and the former was built 
under my directions, by the day. and opened in July, 183G. The evidence 
shows all this and much more; but I will proceed with some observations 
on the commercial prospects of the St. Lawrence canal. 

The grand object of the undertaking is to attract to the St. Lawrence a 
large portion of the western trade, on the assumption, that the larger the 
canal, the lower the rates of freight; and, secondly, that the cost of trans- 
portation from the great lakes to Montreal, is the only drawback to an un- 
limited trade with the west — positions altogether untenable. 

Barges now descend the St. Lawrence from Lake Ontario to Montreal, 
with from 100 to 150 tons freight, according to the depth of water in the 
" Cedar Rapids," where the barges frequently touch on the boulders, with 
which the rocky bed of the river is covered. There is only 41 feet water 
here in the autumn, but, by clearing out the channel, it is believed that 
boats drawing 5 feet water may descend at all times. Such boats would 
carry "150 tons, or, if made of iron, 200 tons of freight, and with a propor- 
tionate reduction in the cost. A bill appropriating £10,000 currency to the 
improvement of the Cedar Rapids was introduced at the late short session, 
and the prerogative alone prevented its passing, as it met with universal 
favour. I send you a sketch of the contemplated plan, with a description in 
the Montreal Gazette, by Mr. Henry Roebuck, the projector of this, the 
first attempt to improve the downward navigation of the St. Lawrence. 
The average regular charge is Is. 9(7. currency per bbl. of flour from 
Kingston to Montreal, a distance of more than 200 miles by the river = 
•19o<7. currency per bbl. per mile = 18s. 3J(7. currency = 15s. 2(7. sterling 
per ton of 22401b. (Flour was carried during the late summer for Is. 
sterling per bbl. ; and merchandize was carried up for 25s. currency = 
20s. 8(7. sterling per ton, by the Rideau canal, a distance of 240 miles, during 
a strong competition.) The tolls on the present Laehiue canal are 2d. cur- 
rency per bbl. of flour for 9 miles = '222(7. currency per bbl. per mile, 
or more than twice the total cost per mile through, -105(7. currency, as above. 
The Erie canal of New York, with which these canals are to compete, 
has locks 90 feet long, 15 feet wide, and 34 feet water, prism of canal, 21 
feet at bottom, 40 feet at water line, and 3 to 4 feet deep. The tolls are 
Is. 9(7. currency per barrel of flower for 363 miles = -0578(7. currency per 
barrel per mile = about one fourth the (oils of the Lachine canal ! thus 
showing an immense advantage in favour of the Erie canal — an advantage 
due to the cheapness of its construction ; in other words, to its reasonable 
dimensions. How then is transportation to be lessened, by expending two 
or three times its original cost in enlarging the Lachine canal? The high 
tolls have driven the forwarders to try the Lachine Rapids, and during the 
past summer and autumn a vast number of boats have gone safely over. 
There is a great depth of water, but the channel is narrow and crooked. 
(The descent is about 30 feet in li to 2 miles, which is passed in 4 or 5 
minutes, the inclination of the surface of the water being such, that the 
force of gravity acts on the boat, thus producing a great velocity through 
the water in addition to that of the current. A heavily laden barge overtook 
a light steamer in the rapids, fortunately without injury to either — and the 
first season of this navigation has passed without accident.) 

Now were individuals expending their own money on these canals, they 
would endeavour to ascertain whether the income — the true test of the ac- 
commodation to be offered to the trade — would justify the construction of 
canals of a size unknown, in Christendom at least, and would enter into the 
calculations and investigations necessary to show how this reduction of freight 
was to be effected, and why barges of 150 tons were so much less efficient 
than vessels of 800 to 1200 tons. But, in place of this, the public have 
heard nothing beyond such vague assertions as, that " the St. Lawrence is 
the natural outlet" for the " boundless trade" of the "far west;" if the 
Erie canal, with its pitiful craft of 50 tons burden — omitting all mention, or 
more probably ignorant of its small cost and low tolls — has yielded such 
large returns to the state of New York, what may not be expected from the 
" ship canals " of Canada, when " sea-going " vessels shall " float on Ontario 
and Erie," the Welland schooner canal connecting these lakes to the con- 
trary notwithstanding — and innumerable other equally preposterous views 
and bombastic expressions, which are only too likely to prove as ruinous as 
they are ridiculous. 

Y'et this little Erie canal, which the State of New York has been endea- 
vouring to enlarge to a size somewhat greater than that of the — according 
to Canadian ideas — little Lachine canal, and on which she has thrown away 
£3,000,000, is now admitted to be equal to any trade which can be expected, 
though there is no St. Lawrence to distance all competition for the down 
freight, no Rideau to compete with for the up freight, and although it en- 
joys a monopoly of all western freight, the people of New York not being 



permitted to use the railways along side of this canal on any terms — not even 
in winter — for the transportation of freight. These railways are owned by 
private companies, the government dreads their competition, and not without 
reason. For instance, flour is carried from Albany to Boston for U Bd. ster- 
ling per barrel, a distance of 200 miles by railway, through, or rather across, 
a mountainous country, or at the rate of -09rf. st.' per barrel per mile, in small 
quantities (in full loads for Is.); the rates from Buffalo to Albany, 303 miles, 
average 3s. 3d. st. per barrel of llour, or -107(7. st. per mile = 10 per cent. 
more than the highest charge on the Western Railway of Massachusetts. 
This latter is a private work, open throughout the year, and without any 
monopoly; the Erie canal is a State (government) work, closed between 
4 and 5 mouths every year, and sustained by a monopoly unparalleled on 
either side of the Atlantic. The enlargement of this canal is postponed 
indefinitely, and a direct tax on every species of property in the State has 
been laid, to meet the interest of the money squandered on this anil other 
legislative engineering follies, pointed out in Vol. III. (p. 122 et sea.) 

Without stopping to inquire how soon this course will become necessary 
in Canada, I will ask, what intelligent Canadian or Englishman, who has 
visited New York and Canada, will for a moment tolerate the idea, that the 
trade of the latter country is likely to require, not equal, but ten times 
greater accommodation than that of New Y'ork ? Should the trade of the 
St. Lawrence, twenty years hence, equal that of the Erie canal at this time, 
it will show an increase unequalled in the annals of this country. Look at 
the most, if not the only, successful work in Canada, the Champlain and 
St. Lawrence Railway, 15 miles long, and which cost not quite .t'40,000 
sterling, on which 50 per cent, has been paid to the stockholders during the 
last six years, because the capital was small, and the outlay made with some 
reference to iucome. Had this been made with three or four tracks, on the 
scale of the Great Western Railway, it would have been as profitable to the 
stockholders as the St. Lawrence canals are likely to prove to the Province. 
One mile and a quarter of the Cornwall canal has cost as much as the 
15 miles of railway, including cars, engines, buildings, wharms, and steam 
forage-boat of 300 tons, whilst the mcome bids fair to be inversely as the 
cost ; a fair illustration of the mode of conducting public works by private 
companies, as compared with that generally pursued in New York and Cana- 
da, where the helm is only too often in the hands of political adventurers 
and desperate speculators, who, having every thing to gain by governmental 
extravagance, naturally employ kindred spirits to execute their designs, 
which are, usually, the expenditures of large sums in certain districts, with- 
out any regard to the wants or interests of the community. 

The gross receipts on the Erie canal for 1840, were 1,597,334 dollars = 
£330,028 St., and the present year will yield about the same amount. As- 
suming the St. Lawrence canal to be about one»ninth the length of this 
canal, and supposing the same business, the receipts would be very nearly 
±'50,000 cy., on an estimated expenditure of £1,043,074 cy. as per Mr. 
Killaly's memorandum of 12th Aug. 1840, in which occurs the only argu- 
ment (!) vouchsafed to the community for the necessity of this additional 
accommodation to the trade at such enormous cost. 1 

On the Erie canal the up freight or merchandize yields only one-fourth of 

1 The following choice morceau — the style of which is worthy of the 
reasoning — is all I have been able to discover. 

" General Observations. The necessity of involving the province in 
the cost of forming a second water communication with tide-water, has been 
for a long time the subject of dispute and argument with many. Among the 
number of those who doubted the prudence of it, I was one until latterly ; 
but the vastly increasing trade, doubling almost annually, and the conviction 
upon my mind, after mature consideration, that the lowering of freight con- 
sequent upon affording additional facilities, together with the productiveness 
of the western countries, which are only now coming into operation, will 
increase still further this trade to an almost inconceivable e.i tent, have con- 
vinced me that a second and more facile outlet is called for. Besides the 
transport being confined to the Rideau, the navigation of which depends 
upon the stability of dams of great height, (in one case 60 feet,) should any 
injury arise to one of these dams, (as was apprehended last spring,) either 
through accident or malice, the effects of it would be ruinous to half the 
commercial interests of the country. 

" I am decidedly of opinion, that the scale upon which the Cornwall 
canal was undertaken, was unsuited to the means of the province, and was 
uot absolutely necessarv for the greatest increase of trade, which the most 
sanguine mav look forward to; and that a schooner navigation, combined 
with a system of tug-boats would have answered every commercial purpose ; 
but now, from the laree expenditure already incurred upon the central 
portion, the little required to complete it, and the comparatively small saving 
that might be effected upon what remains to be done, by adopting the 
schooner scale. I am led to conclude that the best and easiest course will be 
to open the St. Lawrence throughout from Montreal to Lake Ontario for 
steamboats and schooners— not upon the /nil size of the Cornwall canal, 
but on a scale sufficiently large to admit a powerful class of steamers or tug- 
boats to pass." (Memorandum, 12th Aug., IS 10, p. 5.) 

It is scarcely necessary to say, that the " doubling almost annually " is 
bombast to an almost inconceivable extent ; that " the small saving" is no 
less than on 28 miles out of 40, and the diminution consists in reducing the 
canal from 140 to 120 feet in width, and the locks from 200 by 55 to 200 
b« 45 — a distinction without a difference you will say. 



54 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



the income ; on the St. Lawrence, the ratio is much more unfavourable, 
probably not less than 8 or 10 to 1, as the Western States, which furnish 
the flour and pork for the Montreal market, receive their merchandize exclu- 
sively by way of New York and the Erie canal ; hence the greater the exports 
or down freight via the St. Lawrence, the greater the imports or up freight 
via the Erie Canal. But the down freight for Montreal will, practically 
speaking, all go by the river; hence £S,000 to £10,000 gross income 
would be a high estimate for the up freight of the St. Lawrence, if 
charging the same tolls as on the Erie canal, or four times that income at 
the present rates of the Lachine canal. Some little income will also he 
derived from the occasional passage of the steam-tugs employed to tow 
barges between the different sections of the canal. It will be observed that 
this calculation supposes the trade equal to that of the Erie canal, and that 
the estimates are entitled to confidence. The difference in the former is 
such as to forbid comparison, and the mere dimensions of the Beauharnois 
canal, given in the beginning of this paper, will be quite sufficient to show 
the inaccuracy of the latter — to say nothing of the actual cost of the Corn- 
wall canal, built principally under the superintendence of the able resident 
engineer of the Beauharnois canal.-' 

It is quite unnecessary to point out the improbability of vessels of 600 
800, or 1000 tons or larger steamers competing with barges of 150 tons 
drawn by horses on the canals, and by steam or wind, as at present, on the 
river between these canals ; but, when we find that the latter craft can 
descend the St. Lawrence (without paying tolls) witli seven-eights of the 
freight, and that a suitable canal for the ascending trade would cost about 
one-fourth as much as the " ship canal," and be more efficient too, we are 
led to conclude that the whole affair would do no discredit to the " par 
excellence " land of jobs itself— the " sister island." The enlargement of 
the Lachine canal is about to be undertaken the coming winter, estimated 
cost £225,300 currency ; and how this measure is to reduce the enormous 
tolls of that canal, which have already forced the trade to try the river, and 
successfully too, is a question not to be answered — in the affirmative, at 
least. The greatest possible reduction in freight I consider to be 6</. per 
barrel of flour, an amount ' quite insufficient to increase the demand in 
England, the very source of this trade, whilst freights from Montreal vary 
during the season not less than 2s. sterling per barrel, according to circum'- 
stances ; a vastly more important consideration than any diminution which 
can be even anticipated between Montreal and Kingston. (The last Mon- 
treal quotations were 6s. sterling, from New York Is. 6d. sterling, per barrel 
of flour.) 

The Toronto paper, accompanying this, gives very fairly the general view 
taken by the entire agricultural and no small part of the commercial com- 
munity; and, in confirmation, I will add, that by none did I hear the idea 
of using the canals for down freight ridiculed so much, as by French mem- 
bers of parliament, whose knowledge of the capacity of the river is nearly 
equal to that of the forwarders themselves. 

A variety of other important facts might be adduced and different means 
taken ; among the rest, the amount of business necessary to clear expenses 
and interest ; and the amount of income which the present trade would 
yield ; also the quantity of freight from western states seeking the New- 
York market via the Erie, or Welland and Erie Canal. ;i 

- The respectable British and American engineers who are, have been, or 
may be employed by the Board of 'Works, must not be confounded with 
the Board proper. They have merely to execute what their superiors, as 
politicians and intriguers, but their inferiors as men and engineers, are 
pleased to direct, and have nothing to do with the projecting of the works, 
as will be easily believed. 

3 Taking the interest and expenses at £60,000 currency, and the toll at 
3d. currency per barrel of flour, it would require 4,800,000 barrels, about 
7 times the present trade, to furnish the income, if even this comparatively 
moderate toll would induce boats to use the canals, and if the estimates o'f 
cost are correct. Besides the toll on the freight, the boat pavs 1/. toll, and 
12s. for towing through the nine miles of the Lachine canal,' which for the 
40 miles of canal would cost more than insurance and pilotage from Kings- 
ton to Montreal. The insurance is three-eighths of 1</. per pound; the 
pilotage about 21. per 1000 barrels. 

Allowing 30 minutes for passing one lock, and the entire present annual 
downward trade would pass through the Cornwall canal in 24 hours — the up 
trade before dinner, or at a point before breakfast. The river is equal to 
millions of tons per day, and the vast saving of time — already important 
between Lachine and Montreal — is an inseparable argument against the 
canals for the down trade — in other words, for the trade. The earlier and 
later navigation in spring and autumn is also important. 

The Welland canal cost up to August, 1841, £491,777 currency, and re- 
quires, by estimate, £450,000 to complete it. (Memorandum, 12th August, 
1841. p. 3.) The income for the last three years, has been about £25,000 
currency, Mr. Killaly's •' doubling almost annually an inconceivable extent " 
to the contrary, notwithstanding. The principal part of this is from down- 
freight, and a part also from American trade. With a navigation equal to 
that of the St. Lawrence, the income would be about £6000. Its principal 
hope of success rests on its becoming an American thoroughfare, which I 
think it eventually will be, for reasons given in my paper on " the spring 
trade in the American Railroad Journal of April 15th, 1S42. 

Vessels drawing 12 to 14 feet water are brought with difficulty up to 
Montreal ; and as for taking " ships " through 500 feet lockage up to Lake 



It was remarked, by the President of the Institution, (I think,) that many 
of the young engineers of England must necessarily look to the colonies for 
employment, hence the state and prospects of the profession in Canada can- 
not be received with indifference by British engineers in general; and it is 
on this account that I think the course of the Canadian government should 
not escape the scrutiny of the leading members of the Institution in 
London. 

The honour and advancement of the colony and of the profession, as far 
as public works are concerned, must be considered as the same; and it is 
hard to say whether the Canadian Board of Works are doing more to injure 
the trade of the country, to degrade the engineer, or to effectually extinguish 
in Canada, that vital principle of British institutions — private enterprise. 
I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Xew York, 30th Nov., 1842. W. R. Casey. 



To win 



THE EDUCATION OF AN ENGINEER. 

< added a few remarks bearing on the pros?.: 
and its Disciples. 



By H. F. Clifford. 

Our estimate of the value of any scientific pursuit, consists chiefly in the 
degree of importance we assign to the amount and nature of the several 
qualifications due to its proper attainment. When we reflect upon the cha- 
racteristics of engineering', we are not long in discovering it to be a science 
requiring much deep and intellectual study, assisted by steady perseverance, 
long and unceasing application to arrive at a just appreciation of all those 
practical data which experience can alone furnish, and impress vividly on the 
mind ; one in which the laborious duties of the artisan must be blended with 
the sound theories of the refined mathematician, one, in fact, embodying the 
perfect union of theory with practice ; but to define engineering in the full 
sense of the word, would be an endless task, for in that single word is com- 
prehended a general knowledge of all the artifices that human ingenuity can 
devise to supply the conveniences of the present advanced and rapidly pro- 
gressing state of civilization. This definition may, indeed, appear vague to 
some ; but when we are informed of the vast grasp it takes of all those 
sciences which require no ordinary mind to cultivate and condense for the 
purpose of obtaining a thorough comprehension of the numerous ramifications 
of so noble and deeply interesting a study, we cannot be called presumptuous 
in placing it second to few, if any of our standard professions. Since, how- 
ever, engineering as a comprehensive and distinct science has become fully 
recognised, and taken up its full position high in the rank of secular callings, 
there must have been long felt a growing deficiency of some fixed laws or 
definite principles to guide such individuals as were desirous of attaching 
themselves to the profession as a means of support, in obtaining a thoroughly 
useful knowledge of the subject. It is not our intention to throw any un- 
reasonable objections in the path of the young aspirant to engineering fame, 
but we would seriously urge on his attention the necessity of engendering at 
the onset a firm and unchangeable resolution to encounter numerous and 
severe difficulties ; but to be forewarned is to be pre-armed, and in the follow- 
ing remarks, which are the substance of a few years' careful observation, we 
have endeavoured to point out the general features of such a course of pro- 
bationary study as from experience we have great confidence in recommend- 
ing for adoption ; being fully persuaded, moreover, that the only way to ren- 
der engineering ultimately serviceable, at least in a pecuniary point of view, 
is to effect the happy combination of the practical with the civil department. 
For it is almost chimerical, now-a-days, for any person to imagine he will 
ever sueceed solely in the capacity of a " Civil Engineer," inasmuch as civil 
engineering is a profession commanding but a very limited practice, and that 
what practice there is must inevitably fall to the lot of men whose public 
works have already earned for them an undying name, and with w hose lives 
it will perish as a distinct avocation. Neither, on the other hand, can we 
recommend any one to pursue practical engineering alone, that is the business 
of an engine builder, for it is one requiring large capital to erect workshops 

Erie, it will be at once obvious to the readers of the Journal, who have any 
acquaintance with inland navigation, that such views can be entertained only 
by those who are ignorant of the cost, weight and awkwardness of ships in 
canals. Should the trade become great, it is clear that the transhipment 
will take place at Quebec. 

However new these statements of business may be to many of your rea- 
ders — and obviously indispensable as they are to a correct understanding of 
the wants of the trade of the St. Lawrence — I believe they will be quite as 
new to the Canadian Board of Works, supposing that a Journal advocating 
such principles as this shotdd accidentally meet their eye. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



55 



and supply them with the necessary machinery : and moreover, there is not 
nor will there ever be now, a sufficient demand to employ all those first-rate 
works that have been established for many years, and whose name is a per- 
fect guarantee for a good article. Again, owing to the slow but gradual 
development of the system of constructing manufactories on the continent, 
conducted by skilful Englishmen, there is every reason to believe that when 
the system arrives at a state of maturity, the foreign consumption of English 
machinery, especially locomotives, will be almost entirely annihilated. It is 
true, however, that there is a body of men, managers of large works, re- 
ceiving no despicable salaries, and to a casual observer their occupation pre- 
sents fair means of remuneration ; but then what man is there accustomed to 
the usual comforts of life who would sink the better part of his early life in 
a workshop, as would be necessary to fulfil creditably such a situation ? No. 
Such offices are chiefly held by men who, originally of the better class of 
mechanics, have gradually raised themselves above the level of their brethren 
by the exhibition of no ordinary talents, and have thus become entitled to 
the appointments as being the fittest parties from the nature of their previous 
education and intercourse with men whose habits and discipline they are best 
able to appreciate and to govern. With these few useful premises we now 
proceed to show the requisite functions to qualify a man to act successfully 
as an engineer. Let it be ascertained, as early as possible, that the person 
in question intends becoming an engineer, for having determined this im- 
portant point, no time will be lost in acquiring any information foreign to 
the purpose. Latin and Greek must be entirely eschewed, and in the earlier 
portion of the student's career, let him obtain a tolerably clear knowledge of 
geography, history, arithmetic, English, French and German, the rudiments 
of ornamental drawing, sketching, the first three books of Euclid and Al- 
gebra. The consideration of the above will possibly occupy the student's 
attention up to the age of fourteen. From fourteen to sixteen finish Euclid; 
take up practical geometry and the higher parts of algebra— read plane tri- 
gonometry, conic sections, mechanics, hydrostatics, and hydrodynamics, the 
differential and integral calculus, and in order to connect more firmly to- 
gether the links of this mathematical chain, work numerous problems 
involving each and all of the several branches. The elements of geology and 
chemistry, and such other parts in detail as bear more immediately upon 
civil engineering have great claims on the pupil, whilst a strict attention 
should be given to mechanical drawing, sketching, linear, and isometrical 
perspective, with the theory of shadows. During this period, likewise, the 
student should make a practical investigation of surveying, and learn to use, 
with ease aad accuracy, the level and theodolite, to make himself acquainted 
with the general principles of architecture ; and, in order to prepare his mind 
more fully for the reception of its future tenant, peruse some standard ele- 
mentary work on engineering. 

Having completed his sixteenth year, and assidiously devoted all his energy 
to the investigation of the foregoing subjects, let the embryo engineer be 
now placed in some first-rate manufactory, where there is a great variety of 
work executed, for a space of not less than three years. We repeat, first-rate 
manufactory, for as his standard of judgment of mechanical productions will 
be formed in a great measure by the quality of work passing under his notice 
during this time, it is proper he should connect himself with one of the 
highest repute. Here he will lay up an ample store of solid information 
regarding land, marine, snd locomotive engines, mill-wright work, and, in 
fact, machinery in general. But this information, we can assure him, is not 
to be purchased in the character of an on-looker. He must keep the same 
hours as his fellow workmen (pro tempore stante) ; he must exchange his ordi- 
nary attire for the fustian suit, the drawing room and easy chair for the 
workshop and the vice, and go through the various gradations of the service 
till he is found competent to undertake some responsible situation over the 
workmen. And it is a well known fact, that it is impossible for a man to 
pass a correct and conscientious opinion with regard to the execution of any 
mechanical work, unless the individual in question has himself gone through 
a regular system of practical application. It is true the beginner, unused to 
the rough habits of a workshop, and unaccustomed to associate with such 
characters of men as he finds there, will have to contend with many incon- 
veniences and annoyances, but then he must make up his mind to wield the 
hammer, chisel, and file, with a firm determination to overcome all diffi- 
culties. "We admit it requires a strong and persevering resolution, and many 
are they, beginning with a good heart but meeting with impediments at the 
commencement, have shrunk from the prosecution of a course of training, 
which, pursued to completion, would have amply repaid them the extra ex- 
ertion due to its attainment. Locomotive building claims especial care for 
its subsequent utility, and let it be a leading principle throughout the entire 
course, to ascertain correctly and set a due value upon the proportionate 
strength' and properties of materials in general, that the engineer may be 



1 By proportionate strength we mean the relative strength the severa 
parts uf any piece of mechanism should bear to one another.— Tredgold, Bar- 
low, See. 



able to adapt with confidence such invaluable knowledge when he ma 
afier find it available. For the requisite strength is alike conducive i 
metry of figure and economy of material— an intimate acquaintance with 
the relative functions of the various descriptions of water wheels' is indis- 
pensable to the engineer, on account of the great utility and economy of such 
power in countries and districts where water abounds, and where it would be 
both inconvenient and expensive to erect steam engines and their concomi- 
tant paraphernalia. The foundry must likewise have its due share of im- 
portance, and the student should contrive to obtain an introduction to some 
large iron works. Here he could devote a short period to analyzing the 
processes of smelting, puddling, casting and forging, and thus render himself 
capable of passing a good judgment on the quality of m illeable anil cast iron, 
when coming under his notice for engineering purpose < occasions. 

Although mining engineering is reckoned a distinct branch, and requires Ion" 
experience underground as a viewer to sustain any responsible situation, still 
a short time passed in investigating colliery work in some well regulated 
coal pit, would make the pupil acquainted with much valuable inforn 
concerning pumping engines, and the general routine of the mechanical 
department, as would be of material service to him. Durin- I 
the manufactory, practice in drawing should be kept up by periodical visits 
to the drawing office, and he should endeavour, on all occasions, to procure 
for himself copies or tracings of any useful piece of mechanism, and thus, bv 
carrying the principle out in time, amass a series of practical illustrations of 
invaluable use in after life. Lastly, in order to render the former part of his 
education ultimately serviceable, the pupil should, during the evenings after 
work hours, peruse attentively such works as treat more immediately on 
subjects forming the constituent elements of his profession, and for the pur- 
pose of blending amusement with instruction, we could suggest reading at his 
more leisure hours, and thus keep pace with the constant improvements, the 
best periodicals that treat practically and theoretically of civil and mechani- 
cal engineering. Having completed the first grand epoch in the probationary 
regime, the pupil may easily refresh himself with the pleasing intelligence. 
that the remainder of his duties are comparatively easy to the ordeal he has 
already passed through. The next step is to place himself under the di- 
rection of an eminent civil engineer, who has railways and other works con- 
nected with this department of engineering under his superintendence in 
course of construction. In this new state of things, the pupil should strive 
hard to obtain some inferior, but by all means active and responsible, station, 
for there never is that care and attention bestowed on any object that is 
simply dependent on our own caprice. The pupil should, therefore, consider 
it a matter of paramount importance to endeavour sedulously to create a 
high confidence in his own and his superior's mind, that may lead, as soon 
as possible, to his entrustment with some minor office, the creditable discharge 
of which depends entirely on his own exertions. For confidence, let it be 
understood, is the capability of expressing a decided and correct opinion with 
regard to any question that may arise, and which can only be given in cases 
where a. thorough comprehension by experience of the details of the point at 
issue is positively entertained. With civil engineering commences a new era, 
Railway making, with its surveying, levelling, cutting and embanking, bridge 
building, drainage and other works, will serve to keep the mind contil 
employed, in order to become well versed in all its minutiae, The building of 
harbours, docks and light houses, the formation of canals, will severally 
claim a proportionate degree of careful consideration. Common road-making, 
warming and ventilating, general principles of carpentry and masonry, with 
a train of minor but no less useful qualifications, will in due order require 
each its own peculiar study : lastly a real concise method of making esti- 
mates and getting up specifications for contract works, will be found of 
utility ; the former can only be obtained by ascertaining on all occasions the 
prices of every description of materials for engineering purposes in the 
rent localities, the latter by continual reference to specifications of works 
already executed. Here, then, is a broad field open to the successful practice 
of acquired knowledge, whilst design and construction present favoui 
opportunities for the display of any talents or ingenuity the young civj 
may be fortunate enough to possess. To acquire a sound knowledge of the 
strength and properties of wood, s'.onc. and iron, should be considei 
matter of the utmost importance, and a few months could lie profitably passed 
in an architect's office of good repute. We have mentioned the preceding 
qualifications en masse, but they should be carefully and discriminate]}' 
adjusted to the age, ability, and progress of the student. Let the different 
subjects be presented to his notice in their most elementary shapes at the 
onset, that the rudiments of one and all may be indelibly fixed on the mind ; 
for then the intellectual faculties having mastered the approaches, will grasp 
with a firmer hold upon maturer development the more complicated facts. 
And it should not be lost sight of, that the amount of information acquired, 
depends almost entirely upon the youth's own assiduity, as he will not find 
persons continually at his elbow . as in the schoolroom, either urging him on 
or threatening him with punishment for neglect of duty. He must see 

- Smeaton's experiments. 



56 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



clearly it is to his own interest to make the best possible use of his time. It 
is not within the limits of an article for a Journal, to enter more fully into 
detail, but we have endeavoured in as brief a manner as consistent with the 
nature and magnitude of the subject, to draw the outline of a plan of edu- 
cation, that from actual trial, we can seriously recommend for adoption. We 
would fain conclude here, but cannot resist making a few passing remarks 
on the several schools for engineers that have lately sprung into existence. 
However radically good the principles and intentions of any establishment 
may be, professing to teach a young man engineering, however well such 
principles may be carried out and matured by able and efficient masters, they 
will fall immeasurably short of their purpose, when compared with the pre- 
ceding course. For it is not within the limits of a school-room education, to 
convey that inestimable practical knowledge, which can only be acquired by 
constant every day association with bodies of men, whose daily bread is 
earned with the sweat of their brow, and who can readily and satisfactorily 
explain any questions or doubts that may arise connected with their indi- 
vidual trades. The latter course may, indeed, materially assist the embryo 
engineer in the earlier part of his career ; but having arrived at a suitable 
age, the workshop, and then the open field, from the slaking out of the rail- 
way to the laying of the permanent rails, will be found far more congenial 
to the spirit and practice of engineering. In conclusion, it is our decided 
opinion, that an individual educated according to our method, and possessing, 
in a fair degree, all the advantages arising from it, will be fully competent, at 
the expiration of his articles, to undertake some responsible and remune- 
rating situation ; and it is not too much to anticipate, that if he be an in- 
dustrious and persevering character, he will materially benefit any works 
with which he may become connected ; and with good natural talents, as- 
sisted by standard ability, he may possibly shine forth a bright star in the 
wide sphere of a distinguished profession ; and should he not be fortunate 
enough to rival the memories of Brindlev. Smeaton, Telford, Watt, Ste- 
phenson or Brunei, he may perhaps leave behind him lasting monuments of 
his skill, that would do credit to his more illustrious and deservedly re- 
nowed predecessors. 

Now for a few words bearing on the prospects of engineering, and its 
disciples. When we review the statistics of railways, and reflect upon the 
enormous quantity of money (£70,000,000) expended by private individuals 
on such speculations, within the limited period of railway existence— when 
we consider the little return such parties have had for their invested capital 
up to the present time, the heavy loans several companies have still to pay 
off. notwithstanding the fallacious exhibition of prosperity, in the declaration 
of a moderate dividend to the shareholders— when, moreover, we consider the 
riinous s:ate of trade, the prevalence of distress, the sluggish circulation of 
specie this last two or three years, caused by the diffidence of large money 
holders to let it change hands— and when, lastly, we contrast the super- 
abundant supply of engineering skill compared with the demand, we cannot 
feel surprised taking iull cognizance of the above, and many other contin- 
gent circumstances, at finding engineering in the unpromising condition it 
has presented of la'e. It is now generally admitted, that profuse expendi- 
ture has been the prevailing feature of railways hitherto constructed ; and it 
should be the aim of future companies to complete their engagements with 
as much economy as is consistent with the durability and magnitude of the 
undertaking. We do not object, let it be understood, to additional expense 
being bestowed on the great arteries diverging from the metropolis, for such 
may be looked upon as public works, and have a reputation to hold up ; but 
he' smaller veins branching from the main trunks, should be made at as 
litile cost as possible. Once let a right spirit of economy be established be- 
tween the directors of railways and their engineer, and we shall soon have 
public confidence restored, and a new impulse given to the profession. There 
are many lines that must be laid out and finished, to render the ramifications 
of the system complete in England. The grand link connecting Scotland — 
will there not be two?— is yet wanting in the chain. Ireland is as yet un- 
touched would not a good system of internal locomotive communication go 

a Ion" way to improve the civilization and better the condition of that un- 
happy and distressed country? This would be, indeed, desirable, if only for 
its moral and social effect. And is not her soil as capable of sustaining 
rails, and yielding profit too, as any other land ? And we do think that, 
could the government overcome its present difficulties, and improve the 
revenue, it would do well to assist a spirited public in their meritorious 
desire to form a thorough railway connection throughout the entire kingdom, 
at least in such cases as presented ostensible means of remuneration for 
invested capital. It is true the public were too prone to believe, at the com- 
mencement of the railway mania, that in committing their money to the 
coffers of the company, it was to be multiplied to the unwarrantable height 
of their expectation; but their too sanguine anticipations were disappointed, 
and sad experience begat caution— we hope not discouragment; for it was 
not likely, upon contemplation, that an impetuous torrent, the characteristic 
of early railway speculation, bursting from its source, could dash on in its 
headlong course without meeting, at no very remote period, with some coun- 
teracting agency— some impediment to its success. 



Now, when we meditate on the crowded state of the avenues to all descrip- 
tions of avocations for the last few years, we cannot feel astonished that, 
upon the introduction of a comparatively new profession, as engineering' 
public attention should be diverted into a fresh channel, and seize with 
avidity upon one holding out such promising advantages. At this period, 
too, there were comparatively very few men who had been really trained to 
the profession ; numbers, however, upon ascertaining the necessary qualifi- 
cations, went vigorously to work — but then time was an essential requisite 
to collect materiel ; and in the interim a body of men, termed surveyors, pos- 
sessing a tolerably good knowledge of their business, with a smattering of a 
few properties bearing some analogy to this branch of engineering, availed 
themselves of the opportunity, managed to get employed (for want of better 
substitutes) in some inferior capacity at first, until gradually acquainting 
themselves with a few of the details, arrogated to themselves the term of 
" Civil Engineers; " and before the genuine pupil had matured his educa- 
tion, these men hail obtained, and do now hold, several of the best situations 
in the service. This incident will doubtless explain why there have been, 
and are, so many intelligent articled pupils out of employment ; and it is a 
known fact that many have left the profession, their patience quite exhausted. 
Again, did the younger scion of a respectable family, in the innocence of 
boyish delight, sketch anything resembling a steam-engine, the anxious 
parent felt persuaded " the boy was a genius," and only required to be 
educated as an engineer to develop extraordinary talent. A great number of 
these geniuses, how ever, soon finding that engineering to be properly under- 
stood was no easy matter, floundered on for awhile, and at length gave it up 
as a hopeless business. Nevertheless there were many, having endured much 
tribulation, passed the rubicon, ar,d thus swelled the numerical strength of the 
profession. It would appear, therefore, from the preceding analysis, that 
whilst the demand was falling off. the supply of bona fide engineers and self- 
amitled adventurers were increasing in a formidable ratio. The present 
aspect is, consequently, gloomy enough ; but there is this satisfaction, if it 
be any, that, being at the bottom of the wheel, the next change will, in all 
likelihood, brighten the prospect. Upon reviewing the system of railway 
policy abroad, we cannot but advise the matured pupil to strive hard for 
employment at home before seeking it elsewhere ; for Englishmen are not 
treated on the continent with that good feeling and generous acknowledg- 
ment of their worthiness to which they are justly entitled. There is likewise 
much jealousy existing amongst the French, and it almost invariably happens 
that such English engineers as have been led by promising hopes to enter 
into engagements have, upon a short trial of their continental neighbours, 
found their position so unpleasant as to cause resignation of office, if possible, 
and in default of that, to put up with much unmerited insolence, or have 
been unceremoniously discharged at the immediate expiration of the articles 
of agreement, but not before their wily superiors (in office, notabilities) have 
taken good care to reap a rich harvest of experimental knowledge from the 
solid acquirements of their employe's. Many there are too, wearied with long 
inactivity, and despairing of obtaining situations in their own country have 
turned their attention to colonial prospects. But here, we fear, they will fall 
far short of their expectations ; for the present condition of our colonies is 
not of that settled or flourishing nature as to favour the designs of the accom- 
plished engineer. The fact is, a country must be in a tolerably advanced 
state of civilization— must possess extended commerce, internal trade— must 
have substantial resourcesof us own, and contain a strong body of capitalists 
devoted to the execution of public work, before it can be pronounced in a fit 
state to admit of engineering operations with any hope of success. 

It is true a few surveyors may meet with encouragement in the more recent 
settlements of New Zealand and thereabouts, to head the exploring staffs in 
plotting out the ground for future emigrants, and there is no doubt of the 
existence of certain districts in America (especially the more southern parts) 
where the mechanical department might be carried on to a very profitable 
extent. But then what man is there, without some very definite plans for, and 
sure prospect of speedy success, a voluntary exile from father-land, and the 
comforts of home, with all its cherished attractions, could embark his living 
in such truly outlandish speculations. Wiiat are we to do then, is the ge- 
neral and anxious inquiry. Wait patiently, till the tide of fortune takes a 
more favourable turn, which we hope is not far distant. There is much left 
to be done in old England ; and could the country once again recover from 
the depressed state, under which withering influence it has so long laboured, 
there is no doubt that engineering, like all other avocations, will quickly re- 
sume its former activity, and then every properly constituted member of the 

profession will meet with his due share of employment. 



An Artesian Well in the Sea.— An attempt is now being made at 
Brighton, to obtain water from beneath the chalk under the sea. The ope- 
rations for this purpose are being carried on at the head of the chain pier, 
and it is confidently expected that the strata of chalk at this spot does not 
exceed 70 feet in thickness, through which, on arriving at the green sand, a 
constant unfailing supply of pure water is anticipated. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



o7 



ROYAL ACADEMY. 

Professor Cockerell's Lectures on Architecture. 

(From the Athenceum.) 

The Professor began by quoting the regulation of the Royal Academy as 
to the Lectures on Architecture—"'' That the Professor shall read annually 
six public lrctures, calculated to form the taste of the students, to instruct 
them in the laws and principles of composition, to poiut out to them the 
beauties and faults of celebrated productions, to fit them for an unprejudiced 
study of hooks on the art, and for a critical examination of structures." It 
is understood that these lectures were to be given by a Professor in the full 
practice of his profession, according to the dictum of Vitruvius, " that it is 
the union of the practice with the theory, that makes the sound architect " ; 
and although he felt that it was precisely this circumstance that gave all the 
value in the eyes of the students to these lectures, yet it was obvious that 
in the midst of the distractions and bustle of professional practice, the Pro- 
fessor laboured under great disadvantages. It was much to be desired that 
the means at the disposal of the R'oyal Academy could enable it to extend 
these lectures according to the model of the French Academy, which, on 
architecture alone, had established five classes, each having a separate pro- 
fessor, — namely, 1, Theory; 2, History; 3, Mathematics; 4, Stereotomy 
and Construction (in which important class two Repet ileum were appointed) ; 
5, Perspective. Such liberal instruction secured the honour of the pro- 
fession, and protected the public against empirical practice; and gave the 
French architects, in particular, that advantage in foreign countries, which 
the unassisted genius, perseverance, and enterprise of our own countrymen 
found it difficult to contend with. Aware of this mortifying inferiority in 
our public education, the students would exert themselves so much the more 
in their private studies to supply the deficiency, and would learn from this 
well digested system the course they should pursue. This Academy had, 
indeed, been founded by an illustrious prince (George III), and great were 
the obligations of the arts and the public to his memory ; but the means by 
which it existed were of its own creation, and those means were barely 
sufficient to fulfil its engagement, to support gratuitously the only school of 
art which this country possessed. 

It is an axiom with the civilized nations of the Continent, that the fine 
arts are eminently calculated to increase human happiness and exalt human 
character, and greatly contribute to the reputation as well as the real interest 
of a country, especially of a manufacturing country. 

But the austere government of England makes the fine arts no part of its 
glory, its policy, or of its expense. And were it not for the sympathy and 
patronage of the public, even this limited institution could not exist ; nor 
would the country escape the reproach of the Celestials of "outer barbarism." 
The fine arts have, indeed, the countenance of the supreme head, and of 
" the powers that be " — the Ministers of the day, who cannot, as gentlemen, 
renounce the attribute of taste ; but they have uniformly shown by their 
public conduct, that they do not consider its support amongst the people a 
political duty. 

It is now more than a hundred years that Thomson, the best informed 
upon the arts of all our poets, indignantly remonstrated on our national 
inferiority and neglect of this branch of intellectual culture, and complained 
with grief, in his Ode to Liberty — 

" That finer arts (save what the Muse has sung, 
In daring flight above all modern .ving,) 
Neglected droop their head." 

Foreigners have attributed this disregard of the rulers of an ingenious and 
a great people to various causes — to physical insensibility, to the sordid 
nature of our commercial habits, or the adverse propensity of the Protestant 
religion — to which objections the history of the ancient dynasties of this 
country (never inferior in the fine arts), the abundant enthusiasm of indi- 
vidual artists of our own times, and the public sympathy, are direct contra- 
dictions. Finally, they have fixed the reproach on the government, by 
pointing at the Schools of Design established by parliament ; for they say, 
truly, that so soon as the inferiority of our design in manufactures drove us 
from the foreign markets, we took the alarm, and immediately formed 
schools of design, a Vinstar of those on the continent; not from a generous 
love of art, but, confessedly, from the well-grounded fear of loss in trade. 
The members of this Academy hailed the measure with joy, as the harbinger 
of a better sense of what is due to our intellectual position in Europe, and 
they have willingly given their gratuitous attention to its conduct. But the 
instruction of youth must be accompanied with the higher prospect of em- 
ployment and honour in national works ; and we are happy in the reflection 
that the decoratiou of the parliamentary palace at Westminster, and the in- 
terest taken by an illustrious personage in that great object, hold out to us 
the hopes of equality at least in these noble studies with the improving 
countries of the continent, and the opening of a new career for genius and 
industry. 

But an erroneous and mischievous scepticism as to the utility of Acade- 
mies of fine art altogether, has long been fashionable, which has not, how- 
ever, been applied to others, for no one has ever yet despaired because a 
Newton or a Locke are not annually produced from Cambridge and Oxford ; 
but of these it has been plausibly said, that no Michael Angelos, Raphaels, 



or Palladios have been produced by them since their foundation in the 17th 
century; it is forgotten, however, that the patronage and immense employ- 
ment which elicited the talents of those masters, have also been wanting ; 
and that without the field for their development, and all the expensive ma- 
chinery by which they can be brought to bear, Academics can do little more 
than preserve and transmit the rudiments of art. 

Fleets and armies arc necessary for war, and without these the greatest 
captain of his day might have been nothing more than an eminent professor 
at Sandhurst. 

Academies were established as depositories of learning and practice in the 
fine arts, and the means of their preservation and transmission through the 
vicissitudes of the times. The enlightened and commercial Colbert had seen 
how in Greece and ancient Rome, and in modem Rome, under his own 
countryman, the Constable Bourbon, a public calamity might disperse and 
ruin them for half a century, without some fixed and corporate body and 
abode. He never dreamt that, in the absence of the fostering patronage 
and employment of government, the Academy could do more than fulfil these 
negative objects. The Royal Academy bad done much more than this— it 
had sustained the credit of the country in fine art, and had reared talents 
which were now part and parcel of English history. Through good and evil 
report it had nourished the flame; and it was consolatory to find that they 
had transmitted it to better times, through long and adverse circumstances ; 
for now they had the happiness to see two Professors in the Universities of 
London, the British Institute of Architects, large public patronage in Art- 
Unions, &c, and a growing interest in the Universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge towards fine art generally. 

But Architecture, as a science dignified by an intimate connexion with the 
exact sciences, and by her acquaintance with those eternal laws of mathe- 
matics and of physics which are obeyed throughout the universe, was, in this 
Academy, regarded only as a fine art, and these lectures were designed to 
illustrate Architecture in that capacity alone. Dealing with the phenomena 
of beauty and ideality in the form and aspect of her contrivances, she be- 
comes an essential member of the fine arts, the more essential since her con- 
clusions are more undefined and remote than any other branches of the fine 
arts, save Poetry and Music, with whom her nearer relationship than with 
painting and sculpture, is sustained by many. But in all that respects the 
beauty of forms and their combinations, she must never forget her obligations 
to her sisters painting and sculpture, by whose aid alone she becomes the 
ars regma, and keeps in view her prototype, Nature, ever equally solicitous 
of beauty and of use. And the moment she declines their counsels, her 
proportions become anomalous, and she descends to the mere building art. 

In Egypt, where painting and sculpture were in comparatively small es- 
teem, and again in the middle ages, proportions were wholly capricious, and 
subject to no order or regularity ; nor have any been ever attributed to them 
even by the greatest admirers of Egyptian or Gothic architecture. On the 
contrary, the Greeks, aided by the union of the three arts, soon established 
that analogy with the organized productions of nature, which fixed the pro- 
portions of architecture in so determinate a form as not to be safely departed 
from, and which, whether in the days of Phidias, or Raphael and Michael 
Angelo, or any other renowned period of art, has been approved and adopted 
as just and incontrovertible. 

The fulfilment of the duty of the Professor under a limited number of 
lectures, had been a subject of some anxiety and difficulty. The history of 
the art was the only safe foundation of the study, and had, therefore, formed 
his first course. " Architecture," says Sir C. Wren, " is founded on the ex- 
perience of all ages, promoted by the vast treasures of all the great monarchs, 
and the skill of the greatest artists and geometricians, every one emulating 
each other. And experiments in this kind being greatly expenceful and 
errors incorrigible, is the reason that architecture is now rather the study o 
antiquity than fancy." With respect to the duration and progress of this 
art, it might he said that a hundred years were but as a day ; being made 
for ages, it could not, therefore, be subjected to the vicissitudes of fashion; 
and the slowness of its progress and invention ought to inspire us with 
respect for antiquity and the authority of example, and to repress that pre- 
sumption which too often assumes to dispense with them. 

In fact, at every epoch in which the art bad raised itself to its highest concep- 
tions, we find not only artists but tlieoricians, archaeologists, and historians, 
occupied in describing its progress and inventions, illustrating its monuments, 
and seeking out its antiquities. There are many histories of architecture more 
or less complete ; Canina's work promises to supply the history of ancient archi- 
tecture which Winkelmann had left very insufficient. D'Agincourt's " His- 
toire de l'Art par ses Monumens" was an admirable work; it treated of the 
art from its decline to its revival and restoration. Durand's " Parallel des 
Edifices anciens et modemes," on the same scale, is highly illustrative of the 
history of architecture. 

The second course (that of last year) hail treated chiefly the literature of 
the art ; following out the Academic instruction quoted above, namely, " to 
tit the students for an unprejudiced study of books in the art." It had been 
well said by a learned prelate, " that we do not live in an ignorant age, but 
certainly not in a learned one;" and it was painful to see those authors who 
had been cauoni/.ed by ages, cither attacked and discredited, a- Vitruvius, or 
held to be antiquated and obsolete, as the old Italian and French authors, 
and above all. the admirable Alberti, the Bacon of the art, anil otili i 
greatest interest. i ■ ■ ■ isequeni was, that new lights, fashionable 

conceits, and heretical opinions, were conducting us into the large ocean of 
error. As well might the lawyer or the divine dispense with 

8 



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architects. In the very dawn of literature the architect was required to he 
learned. In the Memorabilia of Xenophon, Socrates inquires, " But what 
employment do you intend to excel in, Euthedemus, that you collect so 
many books ? is it architecture ? for this art, too, you will find no little 
knowledge necessary." 

A familiar example of the great utility of these researches had been given 
in the quotation from Philibert de l'Orme (lib. ii. c. xi.), of the specification 
for concrete, written in the latter part of the sixteenth century, and corre- 
sponding precisely with the recent so-called discovery of this method of 
securing foundations. During the last century our architects had discon- 
tinued the ancient practice, having adopted the most fallacious fashion of 
wood-sleepers, to the ruin of many fine buildings. It was, then, the igno- 
rance of this invaluable and most instructive and amusing author, Philibert 
de l'Orme, which had led to so fatal an error. 

With reference to Vitruvius, the commentators, in forty-one editions, since 
his discovery in 1416, were shown to have made but slow progress, and to 
have done the author but little justice ; and ever since the uncandid Schnei- 
der had published his edition in 1807, ten important discoveries, illustrating 
the correctness of his theories, had been made by modern travellers and 
architects. 

Iu the present course the Professor purposed the consideration of the 
more difficult, but no less important, injunction of the Academic regulation, 
" that these lectures should be calculated to form the taste of the students, 
to instruct them in the laws and principles of composition, and fit tbem for 
a critical examination of structures." 

Those laws and principles which are technical, were often treated, and 
were more obvious ; but those which constituted architecture a fine art, were 
more subtle, but not less vital, to those who aspired to the higher attain- 
ments of the art, namely, the sublime and beautiful. Such inquiries had 
employed the most learned and ingenious minds in all ages ; and although 
theories are proverbially dangerous things, and must be treated with great 
caution, yet, recommended as they are by the authority of great names, thev 
ought to he known and discussed'; effects attributable to right reason and 
right feeling are essentially subjects of discussion, and the old proverb should 
be reversed, and "De gustibus disputandum est " should apply to all those 
preferences which depend on reason, and not on sexual or fanciful arbitra- 
ment; and though the inquiries into the sesthetical of art, which have occu- 
pied the last century particularly, fall short of the results we should desire 
and expect, and that after all genius alone can rightly solve these questions, 
which elude common sense, yet we may cultivate and improve our critical 
powers, learn to think more accurately, and correct that colloquial laxity of 
speech which refers all impressions to some cant phrase of undefined signifi- 
cation, asfne and beautiful, tasteless, &c. 

Such investigations afford the only means by which the principles of this 
or any other art can be ascertained, and the artist can be enabled to deter- 
mine whether the beauty he creates is temporary or permanent, whether 
adapted to the accidental prejudices of his age or to the uniform constitution 
of the human mind ; and whatever the science of criticism can afford for the 
improvement or correction of taste must altogether depend upon the previous 
knowledge of the nature and laws of this faculty. 

In the following lectures the Professor proposes to review the examples 
Cited in his former courses with reference to these important principles. 

Lecture II. 

, . The Professor said, that the developement of the human faculties was ex- 
hibited in the history of Architecture under its most favourable aspect. The 
art might be termed the epitome of of civilization, the first fruits of social 
order and combination, of every discovery in science, and of every concep- 
tion of beauty. Political history was of comparatively inferior interest, and 
betrayed, for the most part the depravity of our species. The natural 
labours of man, those of agriculture, or commerce, their unvarying succession, 
brief endurance, and disappointment, leave melancholy convictions ; hut in 
the occupation of architecture, man finds the employment of those higher 
aspirations and idealities for which he feels himself born, as well as of his 
physical energies. Here he perceives that he has a soul ; all his loftier con- 
ceptions—order, calculation, beauty, and immortality— are opened to his 
contemplation, and he seems to feel the power of extending his works and 
his memory beyond the bounds of nature and of time. 

The exhibition of these innate and physical capacities seems to be his 
natural desire ; and the progress of his operations coincides with his intel- 
lectual growth. In his boyhood he contends with the forces of nature j he 
moulds the vast rocks, and rears on end the monolithic obelisk ; or, accumu- 
lating the masses with laborious endurance in the pyramid, he emulates the 
works of Nature herself; and exulting in the force of order and combina- 
tion, and his acquired skill, be exclaims, with the Babvlouians, •' Go to, let 
us build a city and a tower, whose top mav reach unto the heavens, and let 
us make us a name." Add, although in our advanced civilization, we may 
smile at the superfluity of such labours, we must not forget that by them 
man first vindicated his capacities, and that metallurgy, mechanics, and all 
the manual exercise and discipline whicli fulfilled his apprenticeship to civili- 
zation, were brought into practice, which soon employed itself in more 
intrinsic benefits. J 

The age of Alexander and the Romaus abundantly illustrated this truth 
Man now contends with the elements. The ocean is curbed by his ports' 



and quays, and Pharos ; he sails across its bosom ; marshes are drained ; 
sewers, canals, aqueducts, and roads, exhibit the mastery he had acquired, 
and his conquests over nature. Frontinus, whose work on aqueducts was 
written about the year 80, has a passage remarkably illustrative of the 
growth of this spirit in his time. After giving a description of the nine 
aqueduets under his care, brought to Rome by successive labours, making an 
aggregate length of about 142 miles, he exclaims, " with so many waters, 
and so many magnificent works necessary for their transport to this great 
city, will you compare the idle Pyramids of Egypt, or even the inert works 
of the Greeks, however celebrated and glorious in his ory ?'' The ingenuity 
of the architect now, therefore, issues to use, and through 1800 years it is 
more or less subordinate to it, either in the great business of religious and 
moral improvement in the building of churches, or the security of civil life in 
castles and mansions. Finally, in recent times, it is contracted to absolute 
utilitarianism, and all its powers are bent to the perfection of the individual 
dwelling between party walls, in which every subject of the state is in the 
enjoyment of personal luxuries and conveniences of life unknown to the 
Pharoahs, the Medici, or the magnificent Louis the Fourteenth. 

Thus, as Monsieur Guizot finely observes, each age and nation seems to 
have flourished for some beneficial purpose to Mankind, which, being accom- 
plished, it disappears from the stage. 

The history of architecture may be said to divide itself into five classes — 
Sacred, Civil, Military, Domestic, and Monumental. In the accompanying 
drawing (a roll about twelve feet square, containing a vast group of build- 
ings inscribed within the outline of a pyramid, on a large scale) are seen in- 
discriminately some of the principal monuments of all these classes (except 
the military), comprising a period of 3,334 years. We may say to the 
students, in the words of Napoleon to his troops, before the Pryamids of 
Gizeh" Quarante siecles vous contemplent!" 

This arrangement done under the Professor's direction, about twenty years 
ago, appeared, he believed, for the first time in the Penny Magazine. A com- 
parative view of the great buildings of the earth, on the same scale, might 
minister to that false estimate of merit, which is derived from material 
dimension; but that criterion would vanish before the comparison of renown; 
and the Parthenon, and other small buildings, here represented, would 
abundantly illustrate the preference to be awarded to 

The little body, but the mighty soul. 

National attachment might excuse his pointing out the spire of Old St. 
Paul's, the only one exceeding the height of the Great Pyramid. Those of 
Mechlin and Cologne, though designed to have exceeded it, remained imper- 
fect. A limit seems to be placed to man's arrogance and vain glory. We 
were taught, like the Babylonians, that the God of nature delights not in 
the accumulation of his favours and his light, and isolated in single spots, 
but in the wide-scattered communication of them throughout all lands. 

But the observations already offered, were illustrated still further by the 
sections [on a roll as large as the former, showing the structure of the most 
important temples, on the same scale.] The issue of the art in use and 
economy, was most remarkably shown in the comparison of those sections, 
in which we observe, that St. Paul's displays the largest bulk with the least 
material, hitherto contrived. 

He should now call the attention of the students to two rolls [about 16 
feet long each], in the first of which the plans of the remarkable temples of 
the ancient world, from the Tabernacle in the Wilderness (1491 B.C.) to the 
reception of Christianity (313 a.c), and in the second those from that epoch 
down to 1842, were all laid down to the same scale. There was displayed, 
as it were, the genealogy of temples, during 3330 years. 

It was sacred architecture which he purposed to review cursorily that 
evening ; and short enough was the time for a subject so deeply interesting ; 
indeed, such an expression might be deemed presumptuous ; and it was obvious 
that we should be enabled to do no more than pass the plans in review, and 
remark upon those characteristics which became the more palpable on the 
synoptic view of centuries and ideas of such extent and variety ; and which 
were less frequently commented upon. It might be objected by the stu- 
dents that subjects of such vast scale and importance and rare occurrence 
should be illustrated, rather than the more practical ; but we should re- 
member the dictum of Vitruvius, that the architect ought to pursue his 
studies " maxime in sedibus Deorum, in quibus operum laudes et culpae 
peternre solent permanere." In fact, the remains of these precious exemplars 
of skill and cost and labour, the types of our art, were still discoverable 
even from the most remote times, as if Nature herself, as well as man, had 
respected them. 

In approaching sacred architecture, and in discussing the technical con- 
siderations of the forms and structures of temples, we cannot but bow with 
respect and veneration to those motives and affections, the noblest of the 
human heart, which have ever urged these sacrifices to the mercy and the 
majesty of the Creator — and we recognize in the Grecian or the Druid, the 
Hindoo or the Christian temple, the universal sentiment so finely expressed 
in the Psalms, cxxix : — 

" Lord, remember David and all his trouble ! 

" How he sware unto the Lord, and vowed a vow unto the mighty God of 
Jacob, 

" I will not come within the tabernacle of mine house, nor climb up into 
my bed, 

" I will not suffer mine eyes to sleep, nor mine eyelid to slumber, neither 
the temples of my head to take any rest, 



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59 



" Until I find out a place for the temple of the Lord, an habitation for 
the mighty God of Jacob." 

In excavating the foundations of the temple at yEgina, the remains of 
burnt woods and bones of sacrifices were discovered, mixed, no doubt, with 
libations and tears and aspirations as warm as those of David ; — at Selinus 
we find the steps in front of one of the temples worn down almost to an 
inelined plane, by the feet of the devout. So again of the accomplishment 
of these vows amongst men of all ages and nations, we shall find the most 
solemn and full expression in the eighth chapter of the First Book of Kings, 
the dedication of the temple by Solomon. 

The resemblauce of the plan of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness, and 
with its surrounding court (the first in our series, B.C. 1491), and still more, 
of the temple of Solomon ; with the arrangement of the Greek and Roman 
temple, down to the Antonines at the end of the second century of our era, 
is very remarkable. In the first the parallelogram is preceded by a portico 
of an irregular number, namely, of five columns. In the second (1012 B.C.) 
we have the temple in Antis. 

If we enter into particulars, we are still more struck with their corres- 
pondence; we find for instance, the irregular number in the temple of Ju- 
piter at Agrigentum, one of the largest and most important of antiquity: 
seven columns compose the front ; and we are reminded of Solomon's 
saying, (Prov. ix.) " Wisdom has builded her house, she has hewn out her 
seven columns." Again, at Passtum we have a temple (miscalled a basilica) 
with nine columns in the front. Other examples also might be cited. 
Again, of the Temple of Solomon, that of Themis at Rhamnus, and the 
frequent temple in Antis, with its pronaos and heiron, is the constant copy. 
The altar of sacrifice, that of incense, the laver, the table of shew-bread, 
are all traced either in existing remains, in bas-reliefs, or in medals. 

The connexion of classic and sacred architecture is thus apparent ; and 
the author of " The Plagiarisms of the Heathen Detected," (Mr. Wood, of 
Bath,) is borne out in this comparison of the plan and arrangement of 
temple architecture. The common error (and one to be carefully avoided) 
is the attempt to trace this resemblance in the styles, or the ichuographic 
figure of the parts and orders — the mere vesture of the scheme ; and the 
failure in straining the texts and examples (Corinthian or Doric) to a perfect 
correspondence, either in Wood, Villalpandus, or his learned predecessor, 
Williins, has always thrown a doubt upon these interesting investigations ; 
but the comparison of the plans makes the Tabernacle the type of the Greek 
and Roman temple, a work which Paul as well as Moses assures us was in- 
spired by the Deity, " for see, saith he, that thou make all things according 
to the pattern showed thee in the mount." (Heb. viii.) 

It is remarkable that the earlier or contemporary works of Egypt show no 
similar arrangement ; nor was it likely that Moses should adopt and recom- 
mend any form associated with Egyptian recollections. The circular form 
of plan is indeed traced in Greece, and Rome more especially, and amongst 
the Druids, but the most frequent by far is the parallelogram, after the 
Tabernacle : in fact, the earliest inhabitants of the bordering countries were 
apparently monotheists ; their connexion with the Jews through Tyre and 
Sidon, their respect for a people of superior knowledge and religious in- 
struction, may well have sanctified their form with them : the ritual was the 
same with them ; the idol took the place of the ark ; with both, the temple 
was the Domus Dei ; both were religions of sacrifice. 

The ritual was thus the originator of the form of the temple, and must 
always be so. The temple in Antis became (with a view to ornament, and 
by the successive inventions for decorum and dignity) the prostyle, perip- 
teral, dipteral, and pseudo-dipteral. The much-boasted beauty of the Greek 
temple was not, then, an invention of taste, but one of ritual ; and in the 
consideration of templar architecture, in all times and countries, this impor- 
tant fact must be carefully bore in mind. 

Another point of resemblance of classical and Jewish architecture, of 
great import, since it is the hinge upon which the whole system of ancient 
architecture turns, is the employment of " costly stones, even great stones, 
stones of ten cubits, stones of eight cubits." Upon this practice the whole 
character and taste of sacred and classical architecture depends. The tenth 
book of Vitruvius treats chiefly on large stones and their transport. The 
type of Domus Dei admitted of no extension ; the only mode of giving 
magnificence and dignity to temples, thus circumscribed in form and compo- 
sition, was by the employment of monolithic masses, and by the exquisite 
detail of proportion, order, and sculpture bestowed upon them. The an- 
cient world is full of examples of this remarkable principle, and the last and 
most signal one is that in the temple at Balbec, by the Antonines, in which 
three stoues measure, in the aggregate, upwards of 199 feet in length. 

The Saviour, whose religion was soon to supersede all ancient laws, con- 
stantly illustrates his arguments by this practice : " the head stone, the chief 
of the corner, which the builders rejected," are his constant metaphors ; 
and his prediction that of these great stones " there shall not be left one 
upon another," is literally verified in the subsequent history of Architecture. 
Our remarks upon the uniform arrangement of plans of Greek and Roman 
temples, would be too long, and must be referred to the publications upon 
them specifically ; but as brought together in this view it maj be observed, 
that the temple at Ephesus, the size of which we learn alone from Pliny, 
exceeds all others in dimensions, and the constant limitation of length of 
the great temple to Jupiter especially (at Athens, Agrigentum, Selinus, 
Balbec, and Rome) to about 358 feet in length, might lead us to suspect the 
text of Pliny. Vitruvius gives us a few hints of the attachment of the an- 



cients to numbers in his third book, with reference to the dimensions of 
temples. The investigation of this subject might be attended with curious 
results. The frequent dimension 358, by the addition of the stylobatc, or 
by the local variation of the foot, may easily be supposed to refer to the 
number of days in the solar year. In the Temple or the Sun at Palmyra, 
the portico has 12 columns; these, added to the columns in the temple, 
make 52; the whole number of columns in the surrounding peribolus, is 
364. Wren seems to have had reference to this idea in his height of St. 
Paul's. 

The sections of Jigina, the Parthenon, and the temple at Pcestum, exhibit 
the arrangement of an interior divided into a nave and two ailes, by two 
rows of columns in double heights ; those of Venus and Rome, and Balbec, 
exhibit the Roman form, namely, a vast vault — in these instances, upwards 
of 60 feet diameter in masonry. The occupation of the whole of these in- 
teriors by the idol, their employment as a vast niche to receive the god (in 
ivory and gold, at Olympia and Athens), had something of monstrous, but 
magnificent ; and invested with the art of Phidias, we may understand how 
even the rough soldier, Paulus .Emilius, might be moved even to tears, as 
we are told, in the presence of the beauty and majesty of the godhead, as 
figured by that great master. 

Arrived at that period (313 a.d.) in which the Christian religion was 
adopted by the state, the range of temples now exhibited displays a total 
reverse of the previous arrangement. The old ritual of external worship 
and of sacrifice was abrogated. It was now internal and of the heart ; the por- 
tions were now inclosed ; a vast area covered with a roof, of which the 
basilica was the best model, constituted the Christian temple. Upon this 
the cruciform was engrafted, " in hoc vince," bearing the universal symbol, 
in plan as well as in every other situation. The theory of the church of 
Constantine is handed down to us by Eusebius, bishop of Coesarea; he des- 
cribes the church of Tyre [which the Professor exhibited! and many others 
of his day, with the most interesting and instructive hints as to the signifi- 
cation and arrangement of sacred edifices, which may be very profitably 
consulted by the architect. The basilicas of St. Peter's and that of St. 
Paul's at Rome, in the form of the Latin cross, become the types of the 
Christian church throughout Western Europe, with very small variation 
(until the introduction of the dome, which then only modified it), down to 
the present day. 

It was said that 1800 churches and religious structures were built during 
the reigns of Constantine and Justinian : those of the former were in the 
basilica form, which is liable to decay ; those of the latter, to which the 
ritual and other important considerations gave a new form, resembled the 
Greek cross of equal lengths. The transept was covered with a large dome, 
and the ends of the cross with minor ones, forming a group highly favour- 
able to architectural effect. This form, executed in Santa Sophia, became 
the wonder of the world, and the dome also, 120 feet in diameter, exceeded 
any executed since the Pantheon at Rome. 

The Professor exhibited several Greek churches at Arta, Thessaloniea, and 
other parts of Greece, measured by himself, as also the valuable researches 
on the Greek church architecture of the sixth and seventh centuries, by M. 
Couchaud, which contained many hints of great beauty and interest to the 
practical architect. The churches of Russia were all upou this plan. Pro- 
copius was the author, who might be consulted with reference to this era 
of the art. 

The dome, which had become the distinguishing feature of the Eastern 
church, penetrated into Italy, under the exarchate at Ravenna, in the church 
Santa Vitali, 510 a.d ; and again at Venice, in St. Mark's, built by a Greek 
architect (976—1071). Until the eleventh century, the dome formed no 
part of the western church, except in those instances ; it was then that the 
Pisans, the richest and most commercial people of Italy, began their great 
church (1063), and adorned the transept with this new feature. 

The rivalry of nations is the great fulcrnm of many a noble effect, in arts 
as well as politics; and to this motive chiefly, we mav attribute the bold 
scheme of Arnolpho de Lapo, in the church of Santa Maria, at Florence, 
founded in 1290; in which, doubtless, after the model of the Pantheon, he 
proposed to place a dome, of nearly equal magnitude, over the transept, but 
raised into the air in a way hitherto unattempted, except at Constantinople, 
where, however, the space was one-sixth smaller. But the inveterate and 
disastrous contests of these republics long deferred the execution, and it was 
not till one hundred and twentv vears after, that Brunellescbi accomplished 
the work, as related in the very amusing and instructive account by \asari. 

It was just one hundred years after this successful work that Michael 
Angelo executed the dome at St Peter's, confessedly in imitation of it, as he 
told himself, in contemplating the model — 
Yo far la tua sorella, 
Piu grande gi;i, ma son phi bella. 
In another one hundred and fiftj yeai l, we have the Domes of the lnvalidcs, 
Val de Grace, at Paris, and si. Pauls, mi I ondon. 

The familv of Domes concludes with that of St. Genevieve (the 1 antheon), 
and, like the successor of a noble but a worn-out race, exhibits all that 
meagreness and debility which precedes its extinction. 

But the imitations of the types of the basilicas of St. Peter s and St. Paul s 
of Rome in the north mid west of Europe,— more Rumano to the eleventh 
century, from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries more Germanieo, by the 
societies of freemasons,— have justly been the admiration of the world, for 



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their unexampled hardihood and practical science, though the remarks on 
their principles of structure and of art, which the future lectures will have 
occasion to otter, will show that neither the geometrician nor the scientific 
architect need regret the impenetrable veil which conceals them. Any de- 
tailed discussion of the merits of the plans exhibited would lead beyond the 
bounds prescribed ; but we must admit that, generally, the continental plans 
exceed our own in magnificence of design, especially in the double ailes and 
the western fronts. To what causes may be assigned the more modest de- 
sign of our own churches, except to that characteristic prudence of our 
countrymen, which requires the full accomplishment of ever}' enterprise 
undertaken, it may not be easy to determine ; certain it is, that all the 
churches of this country are complete in their design aud features, whereas 
those of the continent are very rarely so. 

The words of our poet, though not always applicable to architects, unhap- 
pily, may be so to our pastors and masters. 

When we mean to build, we first survey the plot, 
Then draw the model : which if we find exceeds ability, 
What do we then, but draw anew the model in fewer offices. 

Consult surveyors, know our own estate, 

How able such a work to undergo. 

Or else we build like those, who half thro' give o'er, 

And leave their part created cost 

A naked subject to the watery clouds, 

And waste for churlish Winter's tyranny. 

With reference to the gradual verticality which the sections of this series 
of ancient and modern temples assumed, we might say, that the earliest were 
of the earth earthy, and the latter as sublime as the religion for which they 
were designed. Thus, the height of the Pantheon, at Rome, was equal to its 
diameter, or as 10 to 10 ; that of Venus, and Rome, was as 12A to 10 ; that 
of the Baths of Caracalla, as 14 to 10; of St. Peter's, at Rome,~as 17 to 10; 
of St. Paul's, London, 20 to 10, as also of Lincoln ; and that of Cologne was 
as 34 to 10. 

The last great temple of Christendom, was the Magdalene Church at Paris ; 
it is 325 feet long by 136 feet wide and 120 feet high, and equalled the 
smaller temple at Balbec. It was the work of more than half a century. 
In England, great activity had been used in church-building during the last 
twenty-five years, but the warmest admirers of those zealous efforts could 
never pretend that any regulated architectural spirit has directed those 
works. No church of a monumental character had been attempted. The 
ascendancy of the high church party is, however, favourable to our art, and 
it is not unlikely, that under good direction, it may flourish in a few years. 
But there is much pedantry abroad, and an absence of all originality aud 
intrinsic character in the taste of the day, which leans to the Roman Catholic 
form, the basilica, suited to a demonstrative form of worship, rather than the 
auditorium required by our ritual. Veneration for antiquity is to be respected 
and encouraged, but its transition to superstition is easy. The divines of 
10S0 have left us models, erected under the direction of Sir C. Wren, which 
have not been surpassed. Seven of the city churches were exhibited (mea- 
sured by the Professor), which would be found as remarkable for their 
adaptation to our form of worship — offering the largest area, with the 
smallest obstruction to the sight and hearing, — as they were ingenious and 
admirable in taste and structure. 

The favourite design of Sir C. Wren (laid down from the model now in 
St. Paul's,) was also exhibited. It was a precious legacy to posterity, which 
had never been surpassed in architectural beauty and arrangement, for the 
Anglo-Protestant Cathedral church, and would probably at some future time 
be executed. 

But attachment to our national architecture may be indulged with great 
propriety by the adoption of the forms of the Lady Chapels, modified and 
suited to our ritual — as those of Wells, Ely, and others; or of the chapter, 
houses; and the Greek church. The basilica form requires length rinsuited 
to our services, and the fragments or curtailed portions of that form, often 
practised with small success in our recent churches, seems to point at the 
greater advantage of the vertical arrangement, which the models, the Pro- 
fessor ventured to suggest, in the churches of Wren, and the examples 
quoted, would assure to us. 



THE METROPOLITAN PAVING ACT. 

Ax important case came before Mr. Hardwick at the Marlborough Police 
Office, on the 24th of December last, arising out of a dispute between the 
Equitable Gas Company and the Commissioners of Paving for the parish of 
St. James's, Westminster, as to whether the Equitable Gas Company had or 
had not the right of breaking up the street and afterwards lav down a service 
pipe " without the consent of the Paving Board." After hearing both 
parties, the Magistrate adjourned the case for consideration until Thursday, 
January 5th, when it was again heard for final adjudication. 

Mr. Smith, solicitor, attended on behalf of the Paving Commissioners, 
and Mr. Clarkson, the barrister, for the Equitable Gas Company. 

Mr. Hardwick read the following as his opinion :— This is a complaint bv 
the Board of Pavements, in the Parish of St. James, against the Equitable 
Gas light Company, for breaking and taking up the pavement in their juris- 
diction for the purpose of laying down a new pipe without the consent of 



the board. The answer of the Gas Company is, that it being a service pipe 
and not a main pipe, a notice only and not the consent of the board is re- 
quired. The clauses which gave rise to the disputed point are in the 11th 
section of the 57th George III, cap. 29. Abridged they stand thus — "No 
water or gas light company shall break or take up the pavement in any street 
for the purpose of laying down any main or mains of pipes, unless notice in 
writing be given to the surveyor of pavements three days previous to such 
breaking up," &c. So far water and gas companies are placed upon the 
same footing ; but in the next clause a further restriction is imposed on gas 
companies. By it no gas company can take or break up any pavement for 
the purpose of laying down any new mains or pipes without the consent in 
writing of the Board of Pavement. When my attention was first called to 
this clause, my impression was, that being, as it then seemed to me, in the 
disjunctive, the word "pipes" must be taken to include pipes of every 
description, and that the Board of Pavement was right in their view of the 
case. But on a more attentive perusal of this section, and especially of the 
following one, that impression has been much removed ; and I am now in- 
clined to think that the perplexity in this matter has arisen from an ambi- 
guous use of terms, from using different expressions to signify one and the 
same thing; for example: — In the beginning of the 12th section, which di- 
rects of what materials mains should be, the language there used is worthy 
of observation. " That all new or complete mains, or pipes laid down in any 
street by any water or gas company, whether such new or complete main of 
pipes shall or shall not be substituted for, or added to, any other complete 
main or mains of pipes, shall be of iron alone." Here in these few lines we 
have three different expressions — mains, or pipes, main of pipes, and main 
or mains of pipes, all signifying one and the same thing — the main pipe. In 
the next clause separate and distinct mention is made of service-pipes, which 
may be either of iron or lead, or other durable material ; from which I am 
induced to infer that, possibly, " or " is a typographical error for " of," or at 
any rate it is to be taken in a disjunctive sense, but, as it is frequently used, 
expressing an alternative of terms, a definition or explanation of the same 
thing in different words. Thus " main " being purely a technical word of 
the most comprehensive signification, the terms "pipes" and "mains of 
pipes" have been added and used as an alternative term to give it a clearer 
and more definite meaning for the purposes of this act, and therefore the 
expression " mains or pipes," in the clause under discussion, may not un- 
fairly be read as synonymous with " mains of pipes," or pipes forming the 
main. If this should be the right view of the case, the complaint must be 
dismissed ; as the pipe in question laid down is a service, not a main pipe, 
it requires notice only, not the consent of the board. 

Mr. Smith argued that the 11th section of the act of Parliament related 
both to main and service pipes, whether they were for gas or water com- 
panies. 

Mr. Hardwick said this question only applied to mains. 
After a long discussion, Mr. Hardwick said he still adhered to the con- 
clusion he had just read. 

Mr. Smith observed, that unless there was a conviction before the magis- 
trate, he had no power of appeal. 

Mr. Hardwick said the proper court of tribunal was the Court of Queen's 
Bench. 

Mr. Clarkson had waited very patiently while this discussion was going 
on. He was, however, very much surprised to hear [that Mr. Smith had 
displayed so much ignorance with relation to the decision of those whom he 
(Mr. Clarkson) was proud to call his learned friends — viz., the present At- 
torney-General (Sir F. Pollock), or former Attorney-General (Lord Camp- 
bell), Mr. Adolphus, and another learned friend, all of whom had given 
opinions quite contrary to that which Mr. Smith now stood upon. He con- 
tended that the mains having been laid down at the house of any person 
applying, common law and common seuse gave him the power, which the 
law of England gave every man, of having his own subsoil opened. He did 
not know whether it was, as the worthy magistrate had observed, a typo- 
graphical mistake in the act of Parliament in substituting " or " for " of," or 
one of those tinkerings which he had so frequently observed in the ma- 
chinery of acts of Parliament, but he must say the act was most defective. 
It was wind without sense ; sometimes the word " mains " was used, and 
sometimes "pipes;" they were " ejusdem generis." What a state of things 
it would be, if a collector was to come to a person who wished his gas to be 
laid on in the front of his house, and say he did not like his look ; or, if 
another was to be asked to lay on the water, to say he did not admire his 
politics. Would such proceedings be tolerated ? He was certain not. The 
tenant, the drains having been laid down, had a right to open the subsoil, 
and in his opinion he was fortified by the opinions of the eminent legal au- 
thorities he had mentioned. A similar case had been argued before Mr. 
Long by himself and bis learned friend Mr. Bodkin, and the learned magis- 
trate had, in that case, decided, notwithstanding all his learned friend's ar- 
guments, against him and the parochial commissioner. 

A discussion was here raised between Messrs. Clarkson and Smith, as to 
whether or not notice had been given on the 11th of May by one of the 
inspectors of the gas company of his intention to open the street; Mr. 
Clarkson denied that such notice had ever been given. 

Mr. Hardwick considered that, by the arguments which had been brought 
before him, and also by his own previously written opinion, the gas company 
were authorized to open the ground for service-pipes : the complaint was 
therefore dismissed. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



61 



REVIEWS. 

An Encyclopedia of Architecture, Historical, Theoretical, and Prac- 
tical. By Joseph Gwilt. Illustrated by more than 1000 engrav- 
ings on wood. In one thick volume, Svo., 1080 pp. London, 1842. 
Longman & Co. 

SECOND NOTICE. 

We may resume our notice of this work, by remarking that Mr. 
Gwilt indulges almost quite as much in criticism upon "critics," as 
upon buildings, and that as regards the former, he is apt to express 
himself with a degree of spleen against the whole race, that amounts 
to want of temper, and which certainly is not calculated to obtain for 
him their good word. Nevertheless, his present work has obtained 
unqualified, not to call it outrageous praise, from some of them ; viz., 
those who write for newspapers, and in whose favour he is henceforth 
bound to make an exception. Most good-natured they certainly must 
be allowed to have shown themselves — that is, supposing they looked 
far enough into his book to meet with some of the ungracious re- 
flections he has thrown out upon the fraternity of reviewers. Al- 
though not very thin-skinned ourselves, nor disposed to vindicate the 
pretensions of all our reviewing brethren, we must say, that Mr. Gwilt 
carries his hostility too far. He takes it for granted, that none of 
those who write upon architectural subjects in literary journals, are 
professional men, or if not belonging to the profession, can have qual- 
fied themselves by study, for the task they venture upon. Were the 
" catalogue of works on architecture," which he has given in his En- 
cyclopaedia, what it ought to be, it would contain many, and those not 
the least interesting or valuable of all, for which we are indebted to 
the studies of those whom Mr. G. would have us regard as little 
better than intruders and pretenders — persons who just know enough 
of the subject to assume a tone of authority, and mislead others. 
Since he has not thought proper to insert in that " Catalogue," such 
works as Hope's History of Architecture, Parker's Glossary, (now 
considered as a sort of authority,) and the publications of Rickman, 
Whewell, and Willis — not to mention others, which he has omitted; 
we must suppose that he estimates them not at all higher than the ef- 
fusions of anonymous scribblers and reviewers, although they have ob- 
tained some character not only with the public, but with the profes- 
sion also. What may be his standard of merit— where he has drawn 
the line between works that are, and those which are not worthy of 
being recommended to the student, we are unable to say, for he seems 
to be just as over-liberal and indulgent in some instances, as he is 
vigorous in others. Among the publications enumerated under the 
head of modern English architecture, we do not find the " Public 
Buildings of London," or Malton's "Picturesque Tour," which last, 
though not professedly architectural, as it contains only views, is an 
exceedingly interesting graphic work. Neither are Robert Adam's 
designs there mentioned, although those of James Lewis, a far less 
distinguished architect, are. Neither is Barry's "Traveller's Club 
House" inserted, notwithstanding that both the building itself is con- 
sidered a tolerably favourable specimen of English architecture at the 
present day, and is more fully illustrated than almost any other indi- 
vidual edifice, exceping Holkham. 

That these remarks are rather ungracious, and not likely to prove 
altogether palatable to Mr. Gwilt, we do not deny ; but many of his 
own remarks are so exceedingly ungracious and illiberal, that he has 
do right to look for much forbearance on the part of others. Even 
while we are willing to give him credit for having the interests of ar- 
chitecture at heart, we think he has altogether mistaken the way in 
which they are to be promoted. Instead of expressing any satisfaction 
at finding that architecture now begins to excite far more attention 
than it used to do, he takes no pains to conceal his disapprobation of 
its being taken up as a mere pursuit, by those who do not apply to it 
professionally; which is almost tantamount to saying, that those who 
have a taste for the study, have no right to indulge in it, and to ac- 
quire that knowledge of the art, which is indispensably requisite, if 
they would really enjoy it, and become capable of judging of its pro- 
ductions : — which is certainly strange doctrine, and is so completely 
contrary to all views of sound policy, that, never, it is to be hoped, 
will it be adopted. Of that, however, we have little apprehension ; 
were it ever so desirable, it is now too late to attempt to check what 
is, if not a vapidly advancing, a widely spreading taste. Far more 
reason is there to apprehend that the prejudices to which Mr. G. has 
given way, will raise up some prejudice against his own book : at 
all events, they are not calculated to obtain him good-will. And 
though on our own part we might have abstained from adverting to 
this characteristic of his Encyclopaedia, we should have felt that by so 



doing, we were deserting the cause of architecture and its friends, 
and by our acquiescent silence, abandon manv who have rendered im- 
portant services to that cause, to the odium attempted to be thrown 
upon them by Mr. Gwilt. 

To return to the volume itself: the more popular portion of it, 
namely, the historical, is by no means so full as it ought to be, and 
might have been, had space been obtained for that purpose, by omit- 
ing elsewhere a great deal of matter which there was' not the least 
occasion to introduce at all. Of the architecture of many parts of 
the Continent, we meet with only hasty sketches, without any spe- 
cimens of their buildings; and even the historv (if Italian architec- 
ture is cut short very abruptly, being brought down onlv to the be- 
ginning of the 17th century, as if the following and the present one 
had produced nothing of the least note. Yet some mention of Cal- 
derar and his works, if of no one else, might have been expected, 
from a professed admirer of the Palladian school, as Mr. G. 

Of a work of this nature, it is hardly possible to convey a suitable 
idea by extracts or detached passages; nevertheless, we give those in 
which the characteristics of the Florentine, Roman, and Venetian 
schools are spoken of, and respectively illustrated by an example. 

" Florentine School. — Climate and the habits of a people are the principal 
agents in creating real style in architecture ; but these are in a great mea- 
sure controlled, or it is perhaps more correct to say modified, by the mate- 
rials which a country supplies. Often, indeed, these latter restrict the ar- 
chitect, and influence the lightness or massiveness of the style he adopts. 
The quarries of Tuscany furnish very large blocks of stone, lying so close 
to the surface that they are without other difficulty than that of carriage 
obtained, and removed to the spots where they are wanted. This is probably 
a circumstance which will account for the solidity, monotony, and solem- 
nity which are such commanding features in the Florentine school ; and 
which, if we mayjudge from the colossal ruins still existing, similarly prevailed 
in the buildings of ancient Etruria. In later times another cause contri- 
buted to the continuation of the practice, and that was the necessity of af- 
fording places of defence for the upper ranks of society in a state where in- 
surrection continually occurred. Thus the palaces of the Medici, of the 
Pitti, of the Strozzi, and of other families, served almost equally for for- 
tresses as for palaces. The style seems to have interdicted the use of co- 
lumns in the facade, and on this account the stupendous cornices that were 
used seem actually necessary for the purpose of imparting grandeur to the 
composition. In the best and most celebrated examples of their palaces, 
such as the Strozzi, Pandolfini, and others in Florence, and the Picolomini 
palace at Sienna, the cornices are proportioned to the whole height of the 
building considered as an order, notwithstanding the horizontal subdivisions 
and small interposed cornices that are practised between the base and the 
crowning member. The courts of these palaces are usually surrounded by 
columns and arcades, and their interior is scarcely ever indicated by the ex- 
ternal distribution. From among the extraordinary palaces with which Flo- 
rence abounds, we place before the reader the exquisite facade of the Pan- 
dolfini palace, the design whereof (Fig. 1,) is attributed to the divine Raf- 




Fig. 1 



PANnOI-FINl PALACE. 



faelle d'Urbino. In it almost all the requisites of street architecture are dis- 
played. It is an example wherein the principles of that style arc so ad- 
mirably developed, as to induce us to recommend it, in conjunction with the 
facade of the Farnese palace hereafter given, to the elaborate study of the 
young architect. 

'• Roman School. — Though the city of Rome, during the period of the rise 
and progress of the Roman school of architecture, was not altogether free- 
from insurrectionary troubles, its palatial style is far less massive than that 
of Florence. None of its buildings present the fortress-like appearance of 
those in the last-named city. Indeed, the Roman palaces, from their grace 
and lightness, indicate, on the part of the people, habits of a much more 
pacific nature, and an advancing state of the art, arising from a more inti- 
mate acquaintance with the models of antiquity which were on every side. 
The introductions of columns becomes a favourite and pleasing feature, and 
great care and study appear to have been constantly bestowed on the facades 



62 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



of their buildings : so much so, indeed, iu many, that they are hut masks to 
indifferent interiors. In them the entrance becoai ee a principal object ; and 

though in a great number of cases the abuses which enter into its composi- 
tion are manifold, yet the general effect is usually successful. The courts in 
these palaces are most frequently surrounded with arcades, whence a stair- 
case of considerable dimensions leads to the sala or principal room of the 
palace. The general character is that of grandeur, but devoid altogether of 
the severity which so 6trongly marks the Florentine school. The noblest 
example of a palace in the world is that of the Farnese family at Rome. 

" The palaces of Rome are among the finest architectural works in Europe ; 
and of those in Rome, as we have before observed, none equals the Farnese, 
whose facade is given in Fig. 3. 169. " Ce vaste palais Farnese, qui a tout 
prendre, pour la grandeur de la masse, la regnlarite de son ensemble, et l'ex- 
cellence de son architecture, a tenu jusqu'ici, dans l'opinion des artistes, le 
premier rang entre tous les palais qu'on renomme,"is the general description 
of it by De Quincy, upon whom we have drawn largely, and must continue 
to do so. This edifice, by San Gallo, forms a qnadrangle of 256 feet by 185 
feet. It is constructed of brick, with the exception of the dressings of the 
doors and windows, the quoins of the fronts, and the entablature and loggia 
in the Strada Giulia, which are of travertine stone. Of the same stone, 
beautifully wrought, is the interior of the court. The building consists of 
three stories, including that on the ground, which, in the elevations or fa- 
cades, are separated by impost cornices. The only break in its symmetry 
and simplicity occurs in the loggia, placed in the centre of the first story, 
which connects the windows on each side of it by four columns. On the 
ground story the windows are decorated with square-headed dressings of ex- 
tremely simple design ; in the next story they are flanked by columns, whose 
entablatures are crowned alternately with triangular and circular pediments ; 
and in the third story are circular-headed windows, crowned throughout 
with triangular pediments. The taste in which these last is composed, is 
not so good as the rest, though they were probably the work of Michael 
Angelo, of whose cornice to the edifice Vasari observes: — " E stupendissimo 
il corniccione[maggiore del medesimo palazzo ncllafacciatadinanzi.non si po- 
tendo alcuna cosa ne piii bella ne pin magnified desiderare." The facade towards 
the Strada Giulia is different from the other fronts in the centre only, wherein 
there are three stories of arcades to the loggia, each of whose piers are deco- 
rated with columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders in the respective 
stories as they rise, and these in form and dimensions correspond with the 
three ranks of arcades towards the court. It appears probable that this central 
arrangement was not in the original design of San Gallo, but introduced when 
the third story was completed. Magnificent as, from its simplicity and sym- 
metry, is the exterior of this palace, which, as De Quincy observes : — " est un 
edifice tonjours digne d'etre le sejour d'un prince," yet does it not exceed the 
beauty of the interior. The quadrangle of the court is 88 feet square between 
the columns of the arcades, and is composed with three stories, in which the 
central arrangement above mentioned towards the Villa Giulia is repeated on 
the two lower stories, over the upper whereof is a solid wall pierced in the 



theatres and amphitheatres ; and in its application at the Farnese palace 
rivals in beauty all that antiquity makes us in its remains acquainted with. 
San Gallo, its architect, died in 1540." 

The Venetian school is spoken of at much greater length than the 
others, and is, in our opinion, not a little over rated; tor when we 
come to examine some of its most noted productions, we find them to 
be made up of insignifioant parts, and petty orders treated in a 
formal, dry, and meagre manner, without any of that richness, or of 
that artist-like freedom, Which would reconcile us to the orders 
being employed merely in half-columns and pilasters, as decorated to 
one or more stories of a building. 

" The Venetian School is characterised by its lightness and elegance ; by 
the convenient distribution it displays; and by the abundant, perhaps exu- 
berant, use of columns, pilasters, and arcades, which enter into its compo- 
sition. Like its sister school of painting, its address is more to the senses 
than is the case with those we have just quitted. We have already given an 
account of the church of St. Mark, in the 12th century; from which period, 
as the republic rose into importance by its arms and commerce, its arts were 
destined to an equally brilliant career. The possession in its provinces of 
some fine monuments of antiquity, as well as its early acquaintance with 
Greece, would, of course, work beneficially for the advancement of its ar- 
chitecture. That species of luxury, the natural result of a desire on the 
part of individuals to perpetuate their names through the medium of their 
habitations, though not productive of works on a grand or monumental 
scale, leads, in a democracy (as were the states of Venice), to a very general 
display of moderately splendid and elegant palaces. Hence the extraor- 
dinary number of specimens of the building art supplied by the Venetian 
school. 

" San Micheli, who was born in 1484, may, with propriety, be called its 
founder. Having visited Rome at the early age of 16, for the purpose of 
studying its ancient monuments of art, and having in that city found much 
employment, be, after many years of absence, returned to his native country. 
The mode in which he combined pure and beautiful architecture with the 
requisites called for in fortifications may be seen displayed to great advantage 
at Verona, in which city the Porta cM Pallia is an instance of his wonderful 
ingenuity and taste. But his most admired works are his palaces at 
Verona ; though, perhaps, that of the Grimani family at Venice is his most 
magnificent production. The general style of composition, very different 
from that of the palaces of Florence and Rome, is marked by the use of a 
basement of rustic work, wherefrom an order rises, often with arched win- 
dows, in which he greatly delighted, and these were connected with the 




Fig. 1. far; 

windows. The piers of the lower arcade are ornamented with Doric, 
columns, whose entablature is charged with triglyphs in its frieze, aim 
its metopa; are sculptured with various symbols. The impost of the piers 
are very finely profiled, so as to form the entablatures, when continued, over 
the columns of the entrance vestibule. In the Ionic arcade, over this, the 
frieze of the order is decorated with a series of festoons. The distribution of 
the different apartments and passage is well contrived. All about the 
building is on a scale of great grandeur. Though long unoccupied, and a 
large portion of its internal ornaments has disappeared, it still commands 
our admiration in the Carracci Gallery, which has continued to serve as a 
model for all subsequent works of the kind. The architecture of the Far- 
nese palace, more especially as respects the arcades of its court, is the most 
perfect adaptation of ancient arrangement to more modern habits that has 
ever been designed. We here allude, more particularly, to the arcades, upon 
whose piers orders of columns are introduced. This species of composition, 
heavier, doubtless, less elegant, yet more solid than simple colonnades, is, on 
the last account, preferable to them, where several stories rise above one 
another. The idea was, certainly, conceived from the practice in the ancient 



order after the manner of an arcade, the whole being crowned with the 
proper entablature. As an example, we give in Fig. 3, the facade of the 
Pompei palace at Verona. The genius of ian Micheli was of the very highest 
order ; his works are as conspicuous for excellent construction as they are 
for convenience, unity, harmony, and simplicity, which threw into shade the 
minor abuses occasionally found in them. If he had no other testimony, it 
would be sufficient to say, that for his talents he was held to be in great 
esteem by Michael Angelo ; and our advice to the student would be to study 
his works with diligence. San Micheli devoted himself with great ardour to 
the practice of military architecture ; and though the invention was not for a 
long time afterwards assigned to him, he was the author of the system used 
by Vauban and his school, who, for a long period, deprived him of the credit 
of it. Before him all the ramparts of a fortification were round or square. 
lie introduced a new method, inventing the triangular and pentangular 
bastion, with plain fosses, flanks and square bases, which doubled the sup- 
port ; he moreover not only flanked the curtain, but all the fosse to the next 
bastion, the covered way, and glacis. The mystery of this art consisted in 
defending every part of the inclosure by the flank of a bastion ; hence, mak- 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



(53 



ing it round and squire, the front of it, that is, the space which remains in 
the triangle, which was hefore undefended, was by San Micbeli provided 
against. 

In this example of San Micheli's style, the Palazzo Pompei at Ve- 
rona, the basement is the best part of the composition, for the order 
is too small in proportion to the rest, and the openings on the prin- 
cipal floor as much too large, at least as windows, for the piers be- 
tween them must be most inconveniently narrow within. It is rather 
singular, that while he was upon the subject of Italian architecture, 
Mr. Guilt should not have alluded to the recent introduction of the 
palaszo style, in this country. As an example of it, he gives the 
facade of ihe Palazzo Pandoltini at Florence, strongly recommending 
that and the Palazzo Farnese, to the " elaborate study of the young 
architect," but without informing him, that by going into Pall Mall, 
he would perceive what use had been made both of the one and the 
other, by Mr. Barry, in the two adjoining club houses — the Travellers 
and the Reform. Though neither copies nor even imitations— in the 
ordinary meaning of the term, they are evidently borrowed from those 
prototypes, which in point of mere taste, are there improved upon 
and refined. The Reform Club House has been spoken of, by some, 
as being a direct copy of the Farnese; with what justice or judgment, 
may be seen from the above representation of the latter, which though 
too small to do more than afford an idea of the general composition, 
shows the manner in which the entrance and window on each side 
of it are squeezed together, produces anything but an agreeable 
effect; while the centre window above, exceptionable in character 
at the best, is, so introduced as to constitute a striking blemish in the 
■whole design. 

We must now take leave of Mr. Gwilt's work, which we should 
have been happy to have been able to speak of in less qualified 
terms of approbation. It contains a great deal of valuable, but not 
so much fresh matter as it might have done ; but it also contains 
many opinions which we should be the last to support, and which are 
not likely to gain ground with the public, at the present day. We 
cannot, however, conclude, without expressing our high approbation 
of the spirited manner with which the publishers have got up the 
work, both in the typography and illustrations ; the latter are beauti- 
fully executed as wood, or may be seen by the above specimens, 
which we have been permitted to select from the work. 



Ensamples of Railway making; which, although not of English prac- 
tice, are submitted, with Practical Illimrations to the Civil Engineer, 
and ihe British and Irish public. London : Architectural Library, 
59, High Holborn. 

The great disparity between the cost of railways in this country 
and that of similar works in America, is worthy at the present time of 
giving rise to some important considerations. Whilst on this side of 
the Atlantic, our main lines of railway have been constructed of ma- 
terials extremely durable, in a manner remarkable for strength and 
solidity, and according to a standard of excellence with respect to 
gradients, which far surpasses any thing that has been attempted 
under like circumstances in other countries, the policy of absorbing 
such vast sums of money as have been required to effect all this is at 
least open to controversy. Hitherto every thing has been done in 
accordance with our national character, and never has that spirit of 
energy and industry which marks the Briton under every varying cir- 
cumstance of time and distance, been more proudly exhibited than in 
the bold and ardent expedition with which the surface of his country 
was chequered by a net work of great commercial highways, con- 
structed in almost every respect on principles the very antipodes of 
those which have guided other nations in their imitation of the same 
spirit. Seizing at once upon the experimental fact, that the friction 
of iron wheels upon iron roads is incomparably smaller than upon roads 
of stone, and connecting this with the no less certain truth, that re- 
sistance to motion is made up of friction and gravitv, the English 
engineer conceived the grand idea of almost annihilating gravity by 
reducing the track of the railway to nearly a perfect level. It was 
demonstrable that the same absolute power which could impel a given 
weight on a common road at 10 miles an hour, would, on a level rail- 
way, impel five times that weight at treble the velocity, and it was 
further unquestionable that an inclination greater than I in 224 would 
at least double the power required to effect this, and thus diminish 
the superiority of the railway by one half. If a horizontal railway be 
compared with a horizontal common road, the superiority of the 
former over the latter is as 15 to 1 ; but if a railway inclining 1 in 30 
be compared with a common road also inclining 1 in 30, its superiority 



in this case is only as U to 1. Following out the principle of which 
these are illustrations, it is no less obvious now than it was in the ori- 
gin of railways, that the more nearly the planes of a railway approach 
to a level, the more superiority will they present over the common 
road. It was this principle which demanded in the name alike, of 
science and of commerce, that in the track of the railway every moun- 
tain should be brought low, and every valley should be rilled up : it 
was this which caused the transport of vast masses of earth from the 
higher to the lower parts of the country, which forced the deep exca- 
vation, reared the lofty embankment, bored the yawning tunic 
dealt with all the most solid materials of earth, as il they hail been 
the playthings of a baby's doll-house, instead of fabrics which require 
to be encountered by the sinews of hosts and the wealth ol nations. 

For, acting on principles which appeared to.be sani tioned by every 
maxim of wisdom and experience, who can blame, with any >how of 
reason, the engineers of this country, to whom the world is so much 
indebted, ],o less in the early origin, than during tin' steady progress 
of railway engineering. Fifteen years ago, when railway sciem 
in its infancy, no voice was raised in opposition to the principle of 
almost horizontal gradients, and the necessity for those gigantic works 
which this principle demanded was as heartily acquiesced in by di- 
rectors, by shareholders, and by the whole public, as by the engineers 
themselves. Nay, had it been otherwise — had the engineers stood 
alone in support of their principle — had the public voice been against 
them — and had the public press branded their projects as extravagant 
and wasteful, we are amongst the number of those who contend that 
they would still have done right to maintain their principle, and we 
should have applauded and admired them the more for carrying, in 
the first instance, a superior degree of excellence into those works 
which were destined to furnish an example to the whole civilized 
world. We confidently appeal to any competent judge, who, tho- 
roughly understanding the mechanical and political distinctions be- 
tween the railway and the common road, shall fairly and dispassionately 
review the circumstances of this country, whether we should have 
done well or wisely to adopt a less horizontal succession of planes for 
those main lines which are probably destined to endure for ages, as 
the great arteries through which commerce will ramify into a thou- 
sand inferior channels all over the face of the country. While we 
thus regard with great satisfaction the superior character with respect 
to gradients which has been adopted for all the great railways of this 
country, there is yet another element in their construction, which, 
while it influences in no degree whatever the facilities for locomotion, 
yet contrasts remarkably in point of expense with corresponding 
works on the American lines. We shall readily be understood here 
as referring to those costly bridges and viaducts of iron, brick and 
stone, which have so enormously swelled the estimates for executing 
our principal railways. To decide upon the kind of gradients to be 
adopted for a given line of railway — a decision which regulates, more 
than any thing else, the cost of its construction — required, in the first 
instance, only a knowledge of simple principles, and in the absence of 
that experience which later years have supplied with respect to the 
comparative expense of working lines with steep and with level gra- 
dients, our engineers acted in a spirit of perfectly sound wisdom, 
when they laid the greatest practicable tax upon capital for the pur- 
pose of enabling the nation to realize, in its full extent, the superior 
advantages of railway transit. But in deciding on the style and cha- 
racter of the attendant works, which are entirely independent of the 
surface of the railway, the question assumes a purely commercial 
aspect, and may be thus stated: Suppose a line of railway with the 
most complete 'and substantial works of masonry, to have cost, say, 
one million of money, and suppose the same line could have been 
constructed with a more perishable class of works, as tor instance, 
bridges and viaducts of timber, at an expense of half this sum, which 
kind of work is it most judicious to adopt, having regard to the cir- 
cumstance, that after the lapse of a certain number of years the con- 
structions of timber will require to be renewed, whilst those of ma- 
sonry would require onlv very trifling repairs. Suppose in the former 
case, where the railway had cost a million sterling, the interest de- 
rived from the expended capital would amount to i per cent per an- 
num. It is clear that in the latter case, where the line only cost half 
a million, the interest derivable on the capifal would be 10 per cent. 
Now supposing 5 per cent of this to be set aside as a reserved fund, 
would the works of timber last so long a time as not to require 
restoration, until the reserved fund had sufficiently accumulated to 
effect this restoration? This is the grand point which should de- 
cide between the adoption of timber, or a more expensu e and durable 
material for the architectural works of railways. We are not here 
to be understood, for one moment, as contending that any such pro- 
portion, as that which has been assumed, exists between the cost > f a 
railway with stone bridges and viaducts and one iu which their works 



64 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



are of wood. What we have said, however, will be sufficient to in- 
dicate the general principle of the comparison, and the utmost con- 
cession we are prepared at present to make to the champions of 
cheap and therefore temporary railways, is this, that the comparative 
cost and the comparative durability of the two classes of works are, 
in all cases, worthy of being considered by the engineer in connexion 
with the estimated amount of revenue derivable from anv given line. 

We are aware that, in all this, we are stating nothing new to the en- 
gineer; nothing but what has already occurred to most of the leading 
members in the profession, and nothing but what will be extensivelv 
practised, in laying out the numerous branch railways, which the con- 
venience of the country still requires. Our object in making these 
observations, will be amply fulfilled, if they succeed, in disabusing 
some part of the public mind, of the notion, that the costly stations 
and bridges and viaducts are all that distinguish our railways from 
those of Europe and of America. It should be remembered, that the 
much larger capital expended on our works has effected a system of 
levels, which enables us to command far higher speeds, and to realize, 
in every way, greater advantages from the railway, as compared with 
the common road. In every case where it is desired to take a compre- 
hensive view of railways, as a political question, it is essential to 
distinguish between that part of the cost which is due to the superior 
character of the buildings connected with the railway, and that which 
is incurred in conformity with principles immediately connected with 
the facilities for working locomotive power. On the former of these 
points, we grant, that a statesman, a merchant, or a financier of any 
kind, may form a competent judgment, with proper data before him. 
On the latter, the only qualified judge is the engineer, because a de- 
cision must in most cases be made with reference to the future, and 
particularly with reference to the future auspices of engineering and 
mechanical skill. Thus, in the origin of railways, the engineer alone 
was qualified to chalk out a system of gradients which should corres- 
pond with the known properties of the locomotive engine, and of iron 
as a material for the wheels of carriages to roll upon — so in like 
manner Mr. Brunei, or those of like qualifications, are alone entitled 
to consideration in deciding such a question as that of the gauge to 
be adopted for the Great Western Railway, because the accuracy of 
the decision depended upon the truth or error of certain prognostica- 
tions in physical science, which a mere financier, however able, is not 
competent to entertain. The engineer, in fact, must regulate his 
operations, both by past experience and by anticipations of the 
future ; to what extent these latter arc or should be based upoD, the 
former depends on many circumstances, but to some important extent, 
all will admit, that the past should influence our future projects of 
every kind. It would, therefore, be highly desirable at the present 
time, that accurate and comprehensive returns should be framed of 
the actual working cost of locomotive power on all railways of every 
different rate of inclination, in order that a correct judgment may 
be formed upon the influence which gradients really exert in affecting 
the working expenses of railways. Thus would information of great 
value be placed at the engineer's command j but until sufficient data 
have been obtained to clear this subject of the obscurity which now 
rests upon it, we certainly must protest against the blind and whole- 
sale jumbling which has been perpetrated by some who profess to be 
authorities on the subject of railway estimates. We insist, most 
strongly, upon the necessity for separating the cost of attendant 
works from those which have been rendered essential purely by the 
character of the gradients adopted ; and we warn all those, who, 
without any engineering knowledge to guide them, shall be rash 
enough to commit themselves to paper, on subjects of this nature, 
that the less they have to do with the engineering part of the subject 
the better. The attendant works, as we have said, involve more or 
less of commercial considerations, and these should therefore be free 
for discussion; and anything possessing novelty and merit, which 
can be placed before the engineer in the way of designs, applicable 
to such attendant works, will no doubt be received by the profession 
at large with interest and gratification. 

The spirited publisher of the work before us, is already too well 
known, and too highly valued by the profession to require anything 
from us iu the way of general praise. If any such testimony were 
wanting, it will always be gratifying to acknowledge the many valu- 
able contributions to engineering science, which Mr. Weale has origin- 
ated, and which he has been something more than a secondary means 
of giving to the world. In the production entitled Railway Ensam- 
ples, however, Mr. Weale appears before us in a new character. He 
has here assumed the province of authorship, and in this capacity 
places himself before the bar of public opinion, subject to that. judg- 
ment, whether of condemnation or approval, which that severe tribunal 
hesitates not to pronounce, on all who thus prominently court her 
notice. In some respects, we feel bound to congratulate Mr. Weale 



upon the character he has here assumed — we hail with pleasure, on a 
first view, the modest and simple announcement of the titlepage, and 
assuming the value of his examples, as specimens of design, we are 
glad to perceive that an individual has had the spirit and sagacity to 
present to the notice of the English engineer a connected series of 
works from a foreign railway. On looking further into their exam- 
ples, we find them to be drawn from the Utica and Syracuse Railway, 
an American line about 53 miles in length. Whether these examples 
be worthy or not of presentation, in such a form, to the engineers of 
this country, is not now the question ; supposing they are so, the pro- 
fession is undoubtedly much indebted to the iudividual who has thus 
incurred the pains and expense of bringing them before their notice. 
Mr. Weale's appearance in the character of an author, however, is 
not limited to the dry and brief notices which are required to illus- 
trate a set of railway plates, but embraces a somewhat extensive 
catalogue of subjects connected with railway engineering which have 
been condensed into 40 pages of preliminary observations. These 
observations are accompanied by several maps, and by plates of an 
American locomotive engine, and an American earth excavator. Al- 
though we cannot agree with the writer in many of these preliminary 
observations, we have at the same time great pleasure in stating, that 
the reader will find amongst them much that is interesting and amu- 
sing. We may mention particularly the description of the American 
locomotives, and that of the Satellite engine on the London and 
Brighton Railway. We are not able to say much in praise of the ex- 
cavating machine ; it appears to be a very clumsy affair, encumbered 
by a mass of machinery out of all proportion to the effect required. 
Its economy is extremely doubtful except when put in competition 
with very high prices for labour, in which case it might possibly be 
more economical than manual labour for excavating earth. The ma- 
chine is said to be capable of excavating 1500 cubic yards in 12 hours, 
at a cost for fuel of 12s. per diem. To this statement, Mr. Weale 
adds, that " earthwork in England has generally been taken at lotf. to 
Is. per yard." He forgets, however, that this price includes the 
carriage or haulage of the earth, and that the price of getting and 
filling the stuff, which is all that the American machine performs, is 
commonly not more than from '2d. to 5rf. per yard. It is, therefore, 
some mean between these two prices which should be taken for com- 
parison with the machine ; but at present, we are not able to make 
this comparison, having no information as to her cost and working 
expenses. 

A second division of the preliminary observations is principally 
directed to a comparison between the cost of the American railways 
and those of this country. The principal facts on which Mr. Weale 
argues, are these, that the aggregate cost of the American railways 
was estimated in 1839, at £40U0 per mile, including all buildings and 
apparatus ; and secondly, that actual works are not executed cheaper 
in America than in this country, as the greater expense of timber 
here is counterbalanced by the greater expense of labour there. He 
therefore, concludes that the greatly increased cost of the English 
railways has been caused by the more expensive nature of the works, 
that is by the dilference of the two systems of construction. This is 
undoubtedly true to a certain extent, and here the comparison might 
cease, with this observation, that we have obtained far superior rail- 
ways, by expending more money in their construction than the Ame- 
ricans. In case, however, any erroneous notions may be formed as to 
the comparative eligibility of the two systems, which are here con- 
trasted, it may be sufficient to suggest, that no fair comparison can be 
made without full particulars, not only of the works executed on each, 
but also of the gradients and curves with which the lines were respec- 
tively constructed. It will be found that gradients of 25 to 3u ft. per 
mile are considered highly favourable in America, whereas, those of 
greater steepness than 15 or lt> feet per mile, have been held in this 
country to be highly objectionable. Again, as to curves, the American 
lines abound with sharp bends, which are quite inadmissible in those 
of Great Britain, A large proportion of the American lines are 
graded only for single lines of way; and in many of those which are 
graded for double lines, only a single track has been laid down. The 
cost per mile, as stated above, furnishes a very unfair comparison, in 
every respect, with the English lines, where the gradients and curves 
are entirely of a different order, the works are far more substantial, 
are mostly constructed for a double line of way, and where the cost 
of land has necessarily been excessive; whereas, in America the land 
in many cases has cost almost nothing. Another important point of 
comparison is the annual expense of working the railways iu the two 
countries. M.De Gerstner estimated, in 1839, that the annual expense 
of working the American lines was G3 - fcU per cent, of the gross in- 
come, and that the interest on the whole capital invested iu railroads 
in the United States does not exceed 5£ per cent, per annum. Now 
this annual expense is far greater than that of working the English 



1813.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



railways — as, for instance, the Grand Junction costs 55-53 of tlie 
income, the Great Western 51-87 per cent. ; and taking the average 
of all the railways, it would be found considerably below the American 
lines. In the case of the English lines, this amount will be still further 
reduced when their heavy earth works become perfectly settled, and 
no longer subject to those slips which, up to this time, have occasioned 
such heavy expenses. We find that the average dividend of 82 rail- 
ways reported in the Railway Times amounts to Al. 10s. per cent, per 
annum, which, although less in absolute amount than that produced 
by the American lines, is in reality far greater when the prospective 
circumstances are considered. Thus, for instance, supposing the 
slight timber bridges and viaducts of the American lines will last 20 
years, which is a favourable supposition, where is the capital to come 
from in order to effect their restoration at the end of that time. Un- 
doubtedly it can scarcely be reserved out of the present dividends of 
oi per cent., for nearly the whole amount will be required to provide 
the large capital for restoring their perishable works. On the other 
hand, the English lines, firmly and substantially constructed, are oay- 
ing a steady dividend of 4i per cent, on the average and no reserved 
fund is required, as the works are calculated to endure for many cen- 
turies. The conclusion to be drawn from all this is highly unfavour- 
able to the American system, and at the same time encouraging to 
those who have embarked their capital in our own lines. While the 
railways of the United States must inevitably, in a very few years, 
present a condition of premature decay, with a hopeless prospect of 
restitution, those of this country will, in all probability, afford a more 
favourable investment for capital than at the present day. We have 
no wish to dispute much that is really valuable and ingenious in the 
railways of the United States, but we must contend against these lines 
being held up as a model for the great trunk lines of this country. 
Mr. Weale points out several lines in which he considers the American 
system would be applicable, and particularly advoc ites its adoption 
in Ireland. With certain restrictions, and under certain circum- 
stances connected with the expected revenue, and the capital avail- 
able to the undertakings, the American system of cheap temporary 
constructions and inferior gradients may be advisable for some lines in 
Ireland, but we should extremely regret to see the main lines in that 
country laid out on such a principle. 

The most valuable part of Mr. Weale's book, because the most 
practical, and that which contains the most information is that which 
relates to the bridges actually constructed for the American railways. 

The Utica and Syracuse Railroad, which has been selected as 
affording so favourable a specimen of cheap engineering in the United 
States, forms part of the great line of communication across the states 
of Massachusets and New York. This great line, which has been 
executed by several different companies, is upwards of 530 miles in 
length. It commences at Boston, in Massachusets, and passing through 
or near the towns of Worcester, West Stockbridge, Albany, Sche- 
nectady, Utica, Rome, Syracuse, Auburn, Waterloo, and Worcester, 
sweeps along the southern shore of Lake Ontario, for the last 200 
miles of its course, from the Atlantic Ocean, and terminates at Buffalo, 
the north-eastern extremity of Lake Erie. The part of this great 
line which lies between Utica and Syracuse, is 53 miles in length, 
and throughout its course it follows the line of the Erie Canal. We 
have no information as to the gradients on this line, but judge that 
that they must be extremely favourable, as the Erie Canal was on a 
perfectly dead level, without any canal lock whatever between Utica 
and Syracuse, and for several miles east of the former place. 

After an attentive examination of the plates referring to these 
bridges, we feel bound to pronounce that, as specimens ol carpentry, 
they possess by no means superior merit. In place of that admirable 
system of timbers abutting against each other, which gives so much 
stiffness to some of the best specimens of English carpentrv, the light 
planks of the American bridges are held together by an innumerable 
quantity of bolts, and the proper strength of the timber is not applied 
to the fullest advantage. The white pine, which is used so exten- 
sively in the American bridges is a timber very little known in this 
country. It is a white wood with a short grain, possessing little 
strength of fibre, and abounding in small black knots; it is used a 
good deal in Edinburgh and other parts of Scotland for the interior of 
houses, but is never applied to external work. 

In addition to the plates of the bridges, and of the viaduct over a 
considerable valley and creek on this railway, there are several plates, 
showing the system of piling and laying the permanent way on a part 
of the line about ID miles in length which was laid upon piles, the 
remaining length being graded, as it is called in America, that is 
f onned by cuttings and embankments, as usual in this country. 

There are also several plates showing culvert*, but these possess 
little interest for the English reader; nor could the engineer derive 
any advantage from a comparison of this part of the American railway 



system with his own. The last portion of the work contains an in- 
teresting account (historical and statistical! of the Belgian railways 
by Mr. Edward Dobson, but we believe this part of the work is only a 
translation. 

These ensamples of railway making, affording the best account 
which has yet been published in this country of the railroad works of 
the United States, will sertainly find a place in the library of every 
engineer. Although we cannot consent to the wholesale adoption of 
the American system which Mr. Weale appears to advocate, there 
are yet many cases, both here and on the continent, in which these 
examples will prove very useful in railwav engineering. We must 
not omit to mention, in conclusion, that the pl'ates, as in all" Mr. Weale's 
works, are admirably executed, and the details are -o well shown 
that the most ordinary capacity may readily comprehend every part 
of the construction. 



The Principles and Practice of Land, Engineering, Trigonometrical 
Subterraneous, and Marine Surveying. By Charles BjDRNs, C. E. 
London : John < Hlivier. 

We need scarcely say that on all occasions we feel much greater 
pleasure in speaking well of any book which comes under our notice 
than when we are obliged to pronounce an opinion of almost unquali- 
fied censure. In the present instance, however, an impartial reviewer 
has only the latter alternative ; and we could wish sincerely for the 
credit of the profession both at home and abroad, that the production 
of works with such feeble claims upon public favour were much less 
rare than it is. We are told in the preface of Mr. Bourns' book, 
that the aim with which it is written has been "the formation of a 
book of reference." Had this really been the case, had the volume 
been merely a work of reference, and had it been so styled on its title- 
page, we should have known what to expect, and should never have 
been deceived into supposing that we were opening a book containing 
the principles and practice of every kind of surveying. But we are 
told in a few lines further on in the preface, " that the volume is in- 
tended to constitute a consistent whole; so that to understand an ad- 
vanced part, a person must be conversant with what goes before." 
How then can it be a work of reference in the common acceptation of 
this term, since by the author's own showing, it requires a regular 
study to be made of what goes before, in order to understand any ad- 
vanced part. Surely this destroys its value as a work of reference. 
Indiscriminate censure is seldom just, and in the present case we are 
far from saying that the book before us is absolutely worthless, and 
that there is nothing in it which might be instructive to the profes- 
sional man. At the same time we feel bound to enter a strong protest 
against that too prevalent system of book-making of which this work 
is a remarkable specimen. It contains an immense mass of antiquated 
information injudiciously selected and badly arranged. The few grains 
of original matter which are scattered through its pages relate to 
minute points of professional practice, often magnified into undue im- 
portance, and introduced to the exclusion of more valuable things for 
no reason that we can discover, except that they happen to have 
formed part of the author's own practice, or to have been introduced 
by some of his friends. We make no pretence of having waded 
through the wdiole contents of this book, which is an octavo volume of 
350 pages; but having looked into several of those parts of it which 
are not purely elementary, the general impression is by no means such 
as to encourage a further search. In every point of view the work is 
far inferior to those of Mr. BrurT, and to Mr. Williams' Geodesy, books 
which hive been reviewed in former numbers of the Journal. 



Bluni's Civil Engineer and Practical Mechanist. Division C 
Portion the Second. London: Ackerman and Co. 

This portion is principally devoted to the delineation and descrip- 
tion of machinery by the Messrs. Rennie. The first plate is of the 
gun-boring and turning mill, with the lathe apparatus— machinery 
used in gun and engine manufacture. Another plate is of M«st<. 
Rennie's great boring lathe ; it is used in the boring of cylinders, 
condensers, air pumps, and bored vessels of engines and mills, 
and in turning pistons, rods, shafts and journals. Three plates 
are of their marine dredging and excavating machine, part of which 
was in the first portion. The last plate is devoted to Sir Isainbard 
Brunei's shield for the Thames Tuunel. We must observe, however 
that although we have used the term plate to express the several 
sheets, many parts of the works are separately described on each 
sheet, and form valuable drawings for reference. 



66 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



Turning and Mechanical Manipulation, intended as a Work of General 
Reference and Practical Instruction, on the Lathe and the various 
Mechanical Pursuits followed by Amateurs. By Charles HOLT- 
ZAPFFEL, A. Inst. C. E. 

Mr. Holtzapffel looking at the dearth of works on the arts pro- 
fessed by the mechanical engineer, has felt himself called upon to 
bring before the public the results of his experience on a subject of so 
much interest and value. It is fortunate, perhaps, for the mechanical 
engineer, that turning and many other of his pursuits have for a long 
period formed a favourite occupation with many wealthy individuals, 
as thereby an amount of patronage has been conferred on the tool 
maker, such as could have been obtained by no other means, and 
which has powerfully conduced to the improvement of the tools used 
in this important department, while many experiments have been 
made at private expense, which could scarcely have been executed 
by persons engaged in business. With a class of wealthy amateurs 
to whom to look for supporters, Mr. Holtzapffel could scarcely have 
rendered a more acceptable service than the production of a work, 
which, both to the practical man and the amateur, must be of high 
utility. Mr. Holtzapffel, in the resources of his large establishment, 
and availing himself of the experience of his predecessors in the 
firm, possesses many advantages for the task he has undertaken, and 
seems to devote himself to it con amore. The treatment of it he pro- 
poses to enter into at some length, and we can scarcely blame him for 
this, as the public will profit by the extent of labour devoted to the 
subject. 

The volume now before us is one of five, and is devoted to the con- 
sideration of the various materials used. The second will discuss 
the principles of construction and application of cutting tools ; the 
third will treat of hand turning ; the fourth of complex or ornamental 
turning, and the fifth of the principles and' practice of amateur mecha- 
nical engineering. 

The description of the materials is distributed into three classes ; 
the vegetable, the animal, and the mineral kingdoms. The description 
of the various kinds of woods, not only developes new facts as to 
their technical peculiarities, but illustrates their botanical characte- 
ristics, a portion of the work to which Professor Royle has contributed 
his valuable assistance. The materials from the animal kingdom, 
which are treated with no less ability, include shells and mother of 
pearl, bones, horn, tortoiseshell, whalebone and ivory. The materials 
from the mineral kingdom, embrace clay, amber, jet, cannel coal, the 
ornamental and precious stonPs,the metals and their alloys. To state, 
however, that the work is limited to a simple description of these 
materials, would convey an inadequate idea of its value, as it abounds 
with practical descriptions of many important or interesting processes. 
Thus we have observations on seasoning, softening, bending, and 
colouring wood ; the manufacture of iron ; forging, hardening and 
tempering of iron and steel ; the melting and mixing of metals ; and 
the properties of alloys; casting and founding; wire drawing and 
soldering. To the description ot tempering alone twenty-five pages 
are devoted, and the subject is treated with a minuteness and ability, 
which leuve nothing to be desired. 



The Atmospheric Railway. Observations on the Report of Sir 
F. Smith and Professor Barlow. By Thomas F. Bergin, M.R.I.A. 
Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1843. 

Considerable controversy has existed on this subject, and a long 
correspondence has taken place between Mr. Bergin and Professor 
Barlow ; with respect to it, we, however, are more inclined to look 
forward to the result of the great trial now in progress at Dublin, than 
to depend upon any mathematical formula, upon the bases of which 
no party seems to be agreed. The experiment will soon be satisfac- 
torily settled one way or other, and the merits or demerits of the 
atmospheric system, will be shown in all their extent. Mr.Bergin 
has devoted considerable ability to the discussion of the subject, and 
the many who saw reason to distrust Professor Barlow's deductions, 
cannot do better than consult this pamphlet. 



Jl Series of Diagrams, Illustrative of the Principles of Mechanical 
Philosophy. Drawn on Stone, by Henry Chapman, and Printed in 
Colours, by C. F. Cheffins. Loudon : Chapman and Hall. 

The fourth and fifth parts illustrate the pulley, inclined plane and 
wedge. The plan, which is that of giving practical and useful appli- 
cations of the simple powers is well carried out, and thus both theory 
and practice are at once brought to bear on the instruction of the 
student ; while it is not only a good work for the machinist, but a n 
excellent drawing book. The work contains so manv illustration 



valuable machines, that we feel ourselves still more strongly called 
upon to urge the necessity of some letter-press explanations accom- 
panying the plates, treating on the theory of the powers and their 
several applications. 



The Literary and Scientifc Pocket Rook. By J. W. Gutch. 
London : Lumley. 

This contains much valuable matter of reference, and as such, we 
have much pleasure in recommending it to our readers. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 



Sir — The problem proposed for solution by your correspondent " Con- 
crete," at page 27 of the last month's Journal, is certainly one of great in- 
terest and importance ; as he states, I believe, it has not been investigated 
in any of the standard works on the strength of materials. Like all ques- 
tions connected with the strains of beams, it is one which, whether consi- 
dered theoretically or practically, is of the most complicated nature and of 
great difficulty; particularly if investigated with mathematical accuracy. 
There are so many data to such questions, varying in each particular in- 
stance — so many circumstances which modify the general result — such as the 
deflection of the beam, and consequent variation of the length of leverage, 
the position of the neutral line, &c, that since the time of gables to the 
present day, they have always been considered as questions of the greatest 
difficulty ; and yet there is no subject connected with theoretical mechanics 
more interesting to the engineer; none more useful, especially in the present 
age, when timber and iron are so extensively used in the most stupendous 
structures, the economy and durability of which depend so much upon the 
proper application of mechanical principles. I am sorry to say, however, 
that even now, there are many engineers, particularly those belonging to the 
old school, and such as have not the least knowledge of the elementary 
principles of mechanics, who will not admit its utility ; who, because such 
men as Telford, Brindley, George Stephenson, and many others, have risen 
to eminence by the mere force of their talents, unfettered by, what they 
term, college knowledge, think that they may also jog on on the "thumb of 
rule " system. And yet, how frequently have I seen these pseudo-engineers, 
these practical men, who will not look into a book, for fear it should destroy 
the originality of their conceptions, fall into the greatest errors from the 
want of such knowledge. I shall merely state one instance. A resident 
engineer of one of our railways proposed a plan for strengthening a timber 
bridge on the line, and in order to test the efficiency of his improvement, 
made a model of the bridge on the scale, if I recollect rightly, of one inch 
to the foot; he found that the model would support a certain weight, and 
thence argued in a truly practical manner, that as the bridge was twelve 
times the model, it would support twelve times the weight ! Thus satisfac- 
torily establishing the utility of his proposed improvement. To return to 
the question to be solved. If we omit the consideration of the deflection of 
the beam, the result will be simple and sufficiently correct for practical pur- 
poses, and the problem in question may easily be reduced to that of finding 
the dimensions and form of a beam resting loosely on two supports, neces- 
sary to sustain a given weight, (in this instance 42 tons,) placed at the centre 
of the beam. 

Tour correspondent states that he found upon experiment, that a bar iron* 
loaded, as he describes, broke near the two supports; this certainly is strange^ 
and contrary to what we should expect theoretically and practically ; for 
it is evident that the beam between the two supports is more curved at the 
centre than near the supports, and consequently the strain, being measured 
by the tension of the fibres, must be greatest in the centre, and gradually 
diminish to the point of support. 1 have several times repeated his expe- 
riment on a small scale, using, however, wood instead of iron, and have 
always found that the wood broke in the centre between the supports ; of 
course with the same proportion of external and internal parts mentioned 
by your correspondent. 

It is also clear, from the principle of the lever, that the strain at the 
centre of the beam, is the same as that produced by a weight of 42 tons 
placed there, except that the action is reversed: the upper side of the beam 
will now be compressed in place of being extended, and the under side ex- 
tended instead of being compressed. If what I have advanced be correct, 
as I believe, it will result that the best form to give to the beam is the para- 
bolic ; that is, the depth of the beam should be greatest at the middle point 
and diminish at the ordinates of a parabola towards the supports. As the 
reasons for assuming this form to be the best, are given in all works on the 
strength of materials, it would be useless to repeat them here. It is gene- 
rally considered best to have the curved side of the beam upwards in such 
a ease, but as in this example the action is reversed, it follows that it would 
be advisable to have the curved side downwards. As your correspondent 
only states the proportion of the distances of the weights from the points 
of supports to that between them, it is impossible to give the exact dimen- 
sions. I have not thought it necessary to give a diagram, as I believe, this 
explanation may be easily understood from the description, and by referring 
to that given by your correspondent. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



<;7 



If no better attempt to solve this problem be offered, you will oblige uie 
"by inserting this letter. 

I remain Sir. 

Your obedient servant, 
London, Jan. 10th, 1843. T. F. 



PROCEEDINGS OP SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 
Dec. 19. — J. Shaw, Esq., in the Chair. 
Mr. Fowler, Hon. See., on presenting a plan for rebuilding that portion of 
Hamburgh, lately destroyed by fire, from M. Chateauneuf, mentioned as a 
gratifying circumstance, that our countryman, Mr. Lindley, the engineer, had 
been appointed by the senate to superintend, in part, the rebuilding of the 
city. 

Mr. Godwin read a paper on Tournay Cathedral, which was partly given 
in last month's Journal, and the continuation in the present number. 

Jan. 9. — Charles Barry, Esq., V. P., in the Chair. 

A. paper was read " On a new mode of constructing tfie Fines of Chimneys,'' 
by Mr. Moon, surveyor, explaining an improvement in the construction of 
flues, of a circular form, of different sizes, from 8 to 14 inches in diameter; 
the bricks are arranged in courses, carried up and bonded in the thickness 
of the wall. 

" Description of the Testimonial to the late Sir Harry Bunard Xeale," 
erected at Lymington, communicated by Mr. Draper, of Chichester, the 
architect. It consists of an obelisk, 76 feet high, constructed of Dartmoor 
granite, standing on a pedestal 18 feet high, the total cost is about £ 1,400. 

Mr. Sylvester's process was described "for rendering stone, brick, and 
other absorbent materials impervious to water." It consists of two solutions, 
the first a solution of soap, the second of alum ; the brick or stone is first 
dipped in the solution of soap, and afterwards in the alum, or the solution 
may be applied with a brush. By the combination of the two solutions, a 
chemical action takes place, which fills the pores and resists the action of 
water and moisture. Colouring matter may be introduced into the sulutions, 
and give them any tint that may be desired. * 

Mr. Billings introduced his " Illustrations of a mode of striking Gothic 
tracery ;" they were principally selected from the old choir of Carlisle Ca- 
thedral, which was repaired in 1764. The principle upon which most of the 
varieties of the tracery in this cathedral were formed, was by the combina- 
tion of curves all having their centres in the same series of lines, formed by 
dividing a square into four parts each way. The interstices were afterwards 
tilled up by quatrefoil and trefoil ornament, but the main curves are all 
formed on the above principle. Mr. Billings introduced a fine specimen of 
tracery, described by circles struck from every intersection of the lines 
within the square as centres. 

Jan. 23. — T. L. Donaldson, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Herr F. Eisenlohr, Professor, acknowledging the 
honour of being elected an honorary and corresponding member of the Insti- 
tute ; this letter contains some excellent remarks which we have been per- 
mitted to extract. 

" I shall esteem it," says Ilerr Eisenlohr, " a great honour to be united in 
closer intimacy with your Institute, by the communication of anything relat- 
ing to the profession. Such an intercourse and reciprocity among the archi- 
tects of different countries is much to be wished for at the present time, 
which is principally distinguished from all previous epochs in the history of 
architecture by its want of unity. Attempts have been made for some time 
past to remedy this by imitations of the ancient Greek and Roman styles of 
architecture ; and up to the present day many architects are repeating with 
various talent and success, the attempt to introduce those styles into the 
present edifices — some, even the imperfect conception of them, called by the 
French la Renaissance. On the other hand, in many places in Germany, a 
different course has been adopted, which, being partly suggested by the re- 
vival of a more christian spirit, partly by the patriotic feeling excited by the 
French revolution, leaned more to the christian architecture of the middle 
ages at home. This two principal divisions, each with their varities, stand 
opposed to one another here in Germany, and carry on, as it were, a contest 
in secret. The present age is engaged in seeking a something which at pre- 
sent does not exist, viz., unity in a sort of universal architecture. It seems 
to me, that no immediate and direct imitation in any style of architecture 
already existing, complete in itself, will lead to the desired result as long as 
the present age demands its rights, and the existing state of society requires 
something arising more from its own nature. When I consider also that 
hitherto in our art we have acted in a manner too little abstractive and scien- 
tific, and have imitated too much, still, on the other hand, it is not to be 
denied that we cannot and ought not to disregard history and its effects, that 
we must have some point in history at which to begin a root, from which a 
new'stem may shoot up into blossom as from the soil of the present. It is 
quite clear that here also theory and history must go hand in baud, whereby 
we must with consciousness attain to that new and unprejudiced position 
which, in childlike innocence, unconsciously existed at the commencement of 



all previous epochs in art. The difference between our age and its problem, 
as regards architecture, and indeed every branch of the arts, consists in tins 
that we ought to strive, so to say, with manly innocence, with manly know- 
ledge and power, (o attain to that point at which former periods in art have 
in their infancy begun of their own accord. Where there is nothing but an 
empty and groundless adherence to forms, where architectural fallacy and 
pretension, or a certain coquetterie is manifested, there an art of a peculiarly 
creative nature can never be looked for. It is true that many grand build- 
ings have recently been erected in the Roman, Grecian, and so' called By E an- 
tme and Gothic styles, as, for instance, particularly at Munich. But' they 
all want the enlivening principle of belonging to tlie present, and are only 
silent records of bygone styles of architecture. In the van,,- «ray that we 
collect pictures of different schools in galleries, so King Louis has collected 
buildings of all possible periods ; and as he had not got them at Munich, 
neither could he transport them thence from other parts; he bad them 
built, and thus made a grand collection of buildings at Munich, but which is 
still deficient in historical authority. If, therefore, we would draw a com- 
parison, we must say that the modern collection of buildings at Munich is, .is 
far as regards the arts, worth about as much as a picture gallerv containing a 
number of more or less successful copies from different masters and schools. 
If it be true that the spirit of the times is truly expressed in its buildings, 
that the architecture of every period is, as it were, a fossilized history-, future 
generations will say that the present period was utterly devoid of character. 
By means of a more intimate acquaintance with the history of architecture, 
we have been provided with a vast quantity of subject matter, which lias 
hitherto quite overwhelmed us, from its variety and quantity, so that we 
were quite robbed of our senses. Of this we must first get the mastery, and 
impelled by a careful observance, as well as by an artistical and inventive 
spirit, regain our consciousness, without at the same time suffering the expe- 
rience of history to remain useless. We must, on the one hand, iinestigate 
from a theoretical and scientific position, how far our architecture and its 
elements answer to the conditions of its purpose, of the building materials, 
climates, and so forth ; and must, on the other hand, in looking back upon 
history, endeavour to find some point which presents constructions and forms 
similar to those which result from our abstract investigations, and thus a 
fruitful germ may he found for a modern and, in itself, harmonious style of 
architecture — a style which would gradually come into general use, and 
supersede all the lifeless imitations and mere whimsical charges of fashion. 
In this, it appears to me, consists the great architectural problem of the 
present age, which can only be solved by united efforts." 

Report on the Marbles from Lycia. 

A report was read from the committee appointed by the Institute to ex- 
amine the articles that were recently discovered by Mr. Charles Fellowes 
amongst the ruins of Xanthus, an ancient city in Lycia, in Asia Minor, and 
lately deposited in the British Museum. Mr. Fellowes explained to the com- 
mittee " that the tomb is situated on the side, on the slope of a hill, in the 
old town of Xanthus, consisted of a square shaft in one block, weighing about 
80 tons, and 17 feet high. This shaft, which rested on a base or plinth 
rising six feet from the ground on one side, and the other rising but little 
above the present level of the earth, was surmounted by the bas-relief in 
question, the opposite sides of the relief being respectively 8 feet 4i inches, 
and 7 feet 6 inches long making a total length of 31 feet 9 inches. It con- 
sisted of four angular and four central blocks of marble, each 9 inches thick 
and 3 feet 5 inches high. A kind of chamber was soon formed in the top of 
the monument about 7 feet 6 inches high, and 7 feet by 6. Tbis was 
covered by a single block of marble forming the cornice, and hollowed out in 
the inside soffit so as to present the appearance of a beam and caissons. 
Mr. Fellowes considers the subject of the sculptures to represent the legend 
of the daughters of King Pandarus carried away by the harpies. There are 
also five figures, male and female, seated on chairs, which are evidently in- 
tended to be represented as made of bronze ; on these chairs are very per- 
ceptible traces of a brownish tint approaching to red, showing that the orna- 
ment was indicated by colour, even without the outline being carved. 

The figures are about an inch and a half in relief, and in many parts 
there are patches of blue colour on the ground, particularly on the under- 
cutting of the hair, and especially where the recesses are protected by the 
overhanging tenia of the frieze, forming the top of the blocks, A portion of 
this blue colour had been taken off by Mr. Hawkins, and submitted to a 
chemical analvsis bv Dr. Faraday, who reported that " The substance is a 
mixture of wax with a pulverized blue smalt, coloured by cobalt, the smalt 
being in rather coarse patches; when the wax is charred away, each piece is 
seen by a moderate magnifier as a small fragment of glass." 

On referring to the analvsis of Egyptian bloe colour by Dr. Ure, given in 
the 3rd vol., pp. 301—3 of'Sir T. Gardiner Wilkinson's work on the manners 
and customs of the ancient Egyptians, there appears to he a great analogy in 
the composition of this blue 'and that described by Sir. I. Wilkinson; as in 
the Egyptian specimen the blue pigment scraped from the stone is a pulveru- 
lent blue glass. 

On the edge of the crest of a helmet were also collected some remains of 
a bright crimson red which have not yet been analyzed. 

On the whole, the committee are of opinion that the appearances which 
they witnessed are sufficient to warrant their conclusion, that the ground 
throughout "as painted blue, s,> as t.> give relief to the figures. Some other 
parts also had colour, but to what extent the rough state of the surface of 
the marbles did nut enable the committee to ascertain. 

9* 



68 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



The character of the sculpture of the figures denotes a very remote period 
of art, and it i», to a certain degree, rude ; but the forms and embellishments 
of the bronze chairs are extremely refined, and betoken a class of art not 
unlike that of the triple temple in the Acropolis of Athens. 

When the other marbles and fragments brought from Xanthus have beeu 
removed into the upper halls of the Museum, the committee will proceed 
with their examination on this interesting subject, and they will, if neces- 
sary, report to the Institute the result of their inquiries. 

The Chairman, in consequence of the unavoidable absence of Mr. Britton, 
who was to have read a paper this evening, was requested by the secretaries 
to supply a paper, which he readily acceded to with his usual promptness in 
all similar difficulties; the subject of the paper was " On the ruins of the 
city of Ani, in Armenia," but as we are likely to give the paperin full next 
month, we defer giving any abstract. 

The meetings for February will take place on Monday 6th, and 20th, at 8 
o'clock. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 
Jan. 10. — James Walker, Esq., President, in the chair. 
This was the first meeting of the session, and was occupied by a discus- 
sion on a paper by Mr. Davison, describing the sinking of the deep well at 
Messrs. Truman and Co.'s, brewery, which was read at the close of last ses- 
sion. See Journal, Vol. 5, 1342, page 420. 

Jan. 1 7. — The President in the Chair. 
This was the annual general meeting of the Society, and was occupied in 
reading the report of the council, the election of the council and the dis- 
tribution of the prizes ; we must defer until next month a report of the pro- 
ceedings when we hope to be able to give them in full. 



DESTRUCTION OF THE ROUND-DOWN-CLIFF BY GUNPOWDER. 

[We are partly indebted for the accompanying report to the Times, and 
through the kindness of two professional friends, who were on the spot and 
witnessed the explosion, we have been enabled to give considerable additional 
information; and have also added a rough sketch of the cliff, that was 
hastily taken, just before and after the explosion took place.] 

Dover, Jan. 26th, 18t3. 

You will not be surprised to hear that the announcement that an explo- 
sion of 18,0001b. of powder was to be made in the Round Down Cliff this 
afternoon brought an influx of strangers into this town ; still, though con- 
siderable, it was not so large as 1 had expected. Curiosity was, I think, pa- 
ralyzed by a vague fear of danger, which kept some thousands at home who 
might have witnessed it, as the event turned out, without the slightest shock 
to their nervous system. The experiment succeeded to admiration, and, as a 
specimen of engineering skill, confers the highest credit on Mr. Cubitt, who 
planned, and on his colleagues who assisted, in carrying it into execution. 

Everybody has heard of the Shakspeare Cliff, and I (have no doubt that a 
majority of your readers have seen it. I should feel it a superfluous task to 
speak of its vast height were not the next cliff to it, on the west, somewhat 
higher. That cliff is Round Down Cliff, the scene and subject of this day's 
operations. It rises to the height of 375 feet above high-water mark, and 
was, till this afternoon, of a singularly bold and picturesque character. To 
understand the reasons why it was resolved to remove yesterday no inconsi- 
derable portion of it from the rugged base on which it has defied the winds 
and waves of centuries, I must make your readers acquainted with the in- 
tended line of railway between Folkestone and this place. 

At Folkestone there will be a viaduct of great height and length. Then 
there will be a tunnel, called from a martello tower near it, the s Tower 
Tunnel, one third of a mile in length. Then comes a cutting through the 
chalk of two miles in length, called Warren's Cutting. Then comes the Ab- 
bott's Cliff tunnel, one mile and a quarter in length, and now half finished, 
although only commenced on the 16th of August last. From the Abbott's 
Clifl tunnel to the Shakespeare Cliff tunnel the railroad will be under the 
cliffs close to the sea, and protected from it by a strong wall of concrete two 
miles lung, and with a parapet of such a height as will not preclude passen- 
gers from the splendid marine view which lies under them. Now it was 
found that when a straight line was drawn from the eastern mouth of the 
Abbott s Cliff tunnel to the western mouth of the Shakespeare tunnel, there 
\ras a projection on the Round Down Cliff which must be removed in some 
way or other to insure a direct passage. That projection, seen from the sea, 
had the appearance of a convex arc of a circle of considerable diameter. It 
is now removed, and some idea of its size may be formed from the fact that a 
square yard of chalk weighs two tons, and that it was intended by this day's 
experiment to remove 1,000,000 tons. The §haKsg%a tunnel is three-quar- 
ters ot a mile long, and it is about the same distance from that tunnel to the 
town of D^ver. 



Having premised thus much as to the locality of Round Down Cliff, I 
now proceed to describe, as briefly as I can, the means employed to detach 
from it such an immense mass of solid matter. A horizontal gallery T. Fig. 
3, extended for about 100 yards parallel with the intended line of railway, 
from which cross galleries were driven from the centre and extremes. At the 
end of these cross galleries shafts were sunk, and at the bottom of each shaft 
was formed a chamber, 11 feet long, 5 feet high, and 4 feet 6 inches wide. 
In the eastern chamber were deposited 50001b. of gunpowder, in the western 
chamber 60001b., and in the centre chamber 7000 lb., making in the whole 
18,0001b. The gunpowder was in bags, placed in boxes. Loose powder was 
sprinkled over the bags, of which the mouths were opened, and the bursting 
charges were in the centre of the main charges. The distance of the charges 
from the face of the cliff was 70 feet at the centre and about 55 feet at each 
end. It was calculated that the powder, before it could find a vent, mtul 
move 100,000 yards of chalk, or 200,000 tons. It was also confidently ex- 
pected that it would move 1,000,000 tons. 

The following preparations were made to ignite this enormous quantity of 
powder;— At the back of the cliff a wooden shed was constructed, in winch 
three electric batteries were erected. Each battery consisted of 18 Daniels' 
cylinders, and two common batteries of 20 plates each, to which were attached 
wires which communicated at the end of the charge by means of a very fine 
wire of platina, which the electric fluid as it passed over it, made red-hot, to 
fire the powder. The wires covered with yarn were spread upon the grass 
to the top of the cliff, and then falling over it were carried to the eastern, the 
centre, and the western chamber. Lieutenant Hutchinson, of the Royal 
Engineers, had the command of the three battt-ries, and it was arranged that 
when he fired the centre, Mr. Hodges and Mr. Wright should simultaneously 
fire the eastern and the western batteries, to ensure which they had practised 
at them for several previous days, The wires were each 1,000 feet in length, 
audit was ascertained by experiment that the electric fluid will fire powder 
at a distance of 2,300 feet of wire. After the chambers were filled with 
powder, the galleries and passages were all tamped up with dry sand, as is 
usually the case in all blasting operations. 

At 9 o'clock in the morning a red flag was hoisted directly over the spot 
selected for the explosion. The wires were then tested by the galvanometer, 
the batteries were charged, and every arrangement was completed for firing 
them. 

It was arranged that the explosion should take place at 2 o'clock ; at that 
time there was an immense concourse of people assembled. In a marquee 
erected near the scene of operation, for the accommodation of the directors 
and distinguished visitants, we observed among the number assembled. Sir 
John Herschell, General Pasley, Col. Rice Jones, Mr. Rice, M.P., Professors 
Sedgwick and Airy, the Rev. Dr. Cope, and there was also a strong muster 
of engineers, among whom were Mr. Tierney Clark, Mr. Juhn Braithwaite, 
Mr. Charles May, Mr. Lewis Cubitt, and Mr. Frederick Braithwaite ; the 
engineers and directors of the Greenwich. Croydon, Brighton, and South 
Eastern Railways, besides numerous foreigners of eminence. 

At 10 minutes past 2, Mr. Cubitt, the company's engineer in chief, ordered 
the signal flag at the western marquee to be hoisted, and that was followed by 
the hoisting of all the signal flags. A quarter of an hour soon passed in deep 
anxiety. A number of maroons, in what appeared to be a keg, was rolled 
over the cliff, and on its explosion with a loud report, all the flags were 
hauled down. Four more minutes passed away, and all the flags except that 
on the point to be blasted were again hoisted. The next minute was one of 
silent, and breathless, and impatient expectation. Not a word was uttered, 
except by one lady: who, when too late, wished to be at a greater distance. 
Ga'eatitm sero duelli pienitet. Exactly at 26 minutes past 2 o'clock a slight 
twitch or shock of the ground was felt, and then a low, faint, indistinct, inde- 
scribable moaning subterranean rumble was heard, and immediately after- 
wards the bottom of the cliff began to belly out, and then almost simulta- 
neously about 500 feet in breadth, with reference to the railway's length of 
the summit began gradually to sink. 

There was no roaring explosion, no bursting out of fire, no violent and 
crashing splitting of rocks, and wdiat was considered extraordinary, no smoke 
whatever ; for a proceeding of mighty and irrepressible force, it had little or 
nothing of the appearance of force. The rock seemed as if it had exchanged 
its solid for a fluid nature, for it glided like a stream into the sea, which was 
at a distance of about 100 yards— perhaps more — from its base, tearing up 
the beach in its course, and forcing up and driving the muddy substra- 
tum together with some debris of a former fall, violently into the sea, and 
when the mass had finally reached its resting place a dark brown 
colour was seen on different parts of it, which had not been carried 
off the land; the shattered fragments of the cliff are said to occupy an 
area of 15 acres, but w e should judge it to be much less. I forgot to minute 
the time occupied by the descent, but I calculate that it was about four or 
five minutes. The first exclamations which burst from every lip was — 
"Splendid, beantifu'. !" the next were isolated cheers, followed up by three 
times three general cheers from the spectators, and then by one cheer more- 
These were caught up by the groups on the surrounding downs, and, as I 



1842] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



69 



am informed, by the passengers in the steam boats. All were excited— all 
■were delighted at the Success of the experiment, and congratulation upon 
congratulation flowed in upon Mr. CuUtt for the magnificent manner in 
which he had carried his project into execution. 

As a proof of the easy, graceful, and swimming style with which Round 
Down Cliff, under the gentle force and irresistible influence of Plulus and 
Pluto combined, curlseyed down to meet the reluctant embraces of 
astonished Neptune, 1 need only mention that the flagstaff, which was 
standing on the summit of the cliff before the explosion took place, de- 
scended uninjured with the fallen debris. 

No fossil remains of the slightest importance were brought to light, which 
was a matter of disappointment to many. A very few even of the most 
Ordinary character were found among the mass, which it may well be 
imagined was soon after the explosion, teeming- with the curious multitude 
from the cliffs above anxious to obtain some relic of the event. 

On examining the position occupied by the debris of the overthrown cliff, 
we were much pleased to find it more favourably disposed than we could 
have conceived possible. Instead of occupying the site of the proposed 
railway at the foot of the cliff, it had by its acquired velocity slid past it. 
and left comparatively little indeed to be removed. At some considerable 
distance from the cliff, the fragments appeared to be heaved up into a ridge, 
higher than any other part, forming a small valley towards the cliff, and 
another seaward, beyond which a second ridge appeared, when it finally 
slopes of! towards the sea. The chalk was by no means hard, and appeared 
thoroughly saturated with water. The great bulk of the fragments ranged 
from about 2 to perhaps 8 or ten cubic feet, although we observed a vast 
number of blocks, which contained from two to three cubic yards and up- 
wards, one of which was driven some distance into the Shakespeare Tunnel, 
without doing injury to the brickwork. There was very little, indeed, of what 
might be termed rubbish in the mass. 

Previous to the explosion, we had heard it stated that about a million 
yards were expected to be detached ; indeed the Railway Times so stated it, 
on the 21st ultimo, apparently from authority, and after the explosi n took 
place, it was publicly asserted by one of the officials, that three quarters of a 
million of cubic yards had come down. Now, on cubing the stated dimen- 
sions of the mass, which were given as under 300 feet in height by, say 50 
feet longer than ihe gallery, which would therefore be 350 feet, by an 
average thickness or depth from the face of the cliff of 60, we shall have 
233,333 cubic yards ; but as the present face slope of the cliff is greater than 
before, the average thickness perhaps might be increased to 75 feet, which 
would make the quantity 291,686 cubic yards, from this is to be deducted 
50,000 yards, the estimated quantity to be now shifted in forming the road, 
we shall then have 30,000 yards effectively removed by the expenditure of one 
ton of powder. We understand that Mr. Cubitt, the engineer, afterwards 
stated that a saving of six months' work, and £7000 expenditure was effected 
by this blast. Now allowing Sd. per yard for the removal of the quantity 
now required to be shifted, which would amount to £1250, and £500 for the 
powder used in the blast, the cost of forming the galleries, tamping, &c. &c, 
we shall find that this mass has been removed at a cost of 1.44 pence per 
yard. Again, taking Mr. Cubitt's statement, that a saving has been effected 
of £7000. to which, if we add the £1750, expenditure by the present plan, we 
shall find that he estimated the cost of removal by hand labour, at rather 
less than ~l\d. per yard. 

We felt an interest in examining the beds and fissures of the chalk in the 
neighbourhood of this blast, which clearly indicated that the plan of 
removal adopted by Mr.'Cubitt, was not only the cheapest, but the safest 
method which could have been adopted. The vertical fissures which here 
traverse the chalk appear to lie pretty nearly parallel, and at a slope perhaps 
of one-fifth to one-tenth to one. It was in one of these fissures that the 
whole mass parted and slipped down, on which we believe it had set pre- 
viously, no doubt brought about by the infiltration of water more than 
the sapping of the base by Ihe sea. So treacherous indeed was this chalk, 
that if we are rightly informed, a mass equal nearly in bulk to that blasted 
on Thursday came down unexpectedly some time since in the night time, 
burying in its ruins a watchman or foreman belonging to that part of the 
line. In the zigzig gangways cut along the face of the cliff, to enable 
persons to ascend to the summit — this sliding of the chalk where those 
vertical fissures are intersected, appears very frequently, inspiring the 
passer-by with a feeling of great insecurity. How far the water might be 
intercepted, or otherwise be prevented from filtering through these fissures is 
a question of great importance, and would not, we think, be one of difficult 
remedy. It also becomes a matter of interesting inquiry as to the effect 
which a lesser qantity of 'powder would have had, deposited and fired in the 
same manner. Would it only have made the mass insecure, or caused a 
partial sliding down, rendering it then more difficult of removal by hand 
than at first ? The proportion of powder which Mr. Cubitt employs in his 
blasting operations we understand is determined thus : " The cube of the 
line of least resistance in feet, gives the quantity in half ounces j" but in 



this case there does not appear to have been any such quantity employed, 
though much more than heretofore is found necessary in usual blasting ope- 
rations. Perhaps the most curious circumstance, connected with the 
operation, was the apparent absence of shock on the firing of the charge 
on some spots in the immediate vicinity, while at other, far more distant, 
it w as clearly perceptible. Thus where the batteries were placed, those in 
charge of them thought the charge had missed fire, from their being insen- 
sible to any shock, while at five times the distance along the face of the 
cliff, it was clearly felt. But even along the face of the clill it was very 
evident that the shock was felt by some and not by others, though standing 
within a few yards of each other.] 

Fig. 1.— Section of the Cliff. 




Fig. 2. — Section showing the movement of the mass. 




Reference. 

Fig. 1.— Section of Cliff before the explosion ; H house In winch the bat- 
teries were placed, F flag over the spot, T tunnel or heading, C one of the 
chambers, L R level of proposed railway, L W level of low water. 

Fig. 2. — Section showing the movement of the mass. 

Fig. 3. — Plan showing the projection of the clifi ; the heading T, and 
chambers A in which 50 barrels of gunpowder were placed, B 70 barrels, 
and C 60 barrels. 



Neapolitan Steamers. — We lately had the pleasure of attending the 
trial of two steam vessels, named the Jimidine (Swallow), and the Antelope, 
built at N'orthflect, by Mr. Pitcher, for the revenue service of his Neapolitan 
majesty. The engines of both vessels are manufactured by Messrs. Boulton, 
Watt, and Co. These vessels arc of similar dimensions, in fact built from 
the same drawing, and are in length between perpendiculars, 100 feet ; keel 
for tonnage, 90 feet, 5 inches; extreme breadth, 16 feet; moulded breadth, 
15 feet 5 inches; depth in hold, 9 feet G inches; tonnage, O.M., 123^-J; 
displacement as launched, 65 tons; ditto, complete with 23 tons of coals, 
145 tons. Draftj at this, 7 feet 3 inches. Immersed section, 91 feet. Speed 



70 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



at measured mile = miles per hour. Although the Rondine and Antelope 
are of the same capacity, they differ in the construction of their motive 
powers : the former, the Rondine, having heam engines, the Antelope, oscillat- 
ing or vibrating cylinder engines, both of the power of 40 horses. Cylinders 
26J in, diameter, stroke, 2.0, and 34 strokes per minute. The beam engines are 
of the usual construction, as designed by Boulton and Watt in 1818. The 
various parts are reduced in strength as experience and improved manufac- 
ture dictates ; we perceive they have in this case abolished the headstock 
framing, substituting pillars and an entablature, secured longitudinally by 
strong deck or paddle beams, they are continued through the side, support- 
ing the ends of the paddle shafts, so that they have no connexion with the 
spring-beam or frame of the paddle-boxes, thereby preventing tremulous 
motion. This arrangement is by no means new, yet greatly to be recommended 
and will shortly be applied to a vessel of 300 horse power. The oscillating 
engines of the Antelope, in arrangment, are similar to those of the Virago, 
published in the Journal, June 1841, Vol. IV., each engine having its 
air-pump and condenser — the former worked by a small beam connected with 
the cranked intermediate shaft. It may be mentioned as an argument in 
favour of oscillating engines (of modeiat? power), that in these cases there is 
a saving of rive feet in length of engine-room, and in weight of about six 
tons. These engines occupy a space of 10 feet athwart, and five feet fore 
and aft. The small amount of the former arises from the combination of 
the parts, and must be advantageous in its application to vessels of narrow 
beam. The boilers in both cases are of the common flue kind, weighing 7^ 
tons; or, with its apparatus and water (the latter five tons), 14 i tons; the 
engines weigh 13 tons, making a total of 27£ tons complete. Both these 
vessels are fitted with a disengaging apparatus for the paddle wheels, so that 
they may be connected with, or detached from, the engines at pleasure, 
which, as well as the engines of the Antelope are the subjects of a patent 
lately granted to Mr. James Brown, of the firm of Boulton, Watt, and Co. 

The Great Northern Steam-Ship.— This magnificent ship arrived off 
Blackwall at the beginning of last month, and has since taken up a berth in 
the East India Import Dock. The Great Northern has been built within the 
last 12 months at Londonderry, by Captain Coppin, of that place. She is 
a fine specimen of naval architecture. She is fitted with Mr. F. P. Smith's 
patent screw propeller. Her dimensions and power are given in the Journal 
for July last, p. 243, Vol. V., under the head of " The Monster Steam-Ship." 



LIST OP NEW PATENTS. 

GRANTED IN ENGLAND FROM DECEMBER 28, 1842, TO JANUARY 28, 1843. 

Six Months allowed for Enrolment, unless otherwise expressed. 

Alonzo Grandison Hull, of Clifford Street, Middlesex, doctor of medicine, 
for " improvements in electrical apparatus for medical purposes, and in the 
application thereof to the same purposes." — Sealed December 28. 

Thomas Thompson, of Coventry, weaver, for " improvements in weaving 
figured fabrics." — Dec. 28. 

Henry Crosley, of the city of London, civil engineer, and George Stevens, 
of Limehouse, gent., for " improvements in the manufacture of sugar, aud 
the products of sugar." — Dec. 28. 

Edward Thomas, Lord Thurlow, of Ashfield Lodge, Ipswich, Suffolk, for 
" an improvement or improvements on bits for horses and other animals." — 
Dec. 29. 

Benjamin Bailey, of Leicester, frame-smith, for " improvements in ma- 
chinery employed in the manufacture of stockings, gloves, and other frame- 
work knitted fabrics." — Dee. 29. 

John Stephen Bourlier, of Sherborn Street, Blandford Square, engineer, 
for " improvements in machinery used in printing calicoes, silks, paper hang- 
ings, and other fabrics." (A communication.) — Dec. 29. 

Joseph Rock, Jun., of Birmingham, factor, for " improvements in the con- 
struction of locks," — Dec. 29. 

Henry Samuel Rush, of Sloane Street, mechanic, for "far improvements 
in apparatus for containing matches for obtaining instantaneous linht." — 
Dec. 29. 

Baron Victor de Wydroff, of old Bracknell, Berkshire, for " improvements 
in the construction of railways and in wheels to run on railways, and in ap- 
paratus for clearing the rails." — Dec. 29. 

John Bishop, of Poland Street, Westminster, jeweller, for " improvements 
in apparatus for portioning steam power; and also improvements in plugs, 
cocks, or taps for steam gases and liquids." — Dec. 29. 

Crawshay Bailey, of Nant-y-Glo iron works, Monmouth, Esq., for " im- 
proved construction* of rails for tramways and railways." — Jan. II. 

James Harvey, Jun., of Regent Street, goldsmith, for " improvements in 
steam engines." (A communication.) — Jan. 11. 

William Ritter, of 106 Fenchurch Street, gentleman, for " improvements in 
crystallizing and purifying sugar." (A communication.) — Jan. 11. 

Julian Edward Disbrowe Rodgers, of Upper Ebury Street, chemist, for 
'• improvements in the separation of sulphur from various mineral substances." 
— Jan. 12. 

William Jonn Loat, of Clapham, builder, for " an improved mode of con- 
structing floors and roofs." — Jan. 12. 



Pierre Armande Comte de Fontain le moreau, of Skinner's Place, Sise Lane, 
for li process or processes of combining clay with som? olh f, r substances for 
the producing of a certain ' ceramic paste,' capable of being moulded into a 
variety of forms, and the application thereof to several purposes." (A com- 
munication.) — Jan. 14. 

James Harvey, of Bazing Place, Waterloo Road, timber merchant, for 
improvements in paving streets, roads, and other places." (Partly a communi- 
cation.) — Jan. 1 1. 

William Snell, of Northampton Square, gentleman, for " improvements in 
machinery for the manufacture of farina." — Jan. 14. 

Nathaniel Card, of Manchester, candle-wick manufacturer, for " improve- 
ments in the manufacture of candlewicks, and in the machinery or apparatus 
for producing such manufacture." — Jan. 14. 

Henry Hussey Vivian, of Singleton, Glamorgan, Esq.. and William Gossage, 
of Birmingham, manufacturing chemist, for " improvements in heating or re- 
ducing ores of zinc ; also for improvements in furnaces to be used for re- 
ducing ores of zinc, part of which improvements are applicable to other fur- 
naces."— Jan. 14. 

James Hamer, of Wardour Street, engineer, for " improvements in pro- 
pelling vessels." — Jan. 19. 

Thomas, Earl of Dundonald, of Regent's Park, for " improvements in 
rotatory or revolving engines, and in apparatus connected with steam engines, 
and propelling vessels." — Jan. 19. 

Joseph Kirkman, Jun., of Soho Square, pianoforte manufacturer, for 
"improvements in the action of pianofortes." — Jan. 19. 

Thomas William Bennett, of Gray's Inn Road, timber merchant, for " im- 
provements in paving or covering roads, streets, and other ways and surfaces." 
—Jan. 19. 

Luke Ilebert, of Dover, civil engineer, for " improvements in machines for 
grinding, and for dressing or sifting grain, and other substances." — Jan. 19. 

William Bates, of Leicester, fuller and dresser, for " improvements in the 
dressing and getting up of hosiery goods, comprising shirts, drawers, stockings, 
socks, gloves, and other looped fabrics, made from merino, lambs 1 wool, 
worsted, cotton, and other yarns, and in machinery for raising the nap or pile 
in the same." — Jan. 6. 

Thomas Sunderland, of Albany Street, Regent's Park, Esq., for " improve- 
ments in moving floating bodies through water and air, and in accelerating the 
flow of water, air, and other fluids, through shafts, pipes, and other chan- 
nels." — Jan. 19. 

Uriah Clarke, of Leicester, dyer, for " improvements in framework-knit- 
ting machinery, anda new kind of framework-knitted fabric." — Jan. 21. 

Frederick Albert Winsor, of Lincoln's Inn Fields, barrister-at-law, for 
"new apparatus for the production of light." (A communication.) — Jan. 26. 

Charles Frederick Bielefeld, of Wellington Street, North Strand, papier- 
mache manufacturer, for " improvements in suspending or hanging swing 
looking glasses and other articles requiring like movements." — Jan. 26. 

William Palmer, of Sutton Street, Clerkenwell, manufacturer, for " im- 
provements in the manufacture of candles." — Jan. 26. 

Henry Chapman, of Arundel Street, Strand, for " a fabric for maps, charts, 
prints, drawings, and other purposes ." — Jan. 26. 

Frances M'Gretrick, of Ernest Street, St. Pancras, artisan, and Matthew 
Bailey Tennant, of Henry Street, Regent's Park, gentleman, for " improve- 
ments in apparatus for preventing engines and carriages from going off rail- 
ways, and for removing obstructions on railways." — Jan. 26. 

Edward Smallwood, of North Lodge, Hampstead, gentleman, for " im- 
provements in covering roads, ways, and other surfaces." — Jan. 26. 

Robert Goodacre, of Ullesthorpe, Leicester, gentleman, for " improvements 
in weighing apparatus applicable to cranes or other elevating machines, zvhere- 
by the weight of goods may be ascertained while in a state of suspension." — 
Jan. 26. 

James Boydell, Jun., of Oak Farm Works, Dudley, Stafford, iron master, 
for " improvements in the manufacture of metals for edge tools." — Jan. 26. 

George Parker Bidder, of Great George Street, Westmiuster, civil engineer, 
for " an improved mode of cutting that kind of slates, commonly called roof- 
ing slates, though sometimes used for other purposes." — Jan. 26. 

William James Greenstreet, of Blackfriars' Road, gentleman, for " im- 
provements in machinery or apparatus for producing or obtaining motive 
power." — Jan. 26. 

Joseph Kirby, of Banbury, Oxford, gentleman, for " improved apparatus 
for manufacturing bricks, tiles, and other articles from clay or earthy mate- 
rials."- — Jan. 26. 

George Phillips Bayly, of 146, Fenchurch Street, brush maker, for "im- 
provements in brushes." — Jan. 26. 

Henry Phillips, of Exeter, chemist, for " improvements in removing impu- 
rities from coal gas for the purposes of light." — Jan" 26. 

Martyn John Roberts, of Brynycaeran, Carmarthen, Esq., for ' ; improve- 
ments in dyeing wool and woollenfabrics." — Jan. 26. 

William Weild. of Manchester, Engineer, for " improvements apjilicable to 
window blinds and curtains, part of which improvements are also applicable to 
doors." — Jan. 28. 

David Isaac Wertheimber, of West Street, Finsbury Circus, gentleman, 
for " improvements in calculating machines, part of which improvements is 
applicable topurposes whe?-e wheelwork is required. / — Jan. 28. 

John Barrow, of East Street, Manchester Square, engineer and smith, for 
"improvements in the manufacture and hanging of window sashes." — Jan. 28. 



Ermines of H. M . STEAM SHIP VULTURE of 476. H C gF OWER.By WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN & C? JliU Wall. Londc 




Sh,,,o,,;,I Plafl. Top V, 



•0«0»0Y(>*£*P|-; 





jr? L . 





1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



71 



ENGINES OF H. M. STEAM SHIP "VULTURE." 

By Wji. Fairbairn & Co., Millwall Works, London. 

( With two Engravings, Plates II and III.) 

The general arrangement of these engines will be apparent, from 
an inspection of the accompanying engravings. Their chief peculi- 
arity consists in the arrangement of the parallel motion, and the 
manner in which it is made available for working the air-pump. The 
four main parts of each engine, viz., the cylinder, slide valves, con- 
denser, and air-pump, form a square, and thus occupy the least pos- 
sible area. With a speed of 220 feet per minute, and an effective 
pressure of 71b. on the square inch, according to the regulation of 
the Admiralty engineer officers, the power will be 238 horses for each 
engine, or 470 horses collectively. The space occupied by the en- 
gines is 12 feet 3 inches fore and aft, and 19 feet athwartships, and 
the total length of the engine room is 52 feet 8 inches, with boilers 
calculated for the full power of the engines; and 59 feet 8 inches, 
with stowage for 440 tons of coal. 

The leading dimensions and proportions are as follow — the letters 
refer to the engravings. 

A, Cylinder, 80| in. diameter. 

B, Crank, 2 ft. 104 in. from centre to centre. 
Length of stroke, 5 ft. 9 in. 

C, Piston Rod, Si in. diameter. 

D, Piston, with metallic packing rings, and steel springs. 

E, Connecting Rod, 8 ft. 74 in. long, 10 in. diameter at middle, and 

9 in. diameter at ends. 

F, F, Base plate, cast in two parts, one for each engine, and firmly 

joined in the middle. It projects equally on both sides of the 
crank shaft, and takes hold of the ship for the length of 17 ft. 
G in. 

G, G, Wrought Iron Columns, 7 in. diameter, keyed into sockets on 

the base plate, and rising through sockets cast on the cylinder, to 
carry the entablature. The sockets on the cylinder are bored out 
to fit the columns, but allowed to rise or fall with the elongation 
or contraction of the cylinder. 
H, H, Entablature, supported by the wrought iron columns G, G. It 
is attached by bolts a a, to the engine beams b b, and these bolts 
run through to the main paddle-beams c c ; diagonal trussing 
being introduced between these beams. 
I, I, Wrought iron cross stays, with the sockets d d forged in one 
piece. These sockets are bored out to fit the columns which 
pass through them, and are fastened with a cotter. 

K, Wrought iron stays. 

L, Shaft, fixed in a boss on the wrought iron stays K, and on which 
the beams e e vibrate to work the air-pump, these beams being at 
the same time the radius rods of the parallel motion of the 
piston rod. On the outer and projecting end of this shaft, the 
lever// for working the valves also vibrates. 

M, Crank Pin, 11 in. diameter. 

N, N, Slide Valves, 14 in. length of travel; 8-^ in. breadth of space. 

O, O, Cylinder Ports, 40 in. long by 51 in. broad, and 1 in. open to the 
steam when the engine is on the centre ; they are opened equally 
for the ascending and descending strokes, as the engine is ba- 
lanced by other means. 

P, Condenser, cubic contents 103 ft; g, foot valve, h h, injection pipes 
with Kingston's valves, k, sea injection cock, /, bilge injection 
cock. 

Q, Air Pump, 45 in. diameter. 

Ditto length of stroke 2 ft. 104 in. 

Air pump rod, cased with brass, 5J in. diameter. 

R, Feed and Bilge Pumps. 

S, Paddle shaft, 15| in. diameter of necks. 

T, Eccentric. 

U, Starting gear, power as 15 to 1. 

V, Equilibrium Expansion Valve; i, cam for working expansion 
valve. 
No. 66.— Vol. VI.— March, 1843. 



W, Waste water pipe and delivery pipe. 
X, Steam pipe to each cylinder 174 in. bore. 

Paddle wheels 26 ft. 6 in. diameter to extremity of floats. 

Ditto, floats 8 ft. 9 in. long. Each float in two parts, and each 

part 13 in. broad. 
Boilers four in number placed back to back, 23 ft. 2 in. total 
length, 2G ft. 10 in. total breadth, and 13 ft. high. 
m, m, Shut oil' valves for steam, to connect or disconnect the boilers. 
n, n, Safety valves, one on each boiler, with levers hi the engine room 
to ease off the weights. 

0, o. Vacuum or reverse valves. 

p, p, Blow off cocks, one to each boiler, with Kingston's valves. 
r, r, Man-holes to boilers. 

s, Chimney, 5 ft. 10 in. diameter, and 44 feet high above steam-chest, 
with double external casing. 

1, Waste steam pipe, 17 in. bore, with internal pipe for condensed 

water. 



A CHAPTER ON CHURCH-BUILDING. 

Being Comments on some Opinions thereon recently published. 

By George Godwin, F.R.S., &c. 

The Anglican church for some years past, if it may be said with ut 
apparent want of respect, has neglected her duties. Zeal was 
wanting on the part of her ministers, and luke-warmness, if nothing 
worse, was the result on the part of the congregations. To remedy 
this evil, many good and learned men have lately worked sedulously, 
and have succeeded in raising a very different feeling from that 
which existed before on the subject. Whether, as is often the case 
after a violent re-action, an evil of an opposite character may be 
caused — whether the freshly excited zeal has not, or may not, outrun 
discretion, it would not become the writer to inquire in this place: 
his business is simply with one result of the present state of opinion. 
With greater attention to the rites and ceremonies of religion, has 
come, very properly, greater regard for the buildings in which they 
are celebrated. The text, " Is it time for you, O ye, to dwell in your 
cieled houses, and this house lie waste?" has been powerfully com- 
mented on in numerous places, and has been put forth in various 
shapes ; while at both our Universities, as well as in many other 
quarters, societies have been established, whereof the clergy are the 
chief supporters, for the improvement of church architecture, and 
for the preservation, and the proper restoration, of ancient models. 
This has led to a corresponding increase of attention to the subject, 
on the part of the professors of the art ; the principles of pointed 
architecture (the ecclesiastical architecture of our forefathers), have 
been investigated, and much sounder views have been arrived at than 
were before general: so that not to mention what has been already 
done, we may anticipate, without fear of disappointment, an impor- 
tant improvement in every new church that may hereafter be erected. 
One of the points dwelt on at considerable leugth by recent ecclesio- 
logical writers, is, the symbolism of church architecture, the fact that 
every ancient ecclesiastical building was intended to convey nume- 
rous sacred truths by its form and arrangement, — and the consequent 
deduction that ritualism should be carefully studied by all those who 
may be called on to design churches. 

A general outline of their views in this respect, regarding a church 
as deduced from ancient buildings remaining to us, may be thus stated. 
A chancel and a nave are the essential parts of a church ; the latter is 
the representative of the church militant, the former of the church 
triumphant. The chancel-arch, which defines and separates the two 
(and is never to be omitted) images the close of our life. The en- 
trance to the sacred structure should be at, or as close to, the west-end 
as possible, and the font must be placed near it, typical of our entry 
to the church militant by baptism. 

When ailes can be added to the nave, the edifice becomes more per- 
fect, as, apart from ih'- increased accommodation, the three parallel di- 
visions so formed, serve in continuation of the symbolical system, to set 

10 



72 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[March, 



forth the Holy Trinity, to which numerous other references are ever 
found, in the windows and tracery of ancient ecclesiastical buildings. 
In a cruciform church, the best form, but to be adopted only when 
funds are plentiful, the four arches at the junction of the nave, chan- 
cel, and transept, symbolise that by the -writings of the four Evange- 
lists, the doctrine of the cross is taught to the four quarters of the 
world. Further, on the altar are to appear two candles, to signify 
that "Christ is a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of his 
people Israel." 

Now, that it is wise and proper to enforce this system so strongly 
and so constantly as lias been done — to render matters of this descrip- 
tion all-important — we should be quite unwilling to assert. We 
would give all " the aid which slackening piety requires ;" we 
would not 

■ conceal the precious cross 



Like men ashamed : the sun with his first smile, 
Shall greet that symbol crowning the low pile ; 
And the fresh air of incense-breathing morn, 
Shall wooingly embrace it ; and green moss 
Creep round its arms thro' centuries unborn." 

We would place 

" Our Christian altar faithful to the east, 
Whence the tall window drinks the morning rays;'" 

We would most worthily adorn the house of God, to render it to the 
extent of our means fitting for its high purpose — but at the same 
time we would carefully avoid all proceedings, however agreeable to 
our temperament, however enticing to us as an artist, which should 
give undue importance to bricks and stones, and man's inventions and 
devices, which should increase the number of ceremonial observances, 
which should threaten to exalt the shadow in the place of the sub- 
stance, and so lead to a state of things which did once result from 
such a course, and may result again, notwithstanding the increased 
amount of information possessed, and the general comparative en- 
lightenment. 

Relative to the size of the chancel, the Cambridge writers say, it 
" should not be less than a third, or more than the half, of the whole 
length of the church. The larger it is made within the prescribed 
bounds, the more magnificent will be the appearance of the build- 
ing." 1 Into this portion of the structure, none but those engaged in 
the ceremonies are to enter ; and here the whole of the service is to be 
performed with the exception of the sermon. The north side of the 
chancel-arch is pointed out as the best position for the pulpit. It 
seems to us, and we say it with the greatest deference, that a deep 
chancel, such as is here insisted on, however magnificent and striking 
it may, and does, make a building, is unsuited to the Protestant ser- 
vice as it has been heretofore performed. The fact is evident in an 
examination of the arrangements made in the majority of our cathe- 
drals, wherein, if the service were read in the chancel, so to term it, 
and the worshippers were confined to the nave, nothing said by the 
priest at the altar could possibly be heard by them. In ordinary 
sized parish churches too, if the chancel were one-third the length of 
the building, and still less if half, the majority of priests would fail to 
make themselves heard, unless indeed the altar were placed at the 
west-end of it, with a reredos or screen, to rail off the remainder of 
the chancel. The use of the rood-screen, still further to separate the 
laity from the clergy, which is strongly insisted on, would throw an 
additional impediment in the way. If it he not necessary that the 
service should be heard and understood, and into this inquiry we will 
not venture to go, then of coruse the objection vanishes. The very 
occurrence of this question in the mind, however, serves to explain 
■why the architectural works to which we have referred, are termed 
by some, " engines of polemical theology." 

Writers of the Roman Catholic faith insist on the inconsistency of 
the position held by Protestant divines, who urge this and other 
opinions relative to the form, arrangement, and decoration of our 
churches. " The good men who are so earnestly labouring for the 

» " A few words to Church Bui Iders," 2nd Edition. Published by " Cam- 
bridge Camden Society," 1842. 



revival of Catholic church architecture," says the Dublin Reviem, 2 
must be convinced that we must have the Catholic service revived, in 
the first place, before any real good can possibly be accomplished." 
This last necessity, (Catholic meaning here Roman Catholic,) we deny 
altogether. The principles of ancient church architecture, as applied 
to suit one set of circumstances, being studied and understood, may 
be adapted without difficulty to other, and in this case but slightly 
modified, circumstances, and made to produce as efficient a result. 
The remark, however, may possibly be deemed to apply in some 
degree to those who would bring back all such forms and details as 
were anciently used, although altogether unsuited to present require- 
ments. 

The antiquity alone, of a practice or form (strong as it makes its 
claim), would hardly seem sufficient authority in all cases for its re- 
vival: thus, (to illustrate our meaning from a different source,) the 
certainty that the practice of burying in churches is of very ancient 
date, and its consonance with our feelings, are now not deemed by the 
majority sufficient reasons for its continuance, the injurious tendency 
of the custom being fully known. 

According to recent writers, nothing is to be done that has not 
been done before. Fearing the ignorance of modern architectural 
professors, (a little too imperiously stated, be it remarked, by some of 
the non-professional writers,) the necessity of having a precedent 
for every tower, and door, and window, and moulding, is insisted on. 
Design nothing, copy all, is the deduction which forcibly presents 
itself. " Inspice et fac secundum exemplar quod tibi monstratura 
est." This course has safety to recommend it, but will hardly effect 
for posterity, what our forefathers have done for us. 

To rid our churches of close pews and lumbering galleries, and to 
destroy the opinion, that to accommodate the greatest number of 
people at the smallest possible cost, is the chief problem to be solved 
in church building, would be a great achievement. Something has 
already been done towards this very desirable end, and the work is 
progressing. The fact once thoroughly understood, that more wor> 
shippers may be seated by means of open benches than in pews, will 
in this utilitarian age, operate more powerfully in leading to their 
disuse, than any of the other numerous arguments against them 
which have been advanced. So far as appearance is concerned, there 
cannot be two opinions on the subject. 

As an artist and an enthusiastic, though humble, advocate of the 
fine arts, the writer cannot regard the present views on church deco- 
ration, but with gratification, seeing in them the promise of a noble 
field for their exercise and development. Less than seventy years ago, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, West, Barry, Dance, Cipriani, and Angelica 
Kauffman, offered munificently to adorn the interior of St. Paul's Ca« 
thedral with paintings, with the view of convincing the public of the 
improvement in our sacred buildings, which might be effected by this 
means, and so of obtaining an opening for the encouragement of 
British art. The then Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of 
London, however, could not be induced to entertain the p roposition, 
on the ground that it savoured of Popery, and the idea was in conse- 
quence abandoned. How doubtful of one's own judgment should 
such marked changes in opinion make us — how tolerant of the senti- 
ments of others should we be, remembering as all must, the different 
light in which we ourselves have viewed the same circumstances at 
different epochs, and the alteration which is constantly taking place 
in our own views and opinions. 

In one of the latest publications of the Cambridge Camden Society, 
containing many very excellent suggestions, 3 it is remarked, "a church 
is not as it should be till every window is filled with stained glass, till 
every inch of floor is covered with encaustic tiles, till there is a rood- 
screen (?) glowing with the brightest tints and with gold ; nay, if we 
would arrive at perfection, the roof and walls must be painted and 
frescoed." In carrying out such views it is hardly necessary to say, 
the greatest care must be taken to prevent a theatrical effect likely to 
result from such a course, unless pursued with great judgment. We 

2 February, 1842. 

3 " Church Enlargement and Church Arrangement." 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



73 



are disposed to think a more moderate use of colours than has been 
made in recent restorations in London and Paris, might produce a 
result equally excellent in an artistical, and more so in a devotional, 
point of view. Scripture sentences upon the walls, " ywritten full 
thicke," are amongst the most excellent and fitting adornments of a 
church. 

The increased use made of stained glass in England is exceed- 
ingly gratifying, and the excellent specimens which have been 
prepared lately show clearly, as the writer has on many other occasions 
asserted, that we could produce stained glass quite equal to anything 
that was done by our forefathers if proper encouragement were 
afforded to the professors of the art. Difficult of attainment, expen- 
sive in its processes, so much so, indeed, as almost to prevent experi- 
mentalizing except for actual commissions, and labouring under the 
weight of an erroneous opinion that the art was lost, glass-painting 
had remained for a long time in a very languishing condition. Lat- 
terly, however, it has revived considerably, and many large works in 
various parts of the country are now in progress. The opinion enter- 
tained of our want of skill in glass-painting is hardly yet removed. 
The author of "A few words to Church Builders," says, "stained 
glass is of much importance in giving a chastened and solemn effect 
to a church. Those who travel on the Continent might find many 
opportunities of procuring from desecrated churches, at a very trifling 
expense, many fragments which would be superior to any we can now 
make. But if it be modern, let us at least imitate the designs, if we 
cannot attaia to the richness of hues which our ancestors possessed." 
Against the opinion to be inferred from this, we will venture to place 
our feeble protest. There is much old stained glass to be found on 
the Continent inferior to what we can now make, and there is not a 
great deal which we could not equal if the proper opportunity were 
afforded. Moreover, we do not believe there are any hues possessed 
by our forefathers which could not now be produced. 

Let every material employed in the construction of a church be 
real, is a wholesome injunction likely to produce excellent results, 
although, perhaps, some may think it could be carried too far. It has 
been too much the custom to endeavour to produce a showy and de- 
ceptive external appearance, without proper regard to the fitness, 
propriety, and excellence of all the various parts of the building, 
which, indeed, have been sacrificed for it. While deal painted to 
imitate oak, and Roman cement in lieu of stone, give entire satisfaction 
to ourselves, and obtain the approval of the world, no efforts will be 
made to obtain that which is better, and a niggardly calculating spirit 
is engendered, grudgingly giving the "just enough," which is un- 
worthy of Christians, and destructive of more good feelings than one. 

In designing buildings in the pointed style, this same doctrine 
cannot be too constantly reflected on. The more fully our ancient 
edifices are studied, the more clearly does it become apparent that 
nothing was introduced unnecessarily or deceptively for mere appear- 
ance sake — that the excellence of effect, which is apparent, resulted 
from the use of sound principles, laid down not with the view of pro- 
ducing that effect, but with reference to stability, convenience, and 
fitness; good taste and great skill being afterwards employed in 
adorning that which was necessary, and making the Useful a producer 
of the Beautiful. Plans were not made to accord with a fanciful eleva- 
tion, entailing thereby loss of convenience, and unnecessary outlay, 
but were arranged first, to suit the requirements of the time, and upon 
these naturally the elevation followed. All decoration grew out of 
the construction, and reason governed instead of caprice. This is 
now better understood than it was a few years ago, and will doubtless 
produce its fruit in due season. 

The virtual abrogation of the regulation, at one time enforced by 
the "Incorporated Society for Building Churches," that no timber 
roof should be used without a tie beam, will do much to restore to 
modern churches one of the most striking features of ancient build- 
ings — the open arched roof — and is a subject for congratulation. The 
same may be said of the feeling now fortunatelv growing, against the 
tasteless tombs and monumental slabs with which our noble cathedrals 
and churches have been gradually encumbered and overladen. Like 



some frightful fungus, they have spread insidiously over all parts of 
these structures, destroying alike their beauty, propriety, and sta» 
bility. Our metropolitan Abbey presents a lamentable example of 
the evil ; and it is to be hoped that the acknowledged good taste of 
those who now govern there, will not merely prevent the increase of 
this abomination, but lead, as opportunities may from time to time 
offer themselves, to the removal of the excrescences now deforming 
that fine building, and to a restoration of its harmonious proportions 
and original integrity. 

To say that every one of our ancient buildings should be most re- 
ligiously preserved, is perhaps, less necessary now than it was some 
little time ago; still it cannot be repeated too often, for alas! in- 
stances of injury and destruction still occur, and not unfrequently. 
Full of information, abundant of association, and suggestive of most 
wholesome thoughts, they are contemporary histories, which once lost, 
can never be replaced ; and in which every alteration even, or interpo- 
lation, is an offence against society. They are the visible links which 
make the past and the present one ; they are the standing monuments 
of the Christian religion, and attest at one and the same time our 
forefathers' piety and our forefathers' skill. 



THE NEW ROYAL EXCHANGE. 

Instead of being at all premature, some of the remarks we are 
about to make come too late to be of the service they otherwise 
might — that is, supposing suggestions so thrown out to be ever at- 
tended to, which may fairly be questioned; for although architects 
are apt to be not a little sensitive when their productions are ani- 
madverted upon, they rarely seem disposed to screen themselves from 
criticism by attending to, and profiting by, what it has objected to, 
either in their own works or those of others. It is probable, therefore, 
that our observations will be of just as much service now, as they 
would have been if brought forward when they could have been acted 
upon, at least fully taken into consideration before it had been deter- 
mined to pursue an opposite course. But with regard to conside- 
ration, none at all, as far as we can ascertain, appears to have been 
given to what was one of the most essential points to be deliberated 
upon at the very outset, viz. whether the new Exchange should be 
covered in or not. All we know is that, instead of its being made a 
question, it seems to have been settled, or rather assumed as matter 
of course, that it should be a mere open court, such having been the 
case in the former building. No idea of the possibility of any thing: 
else appears to have occurred to any one — at least not to any one who 
had a voice in the matter. Yet though we say it should have been 
made a question for discussion, we do not think there was occasion 
for much discussion, the advantages of the central area being covered 
in instead of left open, being so many and so obvious, that merely to 
specify them would have been sufficient, we think, to carry the de- 
cision at once in favour of such plan. What could have been urged 
in behalf of the contrary mode, the one actually adopted, we cannot 
even conjecture; therefore, if any arguments at all were adduced in its 
support or justification, we should be exceedingly glad to learn what 
they were — which is more, we suspect, than any one can inform us. 
The only satisfaction then left us, until we are so informed, is the 
liberty of concluding that, notwithstanding all that was said at the 
time about the vast importance of the Royal Exchange as " a National 
Edifice, that should be in every respect worthy of the first commercial 

city in the world," and much more to the sa ifrect ; very little of 

careful consideration seems to have been bestowed upon it, great as 
was the delay, and noisy as was the squabbling as to who should be 
the architect. 

Had a thought been given to the matter at the outset, it would 
probably have been perceived that, even supposing it otherwise mere 
matter of indifference whether the area W I D or not, there 

was a golden argument to turn the Bcale in fivuur uf its being covered 
—namely increased rental from tli" ■xterior of the build* 

ing, in consequence of the greater space thai could then have been 

10* 



74 



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[March, 



given up to them, without at all interfering with the accommodation 
required for the body of the Exchange. According to Mr. Tite's plan, 
the entire space occupied by the latter will be about 19,000 square 
feet, but out of this number, 0500 will be quite open and unsheltered, 
consequently cannot always be made use of for purposes of business. 
Now had it been determined that the centre portion of the plan should 
be covered in, there would have been shelter every where, therefore the 
breadth of the ambulatories might have been considerably reduced, so 
as to afford an additional depth of nine or ten feet to the shops— some 
of which will now not be more than 7 feet in depth, or hardly that. 
Even then the actual space available at all times for business would 
have been the same, or rather more than will now be the case. And 
so far from the architectural effect being at all injured by such con- 
traction of the space behind the columns, it would, in our opinion, be 
improved, and the whole would, in fact, appear to be more spacious 
than it is now likely to do; for the width of the cloister portion or 
ambulatories will now be so great, in order to provide a sufficiency of 
sheltered space, that while they will look low and depressed, they 
will occasion the open part or court to appear comparatively narrow 
and squeezed up ; more especially as the same space looks consider- 
ably less when uncovered than when roofed in. 

We have heard it urged as an objection to the Exchange being 
covered in, that it would be exceedingly difficult to light it from above 
without a very great sacrifice of architectural character. We, our- 
selves, however, are of a diametrically contrary opinion. Even sup- 
posing it to be covered by a mere skylight as a protection from the 
weather (as is the case with the cortile of the new structure at Liver- 
pool, called the Brunswick Buildings) we do not see how that could 
interfere with the architectural elevations of the sides. We do not 
say it would be an improvement in point of appearance, but it would 
not be any great drawback on it. Hardly, however, should we recom- 
mend a skylight of that homely description for such a place as the 
Exchange ; and skylights admit of being put into such a great variety 
of form, whether introduced so as to appear mere cofferings or panels 
receding little within the general surface of the ceiling; or as lan- 
terns, — which may be ceiled above, and open only on their sides; and 
further admit of such great diversity of decoration, that a roof of the 
kind may be accommodated to any style and any design. While it is 
the most original, its ceiling, with three large skylights of plate glass 
(each consisting of two sloping planes parallel with those of the ex- 
ternal and internal roof), is not the least happy idea in the interior of 
the Walhalla, and certainly magnificent enough, it consisting almost 
entirely of bronze and gilding. 

For these fifty years at least, not a single edifice has been erected 
for the purpose of an Exchange for merchants either in Europe or 
America, but what has been covered in and protected from the 
weather, and now, instead of further improvement being aimed at, we 
are reverting to the old inconvenient plan of a mere open court, and 
to what, as such, will be no better than a pent-up and dismal area, 
except, perhaps, during a few remarkably bright days in the course of 
a summer. Almost might it be imagined that the " open court" had 
been determined upon, by the company of umbrella-makers, and by 
that of " undertakers" also. The city worthies seem to have either 
a very singular taste for uncomfortableness, or else very singular 
notions of convenience. No sooner had the public began to congratu- 
late themselves on the very great advantages attending wooden pave- 
ments, than Sir Peter Laurie set about attempting not to put them 
down, but to take them all up again. 

The architect of the Royal Exchange has, it seems, had sufficient 
influence with the Committee to prevail on them to have the pedi- 
ment of the portico enriched with sculpture ; let him then now re- 
commend, while it may be yet time, that the " area " should be 
covered in above, for then it would be protected from the atmosphere 
and its London smoke, as well as from the weather ; and as a hall 
it would not only appear more spacious than as an open court, but also 
more lightsome and cheerful — certainly would be more cleanly, be- 
cause its pavement would be always dry. 

As to the difference of appearance in regard to spaciousness, there 



can be no doubt; for what sort of effect, we ask, as to size, would 
Westminster Hall make without its roof. To an open cortile, in 
itself, there can be no objection; but, we must contend, it is prepos- 
terous to adopt it for a purpose where something more is obviously 
required. 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK. 

FASCICULUS XL VI. 

" I must have liberty 
Withal, as large a charter as the winds, 
To blow on whom I please." 

I. Since Mr. Gwilt not only entertains, but professes, so great a 
horror of architectural critics, anonymous writers, amateurs, and 
"literary idlers," as it pleases him to call them who amuse themselves 
with architectural studies, it is to be hoped that some of them will 
horrify him yet more. Myself, for one, it may be presumed, am num- 
bered by him among the most offensive of the tribe, and reckoned an 
incorrigible maiivais sujtt, and mischief-maker. Nothing, however, 
can be more mischievous, or more completely opposed to the interests 
of architecture, than the doctrine he puts forth ; for the drift of it is 
not to encourage the study of it as an art, but actually to deter from 
it. He would confine it entirely to the profession, treating with scorn 
the idea that anv one else can acquire a competent knowledge of it, 
even as a fine art, or form a correct taste. In his opinion, the less the 
public know, or pretend to know, of it the better ; and if he means 
better for himself and those (if there be any) of his way of thinking, 
he is undoubtedly right. Hitherto it has generally been made a sub- 
ject of pride and congratulation, that architecture has enlisted among 
its most zealous votaries, persons of refined taste and liberal educa- 
tion, many of whom have rendered it essential services by their pen. 
But Mr. Gwilt views the matter in a very different light : he is for 
changing it altogether, and "heretoforivard" — to make use of his own 
quaint expression — the whole race of Benthams, Hopes, Dallaways, 
Whewells, &c, are to be looked upon as mere " literary idlers," who, 
furnished with no more than a few purblind ideas, and crude notions, 
which they have picked up by chance, pretend to instruct and inform 
others in matters of architecture. Yet it is to such industrious 
" idlers," that we are indebted for the far greater part of what is 
known of the history of the art; very little information of that kind 
has been supplied by architects themselves, and what they have 
written at all seldom extends further than to the mere elements and dry 
rules of their art ; what may be termed the philosophy of it, being 
rarely touched upon by them. 

II. Instead of taking it amiss of Gwilt that he has omitted his work 
in his list of architectural publications, Wightwick ought to consider 
himself a very lucky fellow in escaping a good dressing from him, for 
having recommended the study of architecture as a very delightful, 
and also a very suitable, one, not only for " idle " gentlemen, but 
proh pudor .' for "woman kind" also. He and Gwilt are the two 
poles of opinion; while the latter would confine the study to those 
whose proper business it is, Wightwick would have it rendered acces- 
sible to all ; the one would have it kept as a well-watched preserve, 
with a due warning of " Man-traps and spring-guns " to scare away 
the public — the other is for breaking down all its paling and fences, 
and throwing it open as a common, where every one may stroll, and 
where literary geese are free to pick up what they can, and to hiss, 
without having their necks wrung off for their presumption. It is 
G wilt's opinion that the less the public meddle with architecture 
the better ; on the other hand, Wightwick's, that the more thfr 
public understand and render themselves competent judges of it, the 
better both for them and for the art itself, and those who practise it. 
Nor is it altogether unreasonable to suppose that people would take more 
interest in what they understood, than in what they are now ignorant 
of; and further, that the greater and more extended the interest taken 
in it by the public, all the better would it be for those whose interest 



1S43.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



:.> 



of another kind it is, that, instead of a mere swinish multitude, they 
should have an intelligent public to deal with. As far as there is 
cause for complaint in that respect at all, it is not that there are so 
many " amateurs " and persons without the pale of the profession 
who study, or pretend to study, architecture, but that there are so 
few. Infinitely better would it be if the whole public, that is all 
persons of education were in a manner amateurs. 

III. At last Boz has introduced a new character— one which has 
hitherto not been handled by either dramatist or novelist — in the per- 
son of Mr. Pecksniff", the architect. All other professions — the medical 
and the legal more especially, have been represented and shown up 
so frequently, that characters of that class are almost worn out. The 
wonder, therefore, is that no one should have before thought of 
turning to the architectural one. Whether, in entering upon this fresh 
track, Mr. Dickens has provided himself with a carte du pays, re- 
mains to be seen, for all that can be understood at present is, that 
Pecksniff* is to be a very prominent character in the work ; but it is 
not quite so clear if he is intended to be the representative of a class 
in the profession, or merely an individual who might equally well have 
been represented as belonging to any other. If, as he very well may do, 
Boz should show up the peculiar kind of charlatanry which stamps 
the architectural quack, and distinguishes him from all others of the 
duck-like genus — should he expose the arts by which men totally 
destitute of artistical talent and feeling for art, obtain credit with the 
public for being artists — should he disclose some of the clever tricks 
practised at competitions by very " respectable " people — should he 
indulge in some pleasant hits at the vox el prceterea nihil pedants, who 
can merely talk by book and by rote, without an idea of their own — 
should he, among other things, exhibit Pecksniff as an architectural 
lecturer, gammoning his bewildered audiences with mere rhodomon- 
tade and fiction, — should he do this, Dickens will deserve our thanks, 
and the gratitude of the honest part of the profession. Still we have 
our misgivings, and suspect that Pecksniff will turn out rather an 
overdrawn and ill-drawn caricature, than an ably delineated character 
and portraiture from real life. Of extravagant and tedious caricatu re 
there is certainly not a little, in the manner in which Pecksniff is first 
presented to us — blown down by the wind at his own door. Had any 
one else given us such a tirade of laboured nothingness, and dull at- 
tempt at grotesque pleasantry, it would at once have been pronounced 
intolerably childish stuff'; whereas, now the critics will perhaps dis- 
cover it to be ^ery fine — one, indeed, has done so already. 

IV. I entertain about the same affection for law books that Gwilt 
does for German architecture and German architects. Why does not 
a second Omar come to purge the world of them ? Even a book 
bound in "law fashion" has to me a very odious look; it seems to 
Lave put on the uniform of that Tartuffe race of wolves in sheep's 
clothing, or at any rate wolves dressed up in calf's skin. Neverthe- 
less, I have done that which a month ago I should have said was im- 
possible ; yes, I have actually been seduced into reading an articl e in 
the Law Magazine, one, certaiuly, that I should never have thought of 
looking for there, consequently might never have known of at all, had 
it not been put into my hands by a friend, when, to my utter astonish- 
ment, I found it contained a paper headed "Architectural Novelties".' 
It was like having a sovereign palmed upon one between a couple of 
halfpence; almost was it like my first meeting with Young's desctip- 
tions of magnificent country seats, sparkling like bright and verdant 
oases over the arid waste of such dreary matter as crops, and hoeing 
and drilling. Most truly does the poet say : 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear." 

yet I doubt if the dark unfathomed caves, or bottomless pit of the 
law, contain anything more relating to architecture, whether in the 
shape of "novelties" or antiquities. There can, however, be no 
doubt, that a vast number of papers, of one kind or another, relating to 
architecture lie buried in literary journals and periodicals, foreign ones 
more especially. Were the best, or even some of the most interesting 
of them, collected and reprinted, they would form a Heading Architec- 



tural Library of considerable extent. It is by poking about in periodi- 
cals that we stumble upon such treasures as Edward Collow's descrip- 
tions of, and remarks on, many of the recent public buildings of Paris- 
things, therefore not likely to be met with by gentlemen like Gwilt, who 
despises periodical literature, and, though he has not ventured to say 
so, no doubt abhors architectural periodicals most of all. Neither are 
they likely to come to the notice of those who pore over the writings 
of the " venerable" Vitruvius, and carefully collate all the readings of 
different authors, in hopes of being able to catch a glimpse of the 
meaning of the mysterious " Scamilli impares." But the Law Magazine ; 
— be it known, then, to all whom it may concern, that its article on 
"Architectural Novelties" gives some account of the Hall and Li- 
brary about to be erected by Mr. Hanlwick, in the gardens at Lincoln's 
Inn, at the south-west corner or south end of the terrace. The build- 
ing is to be of red brick, and in the style of the older parts of Hamp- 
ton Court. The Hall or Dining Room will be 120 X 15 and 54 feet 
high, and the Library 80x40 and 4^> feet high; and both will have 
timber roofs. The remainder and longer part of the article relates 
to the restorations and embellishments of the Temple Church. 

V. Raczynski is pleased to speak in exceedingly complimentary 
terms of the architecture of Edinburgh, and its recent buildings, as 
being in better taste than those of London ; but then it is only in such 
safe general terms, that what he says amounts to nothing — at least to 
nothing more than a bare opinion to that effect, for he does not even 
mention a single one of the structures he pretends to admire. If the 
Nelson Monument was one of them, his praise is not greatly to be 
coveted. Speaking of that " monstrosity," the writer of the. "Re- 
marks on the Edinburgh Parthenon," tells us that " it ought to be 
pulled down" ; nor is the same unlikely to be said of the other "Nel- 
son Monument" in Trafalgar Square. 

VI. It is provoking to find that the stupid Germans now propose to 
erect a public monument to Schinkel, just after Gwilt has put an ex- 
tinguisher upon him. A public monument to a fellow' who was no 
more than a mere " scene painter " in architecture ! to one who was 
little better than an audacious heretic in the art, an insolent reformer, 
setting at defiance both Pope Vitruvius and Pope Palladio, and did 
not even abide by the authority of the Greeks themselves, but would 
fain be "tampering" with the ancient orders, like a conceited cox- 
comb as he was, in the hope of improving them, or at least of pro- 
ducing something as good, and not quite so hackneyed. A monument 
to Schinkel, indeed ! Zounds ! we will be revenged on those scurvy 
Germans, for we will erect a public monument to Gwilt ; therefore 
the sooner he gives us the opportunity of doing so, the better. 



PONT DU CARROUSEL, PARIS. 

In the Journal of August, 1S42, I stated that an improvement 
worthy of notice had been introduced in the construction of the Pont 
du Carrousel, at Paris, consisting in the application of wrought iron 
keys, so disposed as to obtain great precision in setting the segments 
of the tubular voussoirs, of which the arches of this bridge are com- 
posed. My intention is to explain more particularly in this paper, 
how far the application of these keys materially facilitated the casting 
of the voussoirs separately, and to show their useful effect in the con- 
struction of the arc on the piers. 

The amount of contraction of cast iron, in the act of cooling in the 
mould in which it has been run, is variable; for although, as stated, the 
general average may be considered to be about -p^, this measure can- 
not be taken as an absolute quantity: it may be sensibly modified, by 
many circumstances, such as the quality of the metal, its temperature 
when run into the mould, and the greater or less rapidity of the 
cooling process. This difference is not of material importance in 
short pieces, but in a length of upwards of 160 feet, it may amount 
to some inches, and when the pieces are cast in great lengths, (or even 
if they are in short lengths,) and the joints are intended to bed fairly 
against each other, as is the case in bridges of the ordinary con- 



76 



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[March, 



struction, this difference becomes a source of considerable trouble and 
annoyance. 

It is objectionable to have to add to the length of pieces when 
cast, and to avoid this, the patterns are usually made full long, 
thereby allowing for the greatest possible contraction of the metal ; 
so that generally speaking, a certain portion of each casting has to 
be removed by the chisel or otherwise, to get the pieces to their 
proper length. Notwithstanding these precautions, there will be oc- 
casional wasters, which may be properly or improperly patched up, 
or which if thrown away, give rise to extra expense and delay. 

When the constructor has plenty of time at his disposal, he pro- 
ceeds with still further caution, by casting the principal pieces, and 
having them put together; after this, the pattern of the remaining 
length is corrected, and sent to the foundry with the certitude, that 
the casting will come in pretty well ; thus, by dint of precaution, delay, 
and expense, the work is got through to this stage, and if the mason 
work is prepared with the same care and precision, all will be found 
to come in very well; but a stone pier has been known to be a little 
out of its proper position, either in consequence of an error or the 
settling of the work upon its foundation. When this takes place, it 
becomes requisite to let the cast iron into the stone work on one side 
of the pier, and to place a thickness of metal between the pier and 
the cast iron on its other side. All these imperfections are only felt 
during the construction, they do not at all diminish the strength or 
interfere with the durability of the work, but generally speaking, all 
those who have been engaged in cast iron bridge building, will have 
bad to exercise their ingenuity, not only to correct such evils, but at 
the same time to proceed in such a manner, that they may not leave 
an indelible trace on the face of the work. There is, therefore, no 
doubt but that the facility of extending, or diminishing, the chord 
line or the versed sine of the arch, would on many occasions be of 
considerable advantage. 

The keys placed at each end of the segments, of the tubular vous- 
soir, remove all the above mentioned objections, for the segments 
being kept rather short, the space will have to be divided amongst 
some 10 or 12 joints, so that three or four inches, more or less, in the 
total length of the arch, will only require the wrought iron keys to be 
made a little thicker or thinner than they were originally intended to 
be, and as they are not made until after the arc has been placed, no 
extra expense will be incurred, or time lost. 

The division of the arc into so many pieces, offers another advan- 
tage, as, by reducing the weight of each separate piece, the whole can 
be moved about, and managed with great facility, and without requir- 
ing such powerful tackle, or such strong centering, as is generally 
employed. When the number of segments comprised in an arc are in 
their place, a wood model is made for each key, and the keys are 
forged and fitted in their places, without being immediately driven 
home ; plumb bobs being suspended from the joint of the tubular rib, 
it becomes very easy to set the whole in a perfect line, by driving the 
keys on either side as may be required ; and by making the keys 
sufficiently long, the height of the arc can be regulated with the ut- 
most facility and precision. The keys being driven, and the whole of 
the tubular arc in its proper place, the bolt holes, those of one fianch 
having been cast in, are drilled in the opposite one, and the bolts 
placed and tightly screwed up, attention being paid at the same time 
to the plumb bobs, as the effect of screwing up the nuts may be to 
cause a deviation in the line of the arc, which is again easily rectified 
by means of the keys, and the bolts cannot otherwise affect the form 
of the arc. 

Openings were reserved from distance to distance along the upper 
joint of the voussoir, for the purpose of introducing melted bitumen, 
which, when the bridge was finished, was done, in order to fill up the 
space remaining between the lamellated wooden rib, and its cast iron 
covering. This bitumen being intended, by setting when cool, to form 
a compact mass of the whole arc, with a view to increase its rigidity. 
The wooden arc, as I have already said, greatly facilitated the 
erection of the tubular voussoir, and when standing alone, previous to 
the application of the latter, it had a wonderfully light and elegant 



appearance ; but it becomes a question whether, in reality, it is at all 
requisite to the solidity of this kind of bridge, its flexibility being so 
great that it cannot in any way be expected to come to the assistance 
of the cast iron, which, if accidentally forced out of its original 
position, by any extraordinary lateral strain (the only one that could 
affect it) would break long before the internal wooden rib could offer 
any useful resistance to the strain. It also remains to be ascertained 
whether the wood thus confined in the tubular voussoir, will not be 
very subject to decay, notwithstanding every precaution that has been 
taken to preserve it. 

The annular system of spandrils, adopted by M. Polonceau, forms 
another remarkable feature in this construction ; they combine strength, 
with lightness, and give an elegant appearance to the bridge. Their 
circular form renders them elastic; they spring under the load, so that 
the vibratory action, communicated to the roadway, and the upper 
side of the annular support, is neutralized ere it can arrive at [the 
main rib, which, therefore, as I have already observed, maintains the 
most rigid firmness, under the heaviest load. 

At the same time that the vibratory action is destroyed, they pre- 
sent also the advantage of distributing the load acting at a particular 
point on the road, over a considerable length of the main rib of the 
arch, as will be shown by the diagram. 




Let us suppose three rings a, b, c, placed between a beam d, and an 
upper platform; and that a weight W be placed on the platform im- 
mediately over the ring 6 ; under such circumstances the vertical di- 
ameter of the ring 6, will be shortened, and its horizontal diameter 
will be lengthened in the same ratio ; half the increased length of the 
horizontal diameter of b, will be taken from each of the horizontal 
diameters of a and e, and added to their vertical diameters, thus 
raising the platform immediately over the centres a and c, and by 
increasing its resistance, will remove a portion of the load W from 
the point b, to the centres a and c, thereby distributing it along the 
beam d. 

As a proof of the advantage of this mode of construction in point 
of economy, it will be sufficient to mention, that although the length 
of this bridge between the buttresses, is nearly 500 feet, it was com- 
pleted for £40,000, including every expenditure; and that, in a 
country where metal is very high priced. I can conscientiously 
affirm, that every precaution was taken, and every outlay made, that 
could be required to obtain good workmanship, and a solid construc- 
tion. The whole of the tubular ribs were moulded in dry sand, and 
cast in second fusion, and the wrought iron employed is of the very 
best quality for the purpose. 

When the bridge was finished, it became necessary, according to 
the government regulation, to test its strength by distributing a given 
load over the entire surface of the road way, the government officers 
in the meanwhile, minutely inspecting the work, to ascertain whether, 
under the strain, any defect would become apparent. This, in France, 
is an invariable rule adopted as a legislative measure of public 
security; and, until you can present a favourable report from these 
officers, it is impossible to obtain permission to open the bridge. We 
commenced by making an observation in the morning early, to deter- 
mine the positive height of each arch, previous to any load having 
been placed on the bridge. The load (about 400 lbs. avoirdupois 
upon every square yard of surface) was then laid on, and in the after- 
noon we found that, under the load, each arch stood higher than it did 
in the morning without the load. 

The morning (October) had been very cool, the sun coming out 
later in the day heated the metal, and increased its length, so that the 



1S43.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



77 



•whole difference in the height was occasioned by expansion; it became, 
however, requisite to ascertain if such was positively the case, ami by 
leaving the load on the bridge, and taking an observation again when 
the metal was cool, we found that the arches had returned to their 
original position. There is nothing surprising in this circumstance, 
although without reflection it would appear rather paradoxical, and I 
mention it, not with a view of exemplifying the effect of expansion, 
which is of course understood, but because I consider the peculiar 
system on which this bridge is constructed, to be favourable to the free 
action of expansion and contraction, without thereby being subjected 
to any strain at all detrimental to its general strength. 

The part of the bridge, most immediately exposed to the action of 
heat and cold, and more particularly to the action of the sun, is the 
arc itself, the upper part of the spandrils being protected by the pro- 
jection of the platform, consequently large castings would be subject 
to unequal contraction and expansion and consequent strain, which 
must very much weaken them, whereas, in bridges constructed upon 
this principle, the flexibility of the whole system is so great, that the 
expansion of the tubular rib, by increasing the versed sine of the arc, 
can lift the entire arch without subjecting any part of it to such a re- 
sistance as would tend to diminish its strength. 

H. H. Edwards. 

London, Feb. 20, 1S43. 



VARIABLE ORIFICE OF THE BlAST PIPE OF LOCOMO- 
TIVE ENGINES. 

In the February number of the Journal, I described a " Self-acting 
Expansion Slide Valve" and in the course of the explanation, re- 
ferred to having obtained patents abroad for an apparatus, by means 
of which, the orifice of the blast pipe of locomotives, can be regu- 
lated by the engine driver ; I will endeavour in this paper to describe 
the apparatus, and to point out its general utility. 

The determination of the area of the orifice of the blast pipe, is 
of importance in the construction of locomotives ; upon its proportion 
depends the supply of a sufficient quantity of steam for the service of 
the engine, and also its comparative effective pressure upon the 
piston. It may be made so large, or so small, as to prevent the engine 
from performing her allotted amount of duty ; and the application of 
this blast of steam, may be considered (next only to the boiler itself), 
the most useful invention in this beautiful machine, so essential a 
complement thereto, that the locomotive engine would have been very 
imperfect without it. The possibility of its successful application 
having been ascertained, experience promptly indicated the extreme 
limits of the area of the blast, within which the engine could exert 
her power; but it still remains to be decided as an invariable rule, 
what the exact size should be within these limits, to produce the most 
useful effect ; and you will very seldom find any two engineers who 
adopt the same sized blast, for engines of the same power. 

When the diameter of the orifice of the blast pipe is too great, the 
energy of the blast will decrease, and the draught through the fire 
will not suffice to generate the quantity of steam required to keep up 
the speed of the engine; when, on the contrary, the diameter is too 
small, the resistance behind the piston will become so great, in con- 
sequence of the steam not being able to escape through the con- 
tracted passage, as sensibly to reduce its effective power on the 
piston. Within these two extreme limits (if an invariable orifice of 
blast is adopted) it at first sight appears, that there must be an inter- 
mediate point at which, if it could be attained, an engine would per- 
form the greatest quantity of work, with the smallest quantity of 
fuel. This intermediate point, if it can be admitted to exist, is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to discover, because a locomotive engine has to 
overcome a degree of resistance that is constantly changing, either on 
account of the load, the action of the wind, the state of the rails, or 
other causes. 

In the preceding paragraph, speaking of the extreme limits of the 



size of blast, within which an engine may work equally well, some 
doubt is expressed as to whether there exists an intermediate point 
that might be preferable, as enabling the engine to perform more ef- 
fective duty. It is probable tint within a certain limit, the blast (if 
iuvariable) may be made of any intermediate size, witliout sensibly in- 
fluencing the average effect produced, the inconvenience and advan- 
tage resulting from the change being so nicely balanced, that no sen- 
sible difference could be discovered. If such is allowed t» be the 
case, the efficacy of the variable blast must be manifest without a 
trial. 

In order to diminish the resistance behind the piston at the return 
of the stroke, the elasticity of the steam his been taken advantage 
of; a chamber placed at the foot of the blast pipe, by allowing the 
steam to expand on its escape from the cylinder, relieves the engine, 
and has permitted the adoption of the most contracted orifice of 
blast, that I have yet seen successfully employed. The greatest relief, 
however, has been obtained by throwing off the steam considerably 
before the piston arrives at the end of the stroke, thereby enabling it 
to expand before the return of the piston, and thus very effectually 
diminishing its resistance ; and although by so doing a portion of the 
effective power of the steam is lost, it is at the same time a judicious 
choice between two evils, and if not adopted, the discharge of the 
steam from the cylinder at the moment of the return of the piston 
would determine a powerful resistance to its free action, and so re- 
duce the effective power of the engine. 

The contraction of the blast pipe being an inconvenience inse- 
parable from the condition of generating a good supply of steam in 
the locomotive boiler, it becomes important to partially remove this 
inconvenience when practicable ; and as the state of the fire, and the 
quantity of steam required, are frequently varying, it may be posi- 
tively assumed that an invariable contraction of the blast pipe is an 
imperfection, and that even supposing the question as to the best pos- 
sible dimension were decided, and a generally admitted rule laid 
down, it would only then be really perfect for some particular load, 
and state of the fire ; and that with a different load, or state of the 
fire, the determined orifice of the blast would be objectionable ; 
therefore, it may be concluded that the faculty of regulating the con- 
traction of the blast, so as to have full power over the production of 
steam, must be in itself a desirable condition, and that if by the same 
means, the average resistance behind the piston can be diminished, 
the " ensemble " may be admitted to be a material improvement. 

It frequently occurs that there is either too much, or not enough 
steam in the boiler; when there is too much, it is the usual custom to 
open partially, and sometimes entirely, the fire door, so that by ad- 
mitting a current of cold air into the fire box, and through the tubes 
the production of steam will be diminished ; but this remedy is very 
objectionable, and should be applied as seldom as possible, because 
the rush of cold air may give rise immediately, or subsequently, to 
leakage in the hoops, and must very much contribute to the destruc- 
tion of the tubes, and to injure the boiler itself; whereas, if it were 
possible to enlarge the orifice of the blast pipe on such occasions, the 
fire would be damped, and the steam would fall, probably without 
having to open the fire door at all. 

When there is not enough steam, the draught through the fire, in 
consequence of the low pressure of the steam, and the slow motion of 
the engine, will necessarily be less energetic than it ought to be, the 
means of exciting the fire becoming inefficient at the time when its 
assistance is most wanted. A good engineer will certainly tal. 
that this occurs as seldom as possible, but there are accidental 
over which he has not sufficient controul, and on such occasions the 
power of contracting the orifice of the blast pipe would be \ery 
beneficial, by enabling him materially to increase the rapidity with 
which the fire would be brought up to its proper state. 

When a heavy train is going up a steep incline, its speed will de- 
crease; the strokes of the engine being less frequent, the draught 
through the fire will also diminish in intensity, and the quantity of 
steam generated may no longer be sufficient; a slight contraction of 
the orifice of the blast pipe would then increase the power of the 



78 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



blast, the action of the fire, the production of steam, and the speed of 
the engine. 

The engine driver generally manages his engine and fire, in such a 
manner, as to obtain a full supply of steam previous to his arrival at 
the foot of the incline ; with the assistance of the variable blast, he 
■would naturally (having plenty of steam) enlarge the orifice of the 
blast pipe, and thus by diminishing the resistance behind the piston, 
would increase the power of the engine, so that although going up 
the incline, she might still maintain sufficient speed to keep up the 
steam, notwithstanding the enlarged orifice of the blast pipe. 

When running down an incline, the orifice of the blast pipe being 
opened to its greatest extent, the draught will be considerably di- 
minished, because at the same time the regulator will be partially 
shut ; the steam may in this way be very effectually kept down, al- 
though the incline may be many miles in length : and by contracting 
the orifice towards the approach of the foot of the incline, steam may 
be again obtained, without having had to expend steam from the 
boiler, to increase the draught through the fire, thus effecting an 
economy in the consumption of fuel. 

By good management, the engineer can therefore have full power 
over the production of steam, so as at all times to have, a good supply, 
and to prevent almost entirely the loss occasioned by its escape from 
the safety valves while the engine is in motion; and taking into con- 
sideration the frequent occasions on which advantage may be derived 
by varying the orifice of the blast pipe, it may be inferred that it is 
as requisite to have full command of this orifice, as it is, to be able to 
determine the position of the regulator. The speed of the engine 
may, moreover, be occasionally regulated with advantage, by varying 
the orifice of the blast pipe, without altering the position of the 
steam regulator. 

To carry out, in a practical manner, the variable contraction of this 
orifice, it is requisite 

That the apparatus should be easily constructed and applied, and 
not liable to get out of order ; 

That its action should be simple and effective; 

That an indicator should show the area of the orifice under which 
the engine is working. 

Having pointed out the general advantages I propose to derive 
from the application of a variable blast, I will now describe the ap- 
paratus that has been employed, which will be clearly understood, 
with the assistance of the annexed figures. 

In the construction of this variable blast, there is one point on 
which it is proper here to make a remark, which if not attended to, 
would materially tend to destroy the good effect to be produced. 

The annular space between the internal cone and the orifice of the 
blast pipe, if too much contracted, diminishes the energy of the blast; 
so that it is necessary that, at the point of greatest contraction, with 
a view to obtain the strongest draught, the relative diameter should 
be so calculated as to leave nearly a half of an inch of space, for 
the passage of the steam between the internal moveable cone and the 
edge of the blast pipe. 

I The intensity of the draught through the fire can be weakened, 
therefore, either by enlarging or by contracting the orifice of the blast 
pipe, beyond a certain limit. I have occasionally regulated the mo- 
tion of an engine by the contraction of the blast pipe, leaving at the 
same time the regulator wide open, because by contracting the orifice 
more or less, the pressure behind the piston may be varied, and so 
regulated as to augment or diminish the effective action of the steam 
on the piston. The adoption of this variable blast may also be con- 
sidered as an extra security, for by keeping the internal regulating 
cone of the blast pipe closed, while an engine is required to remain 
stationary, no danger could arise from the accidental opening of the 
regulator. 

Explanation of the Figures. 
Fig. 1. Longitudinal elevation of a Locomotive Boiler, part of the 
smoke box being removed to show the extremity of the blast pipe. 
The circular portion of the boiler between A and L is omitted. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. Plan of the orifice of the blast pipe, showing the regulating 
internal cone B, with its three guide ribs 6, 6, b, 
upon an enlarged scale ; A, smoke box ; B, regulat- 
ing cone of the variable blast; 6, b, b, three thin 
ribs or feathers, attached to the regulating cone B, 
for the purpose of keeping the cone B exactly in the 
centre of the blast pipe; C, vertical rod, to which is 

attached the reg ulating cone; D, part of the chimney; E, blast pipe; 

F, hand gear to work the cone B; K, graduated plate fixed to the 

fire box, to show the position of the cone B, and the exact area of the 

orifice of the blast pipe; L, fire box. 

London, Feb. 11M, 1843. H. H. Edwards. 




The Tomb of Napoleon. — The following details are given by one of 
the journals resp ecting the tomb iu honour of Napoleon at the Invalides : — 
In the lower part of the equestrian statue of the Emperor, which is to be 
erected in the court-yard, a door will be opened to a long gallery leading 
under the dome of the building. This gallery, paved with marble in all its 
length, is to be divided into three sections — in the first of which will be 
placed bronze alto-relievos, representing the military deeds of the republic of 
the emperor. The second, which exists already, and is consecrated to the 
interment of the governors of the Invalides, is to be enlarged, and the tombs 
at each side will be fenced off with bronze railing. The third section will be 
also adorned with alto-relieros in bronze, recording the most notable acts of 
the empire not military. Under the dome will be placed the tomb of the 
Emperor made of Corsican granite, fin it will be engraved, in letters of gold, 
the single word — Napoleon. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 

BALLARD'S ICE BOAT. 



79 




wsgmmmw .^ 



The above engraving is an isometrical view, drawn to a scale of 
eight feet to the inch, of the ice boat, for which Mr. S. Ballard, had 
the honour of receiving of the Institution of Civil Engineers a Telford 
medal. 

This boat was first used in the year 183", on the Hereford and 
Gloucester Canal, and has been in operation, whenever required, ever 
since. It breaks the ice by ploughing or forcing it upwards, and does 
not require more than one-fourth of the power necessary to break the 
ice on the old plan of forcing it downwards against the water. 

The ice-breaking frame A consists of three pieces of timber marked 
n, fastened together by two cross pieces c and e. That part of the 
frame which lies over the boat is boarded or planked over; one part 
so as to form a platform for men to stand upon, the other part raised 
in the middle and cased with sheet iron, that the ice may not lodge 
on it. The frame lies on the front of the boat, which is sloped down 
as shown at a b. The frame is made with deal timber; the two out- 
side pieces each 27 ft. G inches long by 9 in. by Si in. the middle 
timber 31 ft. long by 12 in. by 7 in. These timbers are rounded on 
the top as far as they project over the front of the boat, and the uDder 
sides are made narrower than the top sides. 



The boat is decked over from a to b, and when the ice is very 
strong, she has a temporary boarding over, of inch board, as far as the 
centre. The spar B, which projects over the stern of the boat, has 
the large end chained down to the middle of the boat. 

The piece of timber C is attached to the spar B by a chain. It is 
about one ton in weight, and prevents the boat rising behind when the 
ice presses upon the frame on the front of the boat. It floats on the 
water and the chain is strained in proportion to the thickness of the 
ice. The timber is also chained to the stem of the boat. By these means 
the slope or inclination of the ice-breaking frame is kept always the 
same, with the advantage of a short boat, which is easily steered and 
managed. 

The pole or shaft h is for the purpose of steering the boat. It is 
attached to the end of the spar by a chain, and is balanced by a weight 
n, so that its weight may be trifling in the hands of the steerer who 
walks on the towing-path. 

The boat, and also the upper sides of the ice-breaking frame are 
cased with sheet iron. The hauling line is attached to the chain o. 

When the ice-breaking apparatus is not required, it may be taken 
off, and the boat used for other purposes. 



THE GREAT BRITAIN STEAM SHIP. 

It was but lately that our attention was drawn to an article, pub- 
lished in the Xautical Magazine for January last, written by Mr. J. 
S. Enys, entitled " Remarks on Nominal Horse-power," and which is 
evidently a critique on an article of ours published in the Journal, 
Vol. V. p. 357, on "The Great Britain Steam Ship," the same having 
been copied into the Nautical Magazine of last November. 

The object of Mr. Enys's paper is to shew the fallacy of calculations 
made on nominal horse-power, in fact power calculated by the rules of 
the late Mr. Watt, in as much as modem practice has deviated from our 
great master in the amount of boiler pressures, from 2 £ and 31b., to 
5, 6, 7, S, and sometimes 10 lb. per square inch, and then proceeds to 
prove that the consumption of fuel by the Great Britain will be just 
one-half or one-third (according to the expansion) of that computed 
by ourselves. — He states much that is true, and something that is 
erroneous, and we consider, that he is guilty of omission; inasmuch, that 
he does not follow out his argument (he is undoubtedly able) and de- 
monstrate what diminution of speed would result on the employment 
of expansion, especially to so great an extent as one-half and two- 
thirds of the stroke. 

We must do ourselves the justice to say, and we are sure our 
readers will agree with us, that our observations were temperate, 
written, not in a feeling of opposition, but merely to elucidate and 
draw attention to what we considered errors in practice. How far we 
are correct in our views with reference to the case of the Great 
Britain (late Mammoth) time and experience only will show, we are 
fully content to abide by the issue. 

It will be seen on reference, that we expressly guarded ourselves 
against any misunderstanding with respect to the character of our 
data, and took the trouble to explain that we were indebted for them to 
Mr. Hill, a writer in the 9%th Number of the Mechanics' JWagazine, so 
that our deductions are dependent on the accuracy of the matter there 
given. It does not, however, appear that Mr. Enys disputes any 



portion excepting the correct delineation of the boiler details, so that 
we were right in taking the cylinder at 83 inches diameter, 6 feet 
stroke, and 19 strokes per minute. In our article we entered 
into a calculation, founded on the capacity of the cylinders and length 
of stroke (commonly called nominal horse-power, the only data at 
that time at our disposal), to prove that the consumption of . n.ils, 
would, during a passage from Bristol to New York, be much greater 
than is supposed, or than they have allowed space for in the vesseF. 
We are met by the scientific calculations of Mr. Enys, proving that by 
expansion to one half, or two-thirds of the stroke, the consumption of 
coal would be considerably reduced, in a much larger ratio than the 
power. It is, however, worthy of remark, that, although ourselves 
and Mr. Enys take different methods of computing power, that we 
agree in the amount of fuel which would be expended, supposing the 
engines to work to their full power, namely 129 to 130 tons per diem. 

We have again carefully looked through Mr. Hill's paper, which 
confirms our impression that he did not state any distinct rati oj t.c- 
pansion at which the engines were to be worked, he explains the 
construction of the expansion valves, which are not new ; and as most 
modern engines of large powers are fitted with similar contrivances, 
we concluded that in this, as in other cases, the evaporative power of 
the boilers and strength of the materials were calculated to supply 
steam for, and to resist the action of, the full powers of the cylin lers, 
expanding the steam only by the common sliding valve, though 
ments of the special expanding valves being nservedas in other ships, 
for the occurrence of fine matter and/air winds. 

Our justification on this head will be eomplete, when we state, that 
"The Great Western," Cunard's vessels, the "British Queen" and 
" President," were each fitted with separate expanding ap] 
but that their boilers are capable of generating a full supply of steam 
for an expansion of not more than -£,th of the stroke— that is by the 
sliding valve, and it would be a matter of curious enquiry to see how 
frequently this is departed from. If our views be correct on this 
point, the general object of commanders of steam vessels, is to make 

11 



80 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[IVIaroh, 



the best of their way to their port without reference to the saving of 
fuel, time, in fact, being frequently of much greater value than a few 
tons of coals. We state this as a practical fact, for the saving of fuel 
by the expansion of steam is now well known to those who have 
devoted the slightest attention to the subject. 

Nominal horse power is certainly but a conventional expression, de- 
signed by the late Mr. Watt, as an approximative measure of the com- 
mercial value of his engines, it was very applicable to the circumstances 
of his times, and perhaps, until something letter is produced, as much 
so to ours. It is not, as it has been called, " empirical," because it is 
founded on rational grounds, and if me could gel all engineers to agree 
to one standard of computation, it is doubtful if any better system could 
be introduced — it is a mechanical test from which no engineer can 
escape, and we are enabled, with the aid of the indicator, to apportion 
to its work just as much merit as it possesses ; by its use we imme- 
diately discover the principles on which the engine is constructed, the 
rate of expansion, the state of the vacuum, the proportions and setting 
of the sliding valves, and other detail absolutely necessary to the good 
performance of an engine — in fact, we can distinguish between a good 
and a bad engine, between science and pretension — and in conjunction 
with data relative to the consumption of fuel can precisely compute 
the value of each man's work. 

We say it will be difficult to produce anything better than this. 
The commercial world is satisfied, because they may be supposed to 
know more of a two foot rule, and its applicability to measure the 
diameter and length of a cylinder, than they can possibly be of the 
ratio, or of the rarefaction of water when converted into steam, or of 
the more intricate theory of expansion. No, the commercial man will 
continue to buy his steam engines by the capacity of their cylinders, 
and with the aid of his coal merchant's account, and the amount of 
nork done, will come to a pretty fair conclusion, as to which engineer is 
most deserving of his confidence. 

These observations have particular reference to marine engines, in 
which it is well known that space occupied and weight is of paramount 
importance, and it has been the aim of much consideration and reflec- 
tion to obtain these, with the exertion of the greatest power at a mini- 
mum expence. We call this the ne plus ultra of marine engineer- 
ing. 

We may, therefore, doubt the judgement of the engineers of the 
Great Britain, who are using cylinders equal to 1200 horses, and by 
expansion, reducing the same to 700 horses, occupying both the 
weight and space of the former power ; but perhaps we are again in 
fault, now reasoning on the assumption of Mr. Enys, as in the former 
paper on that of Mr. Hill. 

Mr. Enys observes. " that nominal horse power is a most inaccurate 



basis for calculations of this nature," that is, the consumption of coal 
and speed of the Great Britain. 

With reference to the first proposition, the consumption of fuel, we 
most freely assent. The value and the theory of expansion has been so 
fully explained by many writers, perhaps especially so by Farey, that 
it is beyond dispute — it is no new light which has burst upon us. A 
few years since, some attention was drawn to the published logs of 
certain steamers, in which assertions were made, that the consumption 
per horse was (as now reproduced by Mr. Enys,) as low as bi lb. 
nominal h. p. per hour, and which was satisfactorily shewn to have 
been produced by expansion, during fine weather and favourable winds ; 
but that, when the full power was exerted, the consumption of fuel 
reached from nine to 10 lb., the general result of the best machinery, 
so will it be with the Great Britain. If, as we had supposed, from 
the lucubrations of Mr. Hill, that her engines are designed, when neces- 
sary, to work to their full power, and by full power we mean expan- 
sion by the sliding valve alone, and exciting an average pressure on 
the piston of at least 14 lb. per square inch, exclusive of 4 the friction, 
then will our computation of consumption at 10 lb. per horse be found 
correct ; that is, supposing the engines and boilers, scientifically and 
practically constructed ; but if any credit is to be attached to the deli- 
neations of Mr. Hill, we must be allowed to doubt if even this point 
of economy will be attained. 

If it be intended to work these engines at a permanent rate vf expan- 
sion beyond that of the ordinary sliding valve, a corresponding saving 
will accrue in the exact proportion of the length of the stroke worked 
by the dense steam ; or, in other words, the quantity of steam used or 
admitted into the cylinder, before the communicatio.i with the boiler 
is cut off. If the stroke be six feet, and the steam shut off at three 
feet, the consumption of fuel will be reduced A (we speak prac- 
tically), if at i of the stroke, it will be f , and so on. The reduction of 
the power will be in a much less ratio ; and from all we have gathered 
from a considerable experience, the velocities of the ship will be, as 
the cube roots of the reduced powers. These, then, are the advantages 
of expansion. 

In order to bring this question more fully before our readers, we 
have made the following calculation relative to the engines and 
boilers of the Great Britain, and which will at a glance show what 
will be the consumption of fuel per horse per hour — the power 
exerted — the cubic feet of steam per horse per minute — the cubic feet 
of water to be evaporated per horse per hour — and, though last the 
most important, what we conceive will be the velocity of the ship, 
with full steam pressure, and with expansion from ^ to jj of the stroke, 
giving the results for every six inches — from 12 inches to 04 inches, 
or # of the stroke. 



Engines SS inch cylinder; CO stroke; 223 feet per minute: 294 horse power each. 



Expansion in inches of the stroke 

Horse Power with dense steam 

Horse Power during expansion 

Total power, whole stroke 

Total power with 4 cylinders, as Great Britain 

Contents of cylinder at this expansion 

Cubic feet of steam 2i lb. above the atmosphere per horse per minute 

Cubic feet of steam at the atmospheric pressure per horse per minute 

Water, per horse per hour, to be evaporated 

Coals per horse per hour, at 8 lb. per horse 

Tons per 24 hours 

Speed of vessel with paddle wheels 

Speed of vessel with screw 



12 
245 

44-59 

289-59 

1153-3 

211-15 

27-6 

32-5 

1 14 

90 

111-5 

13-9 

11-C 



IS 
220-5 

61-96 
2S2-4U 
1129-8 
100- 
25-5 
30-1 
1-09 
8-51 
103 
13-S 
11-50 



24 
196-0 
79-38 
275-38 
1101-5 
167- 
23 5 
27-75 
•9S 
7-74 
92 
13-7 
11-40 



30 
171-44 
91-00 
262-44 
10497 
147-S 
21-5 
25-4 
•912 
7-12 
SO 
13-5 
11-25 



36 
147- 
101-87 
248-87 
995-5 
126-7 

19-5 

230 
•840 
6*55 

70 

13-25 

111 



42 
122- 
117-18 
229-68 
918-72 
105-6 
17-5 
20-6 
•72G 
5-87 
5S 
12-9 
10-75 



48 

98-0 

107-7 

205-7 

882-8 

84-5 

15-8 

18-7 

•60 

5'15 

45-5 

12-4 

103 



54 

735 

101-87 

175-37 

701-48 

63-4 

13-7 

16-2 

•571 
4-5 
34- 
11-7 
9-S5 



! This table corroborates Mr. Eny's general reasoning, but we differ in 
detail arising from different estimations of the full power, and we 
would suggest to Mr. E., that he is obviously incorrect in assuming 
the " evaporation of a cubic foot of water to be equal to one-horse 
power," because that depends entirely on the rate of expansion used 
in any particular engine. 

We may remark that we have constructed the foregoing table on 
the plan laid down by Mr Farey, the truth of which we have prac- 



tically proved by indicator experiments — presuming that low pressure 
steam at 3A to 4 lb. is to be used, we have supposed its density in the 
cylinder to be about 24 lb. on the square inch, and have reduced this 
to atmospheric density for the calculations relating to the consump- 
tion of fuel. 

We have been more liberal than Mr. Enys, and have allowed that 
good boilers can evaporate S lb. of salt water with 1 lb. of coal ; that is, 
if they are kept in a fair state, by blowing off, or by the use of the 



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si 



brine-pump. This is no supposition on our part ; it is a practical fact 
well known to most marine engineers. 

The result given by us is also a minimum, inasmuch as we have only 
considered the txact quantities of steam required, and have not made 
allowance either for condensation, or for the waste at top and bottom 
of the cylinders, preferring that our readers should estimate this 
according to their own views, as far as our experience goes, we believe 
the allowance ought to be about jfc of the whole quantity. 

But has Mr. Envs any reason to conclude that these engines are to 
be worked expansively ("we of course assume that he is not in any way 
connected with the undertaking) ? We think not; and that such is 
not the intention of the engineers. We have noticed that she is 
fitted with ordinary sliding valves, arranged (with a lap of 2J inches, 
and stroke of 14 inches) to cut off the steam at | of the stroke, we 
suspect that the separate expanding apparatus is to be used in 
fine weather, as in most steamers of large class; and it will be 
observed that Mr. R. Hill expressly states that the cranks are placed 
in opposite directions, and not at right angles (p. 254) ; and, further, 
the construction of the boiler is proof that the engines are occa- 
sionally intended to exert their full power, say an average pressure on 
the piston of 141b. per square inch. 

We are inclined to be thus particular with reference to this point, 
because our professional knowledge has been questioned, in having 
made the statement that the grate surface is "less than half the 
proper quantity." We are, however, hardy enough to reiterate this 
assertion ; and further to say (if any dependence is to be placed on 
the drawings), that a more unscientific or badly arranged boiler could 
not be devised. We have made a careful analysis of its properties, 
and it bears out our views that it is constructed (by the amount of its 
absorbent surface) to supply steam for the full power of the engines, 
at which the consumption of coals will be fully equal to our original 
computation, namely, 129 tons per day. It is as follows : 

Fire surface of the six boilers = 2220 square feet. 
Flue surface do. =11870 do. 

Total surface 14,090 

(f the total surface be divided by the total horse power, we shall 
have 14090 -7- 1176 = 12 square feet per horse, and the grate surface 
2 feet X 6 x 24, = 288, -7- 1176 = -245 of a square foot per horse ! 

We have no disposition to cavil about words, but think we may 
call the practice of our first engineers proper, but certainly not usual, 
in as much that in this very case there is an exception to the rule, and 
a straining after novelties at the expence of that which is useful. We 
here find that we have more than the proper quantity of absorbent 
surface, and less than one half the grate surface, and the result will be 
a very indifferent ratio of evaporation, as will be discovered when it 
is too late. 

The size of the air-pump must of course be large enough to suit the 
extreme power of the cylinders, and cannot be adapted to various 
grades of expansion. With respect to the large condensers, theory 
taught us the doctrine as that propounded by Mr. Enys — the larger the 
better; but, from actual observations and practice, we find it is 
not correct, and that Mr. Watt was right in constructing his con- 
densers of the same capacity as his air-pump. The proportion of 
Mr. Watt for his air-pump is about a sixth of his cylinder contents; 
and it is reasonable and just, the steam rushing from the cylinder, is 
condensed in detail, and the air-pump, at owe stroke, clears the con- 
denser of whatever vapour may remain. In the Great Britain this 
vapour will accumulate in the condenser; being between 7 and 8 times 
larger than the pump, which has no power to clear it; the condenser 
becomes hot, and no extreme quantity of injection water will keep it 
cool. We may or may not be correct in our view of this matter, but 
practice supports it, as our readers will see by reference to our last 
December number, page 399, vol. V., in which we have detailed the 
proportions used by some of our most eminent engineers. 

We have little more to say regarding the probable speed of the 
Great Britain. We believe the factor 1400 to be applicable, having 
found it correct in very large vessels ; and we see nothing in the con- 



struction of the Great Britain to render it inapplicable; presuming 
that the resistance (in all cases of similar form, as it regards the 
sharpness of the water lines) is very nearly as the areas of the im- 
mersed midship sections; lengthened experience and experiments 
with a great number of vessels have proved this. In this case our data 
is meagre, and we have no desire to carry the subject further, espe- 
cially as it is probable that an actual trial of the Great Britain will 
soon settle all the questions in dispute. 

We close with the remark, that however we dissent from the views 
of her engineers in matters of detail, we most sincerely hope that we 
may be found false prophets, and that the Great Britain will prove 
to be superior, if possible, to her sister vessel the Great Western, and 
that the proprietors will have every reason to be proud of their 
speculation. 



THEORY OF ARTESIAN WELLS. 

A French pamphlet, from which the following translation is made, 
has excited considerable interest in France, and is, up to this time, in 
constant requisition by the numerous visitors to the scene of M. Mulot's 
labours at Grenelle. Our readers, however, will have the goodness to 
observe, that although we present it to their notice, partly on account 
of the notoriety which the author's views have obtained in France 
and partly because it is important to consider ingenious arguments on 
both sides of a question like this, at the same time we feel bound to 
dissent almost entirely from the author's explanation. 

If the ingenious and eloquent Parisian had been favoured by pre- 
vious acquaintance with the phenomena of springs as exhibited in the 
extensive mining operations of this country, it is probable that his 
surprise would not have been so mightily excited by the Artesian 
fountain at Grenelle, and he might possibly have entertained a diffe- 
rent and more generally received opinion as to its origin. 

A grand Experiment; or the Well at the Abattoirs of Grenelle. 

C'HAFrER I. 

Exposition of the Subject ; false attempts at Explanation. 

This work which has discovered to the city of Paris the source of an abun- 
dant supply of water, has been not more remarkable for the boldness of the 
conception which gave rise to it. than for the perseverance with which the 
design has been followed out. In the bosom of the capital M. Mulot has 
opened a sort of aqueous mine, rich and magnificent ; and for this great 
boon the Parisians are unanimous in their expressions of admiration and 
gratitude. The sight of the ascending stream rushing upwards from so great 
a depth beneath the surface has daily attracted crowds of visitors. After 
the first gratification of their curiosity, the attention of this multitude is 
naturally directed to the cause of so extraordinary a phenomenon, and the 
desire for information on the subject corresponds with the admiration it 
excites. Each successive visitor asks himself, or inquires ot those are ind 
him, whence can proceed so impetuous a stream ? what force impels it ? w hat 
immense reservoir feeds it? in what part of the earth is deposited this fruitful 
supply, and by what passages and communications does it find access to the 
extremity of the vertical tube which M. Mulot has forced into the bowels of 
the earth? The scientific men of the present generation have endeavoure.1 
to answer these questions. Referring to the very simple means which human 
ingenuity has long since employed for embellishing our gardens and publio 
places with jets of water, they have said,— At a certain distance from Paris, 
and in the upper stratifications of a soil mure elevated than Paris itself, there 
exist vast reservoirs fed by the infiltration of rain water and of melted snow. 
This water there sinks to great depths below the surface, aid. Bowing in 
subterranean sheets, the augur ol the engineer discovers it M a spot 
far distant from where the earth fust received it, and after he has thus suc- 
ceeded in boring down to it, the liquid element naturally ascends to the sur- 
face through the vertical issue which he prepares for it. This is then a real 
jet d'eau. Nature has placed the first, that is, the descending branch ; the 
engineer places the second, the ascending branch; the machine is perfect. 

11* 



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From this explanation, however, we entirely dissent , and fear not to affirm 
that under such circumstances water never cuuld rise on the principle of a 
syphon. In order that a jet of water, whatever may be its dimensions, shall 
work with certainty, one condition is indispensably necessary, viz., the un- 
interrupted continuity of the curved tube charged with conducting it from 
the reservoir above to the less elevated region where the jet is required to 
play. All the force of ascension in the second branch of this tube ought to 
be derived from the accelerated velocity of the water in the fust branch, and 
this acceleration would be as inevitably broken and annihilated by any ob- 
stacle, as by the entire destruction of the continuity. Now, in the interior 
of the earth, to whatever depth we may penetrate, we can find nothing re- 
sembling continuous tubes ; everything there is more or less friable, casual, 
and irregular. Thus, whatever pains the engineer may take in order to reach 
by the smaller end of his vertical tube the surface of a subterranean sheet of 
water, it will all be useless unless by a very astonishing fortuitous accident, 
he should meet with another tube of the same calibre, ascending without rup- 
ture to the upper reservoir. If, as some believe, it be in the mountains of 
Burgundy that this reservoir is placed, is it possible to conceive the existence 
of a continued oblique tube ascending from beneath Paris to the neighbour- 
hood of these mountains? Besides, no one appears to doubt that M.Mulot"s 
choice of a situation for his well was perfectly arbitrary, and therefore if he 
had attempted to construct one upon the Place des Invalides or in any other 
part of the capital, he would have equally succeeded. Hence, then, it will be 
granted that in and around Paris it would be possible to dig an indefinite 
number of Artesian wells, all which would be fed by the mountains of Bur- 
gundy ; and in order to explain this, we must picture to ourselves the upper- 
most beds or strata of earth under Paris and the surrounding country within 
a circle of two hundred leagues diameter, invariably woven into an inex- 
tricable net-work of which each filament is an unbroken tube. Assuredly 
nothing like this exists. 

There are others who have sought to explain the rise of water by 
conceiving two concave vases, or two immense cisterns of unequal diameter, 
placed one within the other, the basin of Paris occupying the centre. They 
imagine that the margins of these vases extend from the mountains of the 
Vosges on the east, to Havre on the west ; and from the plains of Flanders 
on the north, to the mountains of Burgundy on the south. They suppose 
that between these two vases there is a space filled with sand. The rain 
Water which penetrates into the pores and cavities of the sandy district is 
retained there by the dense matter of the two vases. The water maintains 
the same level through the whole of the sandy space, but it does not pene- 
trate into the basin of the higher or smaller vase. Hence it follows, that by 
boring vertically through the basin, the water confined in the sand will in- 
stantly rise to the height of that which exists in the circular reservoir all 
iound it- This is certainly a very amusing geological disposition of things, 
but unfortunately it is supported neither by facts nor reason. A continued vase 
with a double bottom, more than a hundred leagues in diameter, fixed in the 
bosom of the earth ! A vase whose inferior limits, as shown at this day by 
the well of Grenelle, are no less than 1690 feet deep, and into which 
flow all the subterranean waters from all the surrounding shores! What 
a gigantic disposition of things, and no less gigantic than admirable! 
A god must he have been who founded Paris, and cradled the capital of the 
world in the centre'of this'marvellous vase ! Kidiculous idea to imagine, even 
if this vase exist, that it should be unbroken throughout so vast an extent. 
Do we not know on the contrary that the vase is cut up and divided into 
many irregular compartments? Throughout the prodigious extent of space 
which is claimed for the field of this theory, as at Tours, at Elbceuf, at St. 
Denis, and St. Ouen, numerous Artesian wells have already been constructed, 
and all these wells of many various depths are much shallower than that of 
Grenelle. Has each well, then, its respective vase encased in the general 
vase, and resting upon its own particular bed of sand ? If such be the fact, 
we must suppose that a great number of Artesian stages exist in the general 
Vase. But in this case, why did not the water rise at Grenelle when the augur 
had reached one of these elevated stages, that of the St. Ouen for example, 
so near to Grenelle? Does not the Artesian vase of St. Ouen extend to the 
abattoirs of Grenelle ? If not it must be singularly circumscribed. It has 
nevertheless supplied for fifteen years two constant fountains, and the Arte- 
sian wells of Tours, Elbceuf, and St. Denis are equally inexhaustible. Doubt- 



less we may construct an indefinite number of Artesian wells upon the surface 
of the country which surrounds Paris ; indeed this experiment has been made 
in various places, and according to a report addressed to the Academy of 
Sciences, dated 15th March, 1841, we find that "many of these wells bored 
at the bottom of a valley, yield no water, whilst others fixed upon the side of 
a hill, furnish an abundant flow." What inexplicable mystery in the hypo- 
thesis of a sheet of subterran an water fed by rain, and springing up only 
from inferior cavities to establish a horizontal equilibrium. Again, if it be 
said, that the general vase, the centre of which is placed beneath Paris, 
receives throughout the whole circle of its sandy borders the rain water from 
the Vosges, from Burgundy, from Bretagne, and from La Vendee, we ask how 
it is that all these waters, flowing over slopes of many different inclinations, 
but all of them more or less steep, and always repairing to the same cavities, 
has not long since choked up its own passage by the sands which it must have 
carried along with it. The great sands in the Delta of the Nile, in the Gulf 
of Gascony, and in the Aigues Mortes, all teach us the inevitable results of 
continual deposits. And if we suppose that the two cisterns here spoken of, 
are formed of a substance impermeable to water, such as glass, or porcelain, or 
baked earth, how has it happened, that buried in the earth during many ages, 
they have never experienced any shock or accident which would have broken 
them to pieces? Itis evident if any thing of this latter kind had ever occurred, 
that the water which had lodged in the interval between the two vases, would 
naturally pass through the fissures and ruptures into the cavity of the upper 
vase, thus destroying the internal arrangement of the hydrostatic machine, 
whose existence has been so gratuitously assumed. Besides, if this machine 
really exists under the basin of which Paris occupies the centre, if it has its 
circumference at Havre, at La Fleche, in Burgundy, and at the foot of the 
Vosges Mountains, we could not construct Artesian wells at any of these 
points, for throughout the whole of this circumference, the aqueous reservoir 
would be only at its origin and would have no vase to rise into. And yet, 
nobody doubts that in the neighbourhood of all these boundary districts, the 
Artesian well has as much chance of success as at Paris, St. Denis or Elbceuf. 
It is also known that the Artesian wells of Tours have succeeded, although 
on the south side of the basin of Paris. 

By the simplest laws of physics, we shall now show how imaginary is 
this Artesian source of water. M r e are told that through immense beds of 
sand the water sinks from the surface of the soil into the grand subterranean 
cavity. But who does not know that, when obliged to sift itself through a 
bed of sand, however loosely disposed, water loses all motion, except a kind 
of slow and difficult leakage. Towards the base of our artificial sandy 
fountains it comes only drop by drop, and it loses in its course all the velo- 
city due to the space it has passed through, and all the pressure due to its 
weight. If the spout which discharges the water should open upon a bent 
tube with an ascending branch, the water would not rise above the level of 
the space which it already occupied in the base of the fountain. This 
would be its whole hydrostatic power ; and if the ascending tube were full 
of sand, it would rise something above this same level : but, in that case, 
the effect would be due entirely to capillary action. The most striking ob- 
jection, however, still remains. During the summer, what becomes of the 
rain water immediately after falling. The greater part, instead of sinking 
into these profound depths, is evaporated and carried off through the at- 
mosphere, and it is very seldom that either our fields or gardens, the morning 
succeeding a storm, show any traces of moisture more thau a foot in depth. 
Would not the alternation of wet and dry weather cause an incessant varia- 
tion in the flow of an Artesian well, seeing that this incessantly varies the 
supplies of our fountains and the height of our rivers ? Ob, no! in spile 
of all this, the Artesian wells have always the same volume, and in truth, 
acknowledge neither summer nor winter. We shall, hereafter, explain the 
constancy of Artesian wells. But, in the first place, we must consider 
another gratuitous supposition. Let us first explode all error, we shall then 
more easily arrive at the truth. It is said, by some, that the rain water and 
that which proceeds from the melting of snow, sink into a subterranean hori- 
zontal region void of solid matter, but hemmed in above and below by two 
beds of impermeable clay. Upon the upper one reposes an enormous mass 
of chalk and other calcareous stone, which bears with all its weight upon 
the volume of water underneath, and this weight forces the water to rise 
vertically at every place where an opening is made down to it from the sur- 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



face. In this hypothesis all the mechanism of ascension derives its impelus 
from this force of pressure. The origin of the water is a matter of indiffer- 
ence, it may have come from Langres, from the Vosges, or from the Jura 
mountains; its complete inertia is the same when it has arrived in the centre 
of the basin, beneath the abattoirs of Grenelle. The process of filtration, 
wlrch lias brought it to this place, gives it at least no inclination to ascend ; 
it has, therefore, waited patiently to be impressed by superior masses, in the 
same way as the fluid, which is motionless in the body of a pump, waits only 
the action of the piston to force it upwards. But to produce this discharge, 
the piston must move— it must, in reality, press upon the water which it 
brings or sends up — in fact, it must work up and down in the barrel of 
the pump, filling at each successive point of its motion the whole area of the 
barrel. If we suppose that the subterranean sheets of water rise only because 
they are pressed by the solid masses above 'them, we must also suppose that 
these masses really act, as no ascension can be obtained except on this condi- 
tion ; that they actually fall, so that, in digging the well of Grenelle, there 
finding water 1600 feet below the surface and causing it to flow impetu- 
ously more than 80 feet above the surface, M. Mulot would have expended so 
much art and courage only to provoke a disastrous crash ill the strata be- 
neath Paris. Evidently, however, and very happily, we may add, this has 
not been the result. The laws of gravity are universally the same. Place 
on the surface of the earth a sheet of water of any extent ; fill, for example, 
the basin of the Champ de Mars with a body of water which shall remain 
there ; endeavour then to gain dominion over this sheet, of tranquil water 
through solid masses of chalk or clay. In order that these masses shall re- 
main in position superimposed on the stagnant water, they must be fashioned 
into vaults and arches, and there they will be supported without pressing upon 
the water of the basin. If, for a single instant, they should rest upon this 
water, they would inevitably sink and be submerged in it, and the result 
would be a chaos of debris saturated with water. But in the bosom of the 
earth no solid masses are found in the shape of vaults, neither are there any 
sheets of water, either confined or at liberty. It is true there are here and 
there, in the cavities of rocks, in subterraneous grottos, and at the foot of all 
great mountains, a few pools of water, or more often there are rivulets fed by 
the infiltration of rain water, and serving to supply fountains which rise at a 
short distance, and which generally contribute to the formation of streams 
and rivers. But nearly all these are found on the surface, none of them can 
occupy a space of any extent in the lower beds of the earth, because they 
would soon fill up such spaces, by depositing the sand which they bring with 
them. Besides, in any case the subterranean waters impelled only by a 
broken, unequal, irregular movement, would have no disposition like those 
of a jet d'eau to rise above the inclined bed over which they had flowed. A 
jet d'eau in exercise is in fact a pendulum, it is free and regular in its move- 
ments, its mechanism is the same, and the same cause produces it. 

Now if a pendulum, starting from any altitude whatever, should meet in the 
course of its descent towards the vertical line, any obstacles which retard it, 
the motion will either stop at this vertical line, or at least the oscillation 
will be very feeble, since it will correspond to that feeble force of acceleration 
which the obstacle may not have entirely destroyed. In the same manner, 
the liquid pendulum, that is, the column of water, throughout its descent to 
a horizontal situation, rigorously requires, in order to an equal rise in the 
ascending branch, that all its motion and all its acceleration should be truly 
effected in a continuous canal, entirely filled by the water itself, by the water 
alone, and that so perfectly as to be inaccessible even to atmospheric air. 

We shall now describe a simple and conclusive experiment. Upon the 
bottom of a basin, place an upright tube with an opening entirely through 
it ; and on some stormy day fix the basin beneath the water pipe of a house. 
The tube will be found to contain some water at its lower end, but only to the 
height of that which is also found in the basin around it. Not a single drop 
Will rise above this level because all the force of its fall is expended on the 
basin itself. But let us now replace the straight tube by one which is curved 
upwards from its lower extremity, and we shall find that the force of the fall, 
being confined to the continued column of water which must entirely fill the 
tube, will cause the water to rise in the ascending branch to the same height 
as the top of the descending branch. We have now then constructed a real 
jet d'eau, because we have made use of the only apparatus which can pro- 
duce one. 



83 

It lsqnite certain that the crust of this earih no where contains an appa- 
ratus of this kind ; the flowing of an Artesian well cannot therefore be assi- 
milated to a jet d'eau. Some other explanation then must be sought, and 
in order to be satisfactory, it must be one which answers all the conditions of 
the phenomena. 

The explanation we are about to give is necessarily of this kind, since it is 
derived from an universal principle of nature. 

Chapter 1.1. 
The true explanation. 

The globe which we inhabit is manifestly a focus of action and heat, 
which has its greatest energy at the centre of the mass, and which, from 
this central point, works incessantly to carry matter from the interior to 
every point of the surface, and which, in this constant effort, meets with a 
gradually increasing resistance from the successive strata composing the 
crust of the earth. 

This exterior resistance constrains the central fire to divide and attenuate 
the matter of the interior, and to sift it, as it were, in minute particles through 
the pores of the general envelope. 

From this internal elaboration, and this subtile oozing out, arises the con- 
tinual emission of interior caloric, an emission which necessarily takes place 
in a radiating form ; that is to say, each jet or steam of caloric escapes and 
flies off in a direction perpendicular to the surface. Here then is the first ana- 
logy with the vertical stream of water which issues from an Artesian well. Bat h 
pore in the terrestial covering is an Artesian well of caloric : and so again 
is each pore in the surface of every star in heaven an Artesian well of light. 
These Artesian pores in the crust of the earth being infinitely numerous, it 
is through these that the central fire impels, in a state of the most minute 
subdivision, a great part of its interior contents. 

This way of escape, however, is not every where sufficient ; the central 
action does not appear to succeed in attenuating every substance to such a 
degree as to effect its expulsion through such exquisitely minute apertures. 
At many places under the terrestial covering, opposing masses are crowded 
together, some in a state of gas, others in a vapoury state, others again in a 
liquid form, and others possessing the consistency of soli Is, but at the same 
time broken and confusedly mixed together ; and all these substances, 
whether gases, vapours, liquids or solids, are agitated by a movement whose 
impetuosity equals its disorder. 

The time is now come when the exterior resistance is suddenly con- 
quered ; the crust cracks — ^volcano is open, and its centre shoots forth im- 
mense jets, at first of gas and vapour, then of liquid water, then of burning 
lava. It is a frightful pit, suddenly thrown out by the irritation of the cen- 
tral fire. 

We know that the volcanoes of Iceland frequently vomit forth torrents of 
gas, vapour, and liquid water, which cannot have come from the sea. as its 
composition is different from that of sea water. 

Let us imagine, for a moment, what would happen if at the instant when 
a volcano was about to burst forth, its crater could be contracted into a 
straight tube like that of Grenelle! What a magnificent Artesian well 
would then be displayed ! What force and height would there be in the jet 
sent forth ! 

But let us not forget that every volcano is a kind of relief and vent for 
the interior tumult of the earth. It resembles the pimples and boils on the 
skins of men and animals. In the normal or regular state, the volcano is 
silent, and so in a state of health is our skin smooth and sound. 

Thus, at the present time, when no terrestrial volcano is in a state of for- 
midable eruption, the globe, like a sound and healthy man, quietly and uni- 
formly transpires through every microscopic or ening in its surface, the super- 
abundance of its interior productions ; and under their general covering 
these productions are chemically elaborated, so that each may occupy its 
proper region. The water in a state of vapour, which is directly formed ID 
the bowels of the earth, even finds a passage through strata of the denser 
character. If near the surface it meets with argillaceous masses, it requires 
an increase of effort to traverse them. Below these the vapour thickens, 
condenses, and takes at length the liquid form ; and then, far from being op- 



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pressed by the contact and weight of the solid masses which cover it, the 
water is constantly, if we may use the expression, in a Btate of insurrection 
against them, and continually seeking to rush up through them, or throw 
them off. 

Hence it is that if human industry, exerting itself at the surface of the 
earth, shall pierce thissurface and force down a vertical pipe into the aqueous 
region, the impatient water seizes upon the means of escape, and fully liqui- 
fied by its very first movement in a passage so contracted, runs impetuously 
through its whole length. Arrived at the orifice, it flows over, and even mounis 
above it. The vertical jet has a force proportionate to the depth of the 
excavation which was necessary to arrive at the water. 

This circumstance is remarkable, for the contrary would be the case if the 
Artesian fountain were produced like an ordinary jet d'eau, by the simple 
weight of a liquid column falling from an elevated reservoir, and working to 
regain its level. We know that in every hydraulic apparatus, the effective 
action is weakened in proportion to the extent of surface which the liquid 
has to pass over, and to the friction it has to overcome. 

But not only is the furce of the Artesian jet much greater in proportion to 
the depth of the excavation— the heat of the liquid itself shows clearly that 
the augur of the well sinker has more closely approached the producing and 
expelling fire wh'ch exists in the centre of the globe. 

The source then of Artesian eruptions, is the same as that of volcanic 
eruptions ; it is the central action of this terrestial globe ; it is the formid- 
able Power, which, during the infancy of the world, launched out upon its 
primitive surface alike the isolated cones and long unbroken chains of lofty 
mountairs, and which from time to time is exerting efforts to raise new- 
mountains. This marvellous Power is that sole and universal Force, that 
Expansion which is constantly in exercise throughout all material being ; it 
is none other than the grand Principle, the Soul of nature, the producer of 
life, which under the eyes of all men, spreads and developes itself throughout 
the substance of every organized being, and whose expression and sentiment 
each one of us exhibits in his own person. 



REVIEWS. 



Walks through the Studij of the Sculptors at Rome, Kith a brief 
historical and critical sketch of Sculpture from the earliest times to the 
present day. Bv Count Hawks Le Giuce, K.S.G., Chamberlain of 
Honour to his Holiness the Pope, &c. 

" It is with great pleasure," says the Diario di Roma, "that we 
announce this new work, by a learned Englishman; it contains des- 
criptions of works in sculpture, executed by the most renowned living 
artists. And we may now congratulate ourselves in having, in this work, 
found a person in every respect qualified to do justice to living merit, 
and at the sametime give asure and instructiveguide todirectattention 
10 the modern productions of the chisel. Throughout the work, the 
Count displays profound erudition, and extensive knowledge of the 
;irts, and much beauty of classical and poetic illustration. Hitherto, 
there existed no book to guide the inquiring traveller through these 
repositories of modern genius and taste; and hence numbers visited 
Rome, without deriving pleasure or profit from their inspection." In 
consequence of these remarks we were led to a perusal of the Count's 
work, from which it would appear that sculpture has attained, at 
Rome, a remarkable degree of perfection ; and that many of the 
works of the nineteenth century are equal to those executed in the 
Augustan age. 

The degradation of taste in the arts has ever been a mark and 
consequence of the degradation of taste in literature ; and we shall 
find during the fourgreat agesof the fine arts, that literature flourished. 
The first and most brilliant age was that of Phillip and Alexander the 
Great, or that of a Pericles, a Demosthenes, an Aristotle, a Plato, an 
Apelles, a Phidias, and a Praxiteles. The second age is that of 
Caesar and Augustus, distinguished likewise by the names of Lucre- 
tius, Cicero, Titus Livius, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Varro, and Vitruvius. 
The third age was in the time of Medicis; the most glorious age of 
Italy, when learning was restored under the Popes Julius II and Leo 
X, and when flourished a Michael Angelo, a Raphael, a Titian, a 
Tasso, and an Ariosto. 

But it is time that the Count should speak for himself. In des- 
cribing an allegorical bas-relief, the author says— 



" This allegory is intended to show the difficulties which the arts 
have to contend with, from the ignorance or malevolence of those 
who can neither understand their value nor feel their influence, and 
whose souls are so materialised, if we may be allowed to use the ex- 
pression, philologically not metaphysically, as to appreciate nothing 
which is not gross. For such souls, the noblest productions of the 
chisel and the pencil possess no attractions; the works of genius 
and of taste are to them as so much waste marble and canvass ; and 
there are not wanting some, who would gladly wage a war of exter- 
mination against the productions of the chisel and the pencil. Even 
in Old England, my own, my native land, the land of commerce, 
wealth, power, freedom and science, how comparatively parsimo- 
nious is the encouragement of the fine arts, and how comparatively 
unknown are sound artistic principles! Far from us the ignominy of 
disparaging our adored country, which absence has served only to 
endear to us still more : but it is time that England should take lier 
stand among the nations of civilized Europe in relation to the fine, as 
she does with regard to the useful, arts. It is time that a fair portion 
of that wealth, which is so often profusely expended on less refined 
enjoyments, should be appropriated to the encouragement of the 
liberal arts, particularly of sculpture and painting; and we should no 
longer bear the reproach of employing foreign artists, whilst we. 
neglect to promote the cultivation of national artistic taste and 
talent." 

The Count again observes — " The foreigner finds no obstruction in 
Rome to his progress in the fine arts; hut, on the contrary, enjoys 
indiscriminately with the Roman, all the facilities that Rome com- 
mands. Hence, we find that Thorwaldsen and Fogelberg have aban- 
doned the frozen regions of the north to bask in the sunshine of their 
fame in the more genial clime of the south. These eminent sculptors 
have both won laurels for their country. France, too, is not backward 
in the race of glory ; and her splendid academy in Rome will perpetu- 
ate, her series of distinguished artists. Russia, too, extends efficient 
patronage to her native artists; and at this moment she maintains in 
Rome 30 pensioned students. Naples, also, has a Royal Academy 
here, under the direction of Baron Camuccini, the first of living 
painters ; and Berlin, Spain and Portugal, have also their respective 
academies in Rome, as have several other nations, too numerous to be 
mentioned. Thus does Europe testify, that Rome is in truth the 
only school for the fine arts. And must we make one painful excep- 
tion, and that exception our own, our native land? Yes, it is our 
painful duty to state, and we do so, in the humble hope of drawing 
attention to the fact, and remedying the evil, that England, with all 
her wealth, sends but one solitary artist to Rome from the Royal 
Academy, and that once only every three years ! How, then, can she 
compete with other countries in the true classic style of art." 

In speaking of the extraordinary progress of sculpture, our author 
observes — " The group of Nestor and Antidochus by Alvarez, exe- 
cuted during Canova's life time, the Discobulos of the late Kessels, 
the Achilles of Albasini, and the Mercury of Thorwaldsen, astonished 
the whole artistic world ; and yet they essentially differ in style and 
character from the works of the immortal Canova. These produc- 
tions have aided in producing a revolution in style, which is likely to 
be permanent; and all with one accord now agree to follow the pure 
style of Grecian sculpture. Denmark has now to boast a Thorwald- 
sen ; Sweden a Fogelberg; England a Gibson and a Hyatt; Ireland a 
Hogan; Scotland a Macdonald; Italy a Tenerani and a Finelli ; Spain 
an Alvarez; and Holland a Kessals, all educated in Rome, and essen- 
tially Roman sculptors of the revised school of Grecian art." 

It does appear that nation after nation and century after century 
have been able to do little more than copy the Grecian masters. We 
know the use Virgil made of Homer in his jEneid, and of Theocritus 
in his pastorals; and we find that Horace applied several places, out 
of Anacreon and other lyrics, to his own purpose: therefore, why 
should we preclude the modern sculptor from copying from Grecian 
art ? " There is," says the Count, " but one school of art that can 
lead to perfect design and execution, and that is the school of Grecian 
art. Any deviation from the Grecian type must necessarily be a de- 
parture from the only true standard. The choice of a subject, the 
attitude, and in some instances, the drapery, are all of comparatively 
minor importance, provided the artist has made the severe, classic 
style of Grecian art his canon. The works of the greatest modern 
artists should not be taken as models; to copy their style would be to 
give a translation from that which has been already translated ; and 
he who suffers himself to be carried away by his admiration of 
modern productions, should bear in mind that their authors drew their 
excellence from no living artist, but from the great masters of ancient 
Greece, whose productions they have profoundly studied. When the 
great Canova blazed in the zenith of his fame, many artists became 
imitators of his style, and their copies were mere shadows of the 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER A.ND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



85 



great original ; they wanted the soul that animated li is statues : and 
the exquisite essences, which Canova extracted from Grecian art, had 
evaporated in the attempt to transfer them. That the works of any 
eminent modem artist may be consulted with advantage we freely 
admit: they serve as a guide to the ascent of an eminence difficult of 
access; they inspire the artist with ardour; and encourage, while 
they urge him onward by their counsel and example. They are so 
many auxiliaries to the other powerful excitements to glory; and 
their combined influence has fired the breast of our talented country- 
man, and raised him to the proud eminence from which his genius 
(Gibson) sheds such lustre on his name and on his country." 

Our author seems to have forgotten our distinguished countryman, 
Mr. Baily, who, says a recent writer, " is one of those instances, too 
frequent in the history of art, in which the rewards of genius of the 
highest order have been too long deferred, and too sparingly be- 
stowed. Gifted with a sense of beauty, akin to the spirit of his 
great countryman Flaxman, and a boldness of conception not unworthy 
in some of its exhibitions, of the greatest of sculptors, Michael An- 
gelo, he has yet been destined to see men, less highly endowed, step 
before him into the light of patronage, and commissions pass by his 
neglected studio, on their way to foreign lands." " It is not to be 
doubted," continues the writer, " that had Baily been found by his 
countrymen in the metropolis of his arts, his genius must, amid the 
strong lights of the everlasting city, have long ago secured for him, 
in spite of his English name, those triumphs which it is as little to be 
doubted yet await him." It appears to us that the removal of our 
Baily from the eternal city, is something like transplanting a rare 
exotic out of a warm and genial clime, to a cold and sunless country, 
where if it but chance to put forth its buds, a hard and a killing frost 
nips them ere they blossom and bear its precious fruit. Abb> du 
Bas, in his reflections on poetry and painting, has collected a great 
many observations on the influence which the air, the climate, and 
other such natural causes, may be supposed to have upon genius. 

Before we close this interesting book, we are tempted to make one 
or two more extracts, which will fully prove the Count's abilities for 
the task he has undertaken. In describing the Triumph of Apollo, 
a bas-relief by the celebrated sculptor Thorwaldsen, the Count 
observes : 

" This bas-relief represents Apollo attended by the Graces and by 
Cupids, as he conducts the Muses, eminent poet's, and promoters of 
the fine arts to Mount Parnassus. The first figure is Hyperion, the 
father of Aurora ; he is on the wing, bearing a torch, and is conducting 
the winged Pegasus. Apollo appears seated in his chariot, drawn by 
the horse of Helicon; his brow is wreathed with a laurel crown, and 
in his hands are his harp and plectrum. With impassioned air be 
sweeps the silver strings, which fill heaven with melody, and render 
the very stones harmonious. Next follow the Graces, entwined with 
festoons of flowers, and conducted by an infant Love, while the god of 
the Cyprian bowers is on the wing, and scatters roses on their decoy 
path. The fair daughters of Jupiter and 1' nphrcsyne appear in unveiled 
loveliness, and glide along with the lightness of summer zephyrs. The 
first among the Muses is Calliope ; presiding, as she does, over elo- 
quence, she holds in her hand a scroll, such as Demosthenes might 
have thundered from as he paced with earnest step the solitary beach 
of his native Attica. Euterpe, as she plays her favourite lute, joins 
Terpsichore in the merry dance. Thalia and Melpomene follow, with 
the characteristic symbols of comedy and tragedy, the pedo or pas- 
toral staff, the mushe and club. Erato, the muse of love, is crowned 
with roses, and attended by a winged genius with a harp, the golden 
strings of which he touches lightly with his dimpled fingers, and the 
air resounds with the soft sighs of the votaries of Erato. Polyhymnia 
is known by her meditative air, and presiding, as she does, over song 
and rhetoric, she holds in her hand a scroll. Urania is at once recog- 
nized by the globe as the Muse of Astronomy ; and Clio, the Muse of 
history, follows, and is inscribing with a pencil of light, on the annals 
of Fame, the names of those whose exploits have entitled them to 
immortality. Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses, follows near to 
Clio; she is closely draped, and moves with slow and maternal air. 
At a short distance from her is Homer, the father of heroic song, who 
is preceded by a winged genius bearing a palm branch and a wreath 
of flowers, emblems of his pre-eminence and renown. The venerable 
bard lifts his sightless eye-balls towards heaven, the source of his 
inspiration; and, whilst his fingers sweep the strings, his lips give 
utterance to those epic strains which enrapture gods and men. 
"Homer," says a modem writer, "transports us to a new and ever 
fresh creation, in which, though much is calculated to astonish, all 
appears real, substantial and imperishable. Olympus, with its deities 
on their golden seats, lies open to our view, in form as palpable as the 
glorious tuwers of Troy, the sacred Scamander, and Ida with its hun- 
dred springs. Prodigies become familiar to us! " 



Such is a brief outline of the bas-relief before us, which combinfll 
so many classic beauties of such various characters, that even the 
disjecta membra delight us ; but, to catch the spirit of this sublime 
creation, let us but cast an eye over it for a moment as a whole, and 
we shall thus learn to appreciate its surpassing excellence, and to 
estimate, as we ought, the genius of the man whose creative power 
invented, and whose artistic skill executed, "The Triumph of 
Apollo." 

We will conclude our extracts with a description of the " Terrestrial 
and Celestial Love," abas-relief by Gibson, R. A. "This relief is com- 
posed of two figures, one representing Terrestrial the other Celestial 
Love, under the forms of two winged Cupids. They are both contend- 
ing for the soul, under the form of a butterfly, the emblem of the fair 
Pryene, who was about to be immolated on the altar of Venus. Ce- 
lestial love appears in the act of descending from above ; he his 
rescued the soul from Terrestrial Love, and is staying his hai 
prevent its pollution at so foul a shrine. In the struggle, Heavenly 
Love has triumphed over earthly desire ; and holding aloft the divine 
Psyche, he plumes his ethereal wings to bear her aloft to purer nil 
brighter realms. Terrestrial Love holds the torch of Hymen, which 
he has lighted from the flame burning on the impure altar of Venus ; 
and at the foot of the altar are the fatal instruments of his power, the 
bow and arrow, and also a pine-apple, the symbol of love. 

"This bas-relief is an illustration of one of the tenets of the Platonic 
philosophy. Plato compared the soul to a small republic, of which the 
reasoning powers were placed in the head as in a citadel, guarded by 
the senses, and the tumultuary portion he placed in the inferior parts 
of the body. He was the first heathen philosopher who maintained 
the immortality of the soul upon solid arguments, deduced from truth 
and experience; and he held that the soul, being an emanation from 
the Divinity, can never remain satisfied with objects or pursuits un- 
worthy of their divine original. According to Plato, supreme happi- 
ness is attainable by removing from the material and approaching 
nearer to the intellectual world, or, in other words, by governing the 
passions according to the principle of the moral law, and thus, by the 
practice of virtue, exalting ourselves to an imitation of the Divinity, 
from whom the soul has proceeded, and to whom, when its affections 
are thus purified, it is finally to be united in supreme felicity. The 
beautiful moral thus conveyed by this exquisite composition is too 
obvious to be dwelt upon. Who has not experienced the struggles of 
the sensual with the spiritual man? and who has not felt, within his 
breast, those lofty aspirations which lift the soul above the debasing 
influence of unholy desire, and fix its affections on another and better 
world ? Nor is the idea of two Cupids struggling for the soul recom- 
mended by the simple beauty of its moral alone, but also by its classic 
taste, for the ancients recognised a celestial as well as a terrestial 
Venus. " I will not assert," said Socrates, "that there are two Venuses ; 
but as I see that there are temples consecrated to the celestial as well 
as to the terrestial Venus, and that they sacrificed in the former with 
ceremonies more sacred and with victims more pure, I presume that 
two goddesses of that name do exist. The vulgar Venus inflames the 
passions, and the heavenly Venus invites to viituous actions.' 

" It were superfluous to" dwell on the artistic merit of this relief; it 
evinces a mind cast in a classic mould, and possessing a deep and 
refined sense of the beautiful in conception as well as in form ; nor 
can the harmonious lines of the composition be too much admired or 
too highly praised." 

• From our extracts we are sure our readers will agree with us, that 
the sculptors of Rome have good reason to congratulate themselves 
on having found in Count Hawks le Grice one who has not only 
brought their productions favourably before the public, but is 
likely to perpetuate their memory. We are indebted to 1 'liny and Pau- 
sanias for a knowledge of some of the noblest pn ces o1 ancient 
sculpture, many of which have perished; and whatever may be the 
fate of the works which the Count describes, he is very likely to 
transmit to posterity their merits, and the honoured names Of their 
authors. We understand that the author has received numerous 
literary distinctions from various learned bodies; and we have no 
hesitation in saying, that his « Walks through the study more than 
justifies the opinion held of his merits. The style is characterised 
by an elegant simplicity and classic purity, and the «ork is enricned 
throughout with such felicity of illustration and fecundity of inven- 
tion, as shed a golden glow over its pages and the productions which 
they describe. 

> E'.Koirau 5'aV xai rous t f a>ras Ti^fM* liar Squov r« »/ ara >*tnrni> 
ai\v Z'OvpavM tt)S iHW T « *«' ">* *'*"" ""' Ta " Ka *"' ' 'P">"»'-— - t, ." r< """"> 



86 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



Railways, their Uus and Management. — London, Pelham Richardson, 

1842. 

This is a very interesting epitome of all the railways that have been 
executed and in progress in this country, and is very ably written, 
affording a brief insight into their cost, working, and management. 
The following extract, relative to some of our principal engineers, will 
be read with some interest. 

"Most happy should we be if the undertaking had to depend for its 
success in Parliament upon its own value without the intervention of 
counsel, as not only would time and money be thus saved, but the real 
merits of the proposed work would be brought forward more honestly, 
or if it had not these pretensions and that recommendation, it would 
lose a false bolster and fall. It is well known that the skill and science 
of the different Engineers is frequently useless to them, with all their 
assured knowledge, by their failure as witnesses. Thus George Ste- 
phenson is never put into a witness-box, if his friends can keep him 
out, he has not the temper for cross-examination by persons he consi- 
ders ignorant of the subject, and with his opinion of himself, it would 
be impossible to find any person he would submit to. No man however 
deserves more credit than George Stephenson, for the manner he has 
advanced himself in the world, which is in itself no greater proof of 
his natural abilities, than his acknowledgment of it, is of his real 
unaffected excellence of heart — he is however a theorist of the wildest 
kind, and until he became a coal owner, felt that the first things in the 
world were railways and the first person George Stephenson. He has, 
notwithstanding his energy and knowledge of coals, failed to intro- 
duce them into public use at a rednction in their price, as he promised 
lie would, and no inland coal will do so, however much its introduc- 
tion into the metropolis may interfere with the sea-born supply. His 
railways are not always the best or most profitable, and we think he 
has made a mistake also in becoming chairman of any railway com- 
pany. Robert Stephenson, with a higher education is more calm and 
self-possessed and makes a better witness. Walker, sharp, quick 
and clever, may always be relied upon for all he undertakes. Sir 
John Rennie, however, possessed of all the knowledge on the subject, 
cannot stand the badgering of counsel and forgets his professional 
service in his gentlemanly feelings. George Rennie is too retired 
and modest to make known his extensive information and much 
mechanical knowledge under the ordinary examination of counsel — be 
must be drawn out, and thus makes an honest, conscientious, and intel- 
ligent witness. Young Brunei is clever and self-possessed, and would 
not be easily put down. Locke's testimony would look hard, matter-of- 
fact, and solid — economical in all its parts. Giles is hasty, anxious, 
but determined not to be put down ; Cubitt, quiet, calm,' and firm. 
Vignolles, energetic and fiery, looking the very personification of 
some new and wild theory, to be put into immediate practice by his 
instrumentality, would rather astonish his audience by his bold expos- 
tulations and warm support of them, than convince by his arguments 
and facts, except in matters of detailed and minute expense in practical 
experience — his evidence has, however, been largely counted on by 
his employers. Braithwaite is a clever machinist, with an inquiring 
mind ; and, in our opinion, has been spoilt by being made a railway 
engineer; in this latter position his only experience is the Eastern 
Counties line, and his declaration of the' correctness of his original 
estimates for the whole line to Yarmouth, made at a public meeting a 
year and a half after obtaining the act, will hardly add to the 
confidence of the public in his future undertakings ; his self- 
opinion and readiness will always support him, whether as a witness 
or advocate. Bidder is, perhaps, the most perfect witness; for 
though Rastrick has the hardest mouth of any, and the most impur- 
turable determination not to be beaten — yet Bidder, with all the same 
pertinacity has, in addition, an effrontery of manner (however unin- 
tentional; which defies the most resolute opposition ; Gibbs is honest 
and straightforward, and having bought his experience on estimates 
somewhat dearly on the Croydon, would never again deceive himself, 
or others." 



Ytar Book of Fuels. London : Tilt and Bogue. 184-3. 
This very useful annual abounds with a store of information ex- 
tracted from numerous scientific periodicals and daily papersof the past 
year, and which exhibits the progress of science during that period. 

A Hand Book for Plain and Ornamental Mapping and Engineering 
Drawing. By Benjamin P. Wilme, C.E. Part IV. 

This part, like the previous numbers, contains some useful exam- 
ples for reference; among others are sections of stratified rocks, 
titles for maps and designs, Gothic letters, &c. 



NOTES ON STEAM NAVIGATION. 

Slide halves. — As the formulae we gave on a former occasion in 
reference to the effect of any particular quantity of lap on slide valves, 
have not, we understand, been thoroughly uaderstood by the less 
scientific portion of our readers, it may be useful to reduce them to 
the form of common arithmetical rules. 

To find at what part of the stroke the steam is cut of. 

Rule. — Divide the cover on the steam side by half the stroke of 
the valve. Find by a table of natural sines the arc whose sine is 
equal to the quotient. Take the double of the arc thus found and 
subtract it from 90°. Find (in the same table) the sine of the re- 
mainder; add 1 to the sine thus found, and multiply the sum by half 
the stroke of the piston. The product will be the space travelled 
over by the piston before the steam is cut off. 

To find at what part of the stroke the exhaustion passage is closed. 

Rule. — Add the cover on the steam side to the cover nn the ex- 
hausting side, and divide the sum by the length of the valve stroke. 
Find the arc whose sine is equal to the quotient. Take the double of 
this arc and subtract it from 90°. Find the sine of the remainder, add 
one to it, and multiply the sum by half the stroke of the piston. The 
product is the space passed over by the piston before the exhausting 
passage is closed. 

To find at nhat pari of the stroke the exhaustion passage is opened. 

Rule. — Subtract the cover on the exhausting side from the cover on 
the steam side. Divide the remainder by half the length of the 
valve stroke. Find the arc whose sine is equal to the quotient. Sub- 
tract this arc from 90°, and find the sine of the remainder. Add 1 to 
it, and multiply by half the stroke of the piston. The product is the 
space passed over by the piston before the exhaustion passage opens 
at the opposite end of the cylinder. 

All dimensions must of course be taken in the same measure, 
whether feet or inches. If the eccentric be so placed as to make the 
steam port be considerably opened at the commencement of the 
stroke, or so as to give a considerable lead as it is termed, the amount 
of the lead must be added to the cover on the steam side. 

Covering boilers with bricks. — The iron platform above the boi!er on 
which the coal generally rests, becomes quickly worn away by oxida- 
tion, and the boiler beneath it is generally much injured from the same 
cause, the whole top of the boiler being necessarily inaccesible, 
thereby imposing an insuperable obstacle to painting and even to 
inspection. To obviate these evils, as well as to prevent the escape 
of the heat, a covering of bricks set in Roman cement was some years 
ago applied to the boilers of the steam vessel Tagus, and has been 
found to accomplish its purpose effectually. Upon this covering of 
bricks the coals repose —the expence of an iron platform, and what is 
more important, the expence and inconvenience consequent upon its 
constant repair have thus been avoided, the shell of the boiler is pre- 
served from corrosion, the intolerable heat of the coal boxes is 
obviated, and fuel saved by the conservation of the heat. The expe- 
pedient is an exceedingly economical one, and we look upon it as 
effectual and judicious in every respect. 

We have received another letter from Greenock, signed J. G. 
Laurie, respecting the formula we gave in our Notes on Steam Na- 
vigation, respecting the heat contained in surcharged steam, and in 
which our correspondent says, " I again assert, in the face of the de- 
nial in your last number, that the formula is misapplied." The best 
mode, perhaps, to refute the alleged misapplication, is to investigate 
the question by an independent method, in order to see whether the 
same results are obtained; and should our readers afterwards conclude 
that the " total misapplication" applies rather to our correspondent's 
correction than to our original statement, we are at least not respon- 
sible for the discourteous manner in which the intimation is conveyed. 

(1) When air is heated, it expands, and the increments of volume 
are proportional to the increments of temperature. Every increment 
of 1° in temperature produces an increase in volume -^ part of the 
bulk of the air at 32°. This rule lias been found to apply to steam 
out of contact with water. — (Thomson on Heat.) 

(2) The specific heat of steam out of contact with water is inversely 
as its specific gravity, and at 212 and saturated is "847. From these 
data, the amount of advantage derivable from the use of surcharged 
steam may be computed. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



87 



Let 2'= temperature to which the steam is raised out of contact with 
water, 
s =: mean specific heat of the steam between the temperatures 

212° and*'. 
D = the volume of steam at the temperature I' — the volume at 

212° being 100. 
x — the volume of the same w : eight of steam at 32', supposing 

that it could be cooled to 32° without condensing. 
A — heat required to raise 100 volumes of steam from 212° to V 
5=r weight of water in 100 volumes af steam at 212°. 
c = heat required to raise the temperature of a quantity of water 

= b 1°. 
A' = heat required to generate from water at 60° a quantity of 
steam equal in volume to v — 100. 

From (1) we have af + * X *btt (212 — 32) = 100 or (since T i 7 y = 
•002083) x + x X -0020S3 x 180 = 100 : ■ x (1 + -37494) = 100 

100 
0r X = 73749? 

From (1) also we get v = 100 + x X -002083 (l' — 212) which by 
substituting the value of x previously found becomes u = 100 -j- 
•2083 (f — 212) 
1-37494 
From (2) we find 100 : e : : -S47 : specific heat at the tempera- 

*8470 
ture V which is therefore — — - hence 

s = j ( — — — \- -847 \ or by substituting the value of r. 

000S82 (V — 212) 

F37494 
- 212) s c, which by substituting the value of s 



S47 + 



But A = (l' 
becomes 



A = { -847 (*' — 212) + 



000882 (T — 212) - > 

7 



•137494 

Now the addition to the volume of steam produced by heating it from 



212° to i' = v — 100 = 



•2083 (t'~ 212) 



and the water in an equal 



1-37494 
volume, may be found by this proportion 

•2083 (i< — 212) , -002083 (i 1 — 212) 6 



100 



1-37494 



1-37494 

= weight of water in a quantity of steam, whose volume at 212 is 
o — 100. Hence, supposing the latent heat of steam to be 1000° we 
have 

,/«« . ,™« -002083 (i' — 212) 2-3954 (T — 212) 
A = (1000 + 150) „ X j^j = j^gj C 

Now since A z= heat required to produce an additional volume of 
steam equal to v — 100 by heating the steam out of contact with 
water, and since A' — the heat required to make the same addition to 
the volume of the steam by generating it from water, it follows that 
the saving of heat by using the former method is h' — A 
_ 2-3954 (<' — 212)e f g, 7 „, _ ai» J. 000S82 (f 212) * ) 
1-37494 I " V 1-37494 i 



which reduced = 



1-37494 
1-230S (f — 212) — O00SS2 (f — 212) 2 c. 



1-37494 

The weight of water in steam equal in volume to v at 212° is evi- 
dently b — consequently the heat required to generate from water 

steam equal in volume to v, is 6 -j—tl " — r — which by substituting 
•00283 (? — 212) 



the value of b becomes 1150 



/, -00283 (/ — 212) \ 
\} + F3T491 ) 



And this being reduced gives the whole heat required to raise steam 
equal in volume to » from water 

_ 1581- 181 + 2-3954 (f — 212) 

~~ 1.37494 C 



consequently by this formula the 
the whole heat used in generating 

*'-*- K371 ' 11 



heat saved is expressed in parts of 
steam in the usual way 



1581- 181 + 2-3954 (f —"212) ' c by substituti "g *tabe- 
1-2308 (f — 212) —000882 (f — 212) ' 



1581- 181 x 2 
If the steam be heated to 600° 
such case gives the saving equal 
Our former mode of determinat 
nearly. The minute difference 
been in the one case supposed to 
inversely as the specific gravity. 



•3954 (f — 212) 
then I' = G00 J , and the formula in 
to about j-th of the whole fuel used, 
ion gave the saving at B .y, or | very 
arises from the specific he.it having 
be uniform, and in the other to vary 



SEWERS OF THE METROPOLIS. 

To the Wonhijgful Her Majesty's Justices and Commissioners of Sewers 
for Holbvm and Finsbunj Divisions. 

[In the last month's Journal we offered some observations on the 
construction of sewers, and reserved the examination of other por- 
tions of Mr. Donaldson's address and Mr. Chadwick's report for 
another occasion. Since writing those observations, we have had put 
into our hands a very able report drawn up by Mr. Roe, the surveyor 
to the Holborn and Finsbury divisions of sewers. As this report so 
fully enters into the subject of "flushing," we abstain from offering 
any remarks of our own, but leave it in the hands of Mr. Roe, whose 
experience on the subject, enables him to report upon it far better than 
we could have done had we attempted it: by a reference to the en- 
graving of Mr. Roe's flushing apparatus, given in the last September 
number of the Journal, Mr. Roe's report will be better understood, 
and to all those of our professional readers who may take a deep in- 
terest in the question, we strongly recommend them to inspect the 
apparatus fixed in the sewer of Hatton Garden, opposite the office of 
the Commissioners of Sewers of the Holborn and Finsbury divisions, 
by an application to the Clerk of the Commissioners, we feel assured 
that any member of the profession will meet with the same courtesy 
that we did, and obtain permission to inspect the apparatus. 

At the Court, held October, 1842, an order was made " that the surveyor 
prepare and lay before the next court, a Report as to the result of the use of 
flushing apparatus for cleansing sewers, with an account of the expense in- 
curred, and probable saving to the Commission, and embracing the general 
improvements in drainage that have been adopted by this Commission." The 
surveyor, in obedience to that order, has prepared a report, winch he begs 
respectfully to lay before you. 

Several honourable Commissioners at the last court having expressed a de- 
sire that the surveyor should give as full explanation as possible of the me- 
thod of flushing, and as to what effect it would have upon sewers having 
little or no fall in them, and upon private drains, it seems necessary to enter 
into some detail of the cause of flushing being suggested from the necessity 
that exists for using some artificial method to clear large portions of the 
sewers from the foul deposit that accumulates in them. 

The Holborn and Finsbury divisions are peculiarly situate as bavin;; no 
immediate connexion with the River Thames as an outlet, the waters from 
these divisions having to pass through one or other of the adjoining districts 
of the city, the Tower Hamlets or "Westminster, Lefore reaching the river. 
The sewage of the Holborn and Finsbury divisions has therefore of necessity 
been formed to such outlets as the other districts presented for usi 
these formerly being put in without a due regard to an exten le I drainage, 
the sewers of your Commission have not had the benefit of the best fall that 
could have been afforded to them. Of late years, the adjoining districts 
have lowered many of their outlets ; but to alter the existing sewers of your 
Commission to the amended level, would require the rebuilding of about 
323.706 feet of sewer, at an expense of about i'200,000, exclusive of the cost 
of connecting sewers where the rutting would be deep, and of con: 
existing surface and house drainage with them, which would make the total 
amount of cost nearly a quarter of a million. S ill, aa the lowering of those 
outlets has taken place, you have availed yourselves of them to a considerable 
extent ; witness the line of sewer to Holl way, the City Road line, th 
well-street and Ooldcn-lane lines, and several others, varying in length from 
one lo four miles. 

The city, some time since, sent to ask you, as data for the improvement ol 
their sewage, the depth of sewage which it would Le desirable ultimately to 

12 



S8 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[March, 



obtain at the junction of their district with yours ;— your answer was, " the 
greatest depth that can be obtained." In lowering their outlets, the city 
have accordingly afforded the greatest depth they could ; the Tower Hamlets 
express their intention to do the same. The covered portion of the Holbom 
and Finsbury divisions appears to be greater than any other district north of 
the Thames, the return of houses rated to the sewer rate in 1833, as made to 
the House of Commons, showing an excess of 723 houses above the "West- 
minster district. 

In the Holbom and Finsbury divisions there are about 98i miles of covered 
sewers for house drainage, exclusive of several miles in length built by indi- 
viduals, previous to the present regulations being made ; there is also about 
IS* miles of sewage for the surface drainage, and about 10 miles of open 
sewers. 

In a large proportion of the covered sewers from various causes, accumu- 
lations of foul deposit obtain. These accumulations existing beneath the 
streets in a state of ferment for many years, were a cause of much disagree- 
able and unhealthy effluvia, and were a further annoyance to the public by 
choking up the private drains when they attained to any considerable quan- 
tity. The remedy for the evil, when complained of, was only to be had by 
raising the noisome substance in pails to the level of the street, and carting 
it away ; a process which, in itself, was subject to many manifest objections, 
and made the breaking up of the pavement and roads, and the consequent 
obstruction of public thoroughfares, unavoidable. 

On a general examination into the causes of deposit, one thing that ar- 
rested attention was this, viz. that in sewers of the same form and with the 
same fall or inclination, a different degree of accumulation was found to exist. 
In some instances this difference was occasioned by the common run of 
water being greater in quantity in one sewer than another. In other sewers 
the current of water coming in, where old sewers improperly met at right 
angles, was found to cause, at thejunction of the two streams, an obstruction 
to the flow along the main line, and here deposit accumulated; and where 
the collateral sewers were connected with the main line at right angles and 
at different levels, the obstruction was still greater ; for example, in one in- 
stance where the collateral sewer was 3 feet above the level of the main line, 
a deposit was formed of a foot in depth, extending in a shoal up the stream 
to the length of several hundred feet from the point of junction, while below 
that point the sewer was perfectly clear. It was also observed, that where a 
gully neck delivered the surface water of the street or road into the sewer 
through the crown of the arch, an obstruction was caused in the sewer and 
deposit accumulated largely on the up-stream side. The whole of these ob- 
structions tended to lessen the capacity of the main line of sewer. The ine- 
quality of the bottom of many sewers, and the little fall in others, were 
causes of accumulation of deposit, and the common run of water in many 
sewers was found to be insufficient to carry the deposit away. 

To remove accumulations from the sewers in a way less offensive than the 
prevalent mode, to construct the sewers on such principles as were likely to 
lessen the cause of the formation of deposit, became subjects of consideration. 
Levels were taken through the Holbom and Finsbury divisions, to ascertain 
the practicability and expense of remodelling the sewers and rebuilding them 
at the lowest level which the outlets would afford ; but it was found that the 
level was such as would not give that fall to the sewers as would secure the 
passing off of the foul matter with the common run of water, and that the 
utmost that could be obtained would be the natural cleansing of one-half of 
the sewers, while the remaining portion would still require artificial aid. The 
cost of lowering the sewers to obtain this partial relief would be, as before 
Stated, nearly a quarter of a million sterling. 

This result the surveyor communicated to Mr. Donaldson, the chairman of 
the Westminster Commission, who, on examining in July 1840, the flushing 
apparatus now in use, agreed that it would do well for old sewers, but ex- 
pressed a desire that all new sewers should have such a fall as not to need 
flushing. 

There being a current of water of greater or less quantity in all sewers, in 
some constant, in others periodical, the idea presented itself of turning this 
ordinary current to advantage in preventing the accumulation of deposit ; 
and to do so, the use of dams at certain distances asunder, to collect heads of 
water, was thought of. 

A series of experiments was commenced in order to ascertain what ve- 
locity could be obtained, and how far such flushes of water would maintain 
Telocity sufficient for the purpose required. These experiments were made 
with board dams fixed in the sewers, and the results led to the conviction 
that the deposit might be removed at less expense by this than by the pre- 
valent method. In making experiments it was observed that the effect was 
the greatest when the dam was removed the quickest. Sufficient data having 
been acquired, the matter was laid before you, and a great number of open- 
ings were directed by t^e Board to be made in various sewers having different 
degrees of accumulation, that you might personally see the effect of the plan 
on an extended scale. / The result proving satisfactory, you encouraged the 
idea, and several of your body made very valuable suggestions upon the 
•various methods of appli &tj on which were brought before you ; and a report 



was directed to be made upon the system of Hushing, and on other suggested 
improvements which you were pleased to adopt. In that report it was stated 
that the average yearly cost of cleansing was about 900/. per annum. To 
this there would in future have to be added the cost of cleansing such sewers 
as had not then been cleansed, but in which deposit was accumulating, and 
in time would need removal. An example of this class of sewers may be seen 
in the extensive sewage on the Whiskin estate. Clerkenwell. These sewers 
have been built about twenty years, and have not required cleansing until 
this winter. The different degrees of accumulation in these sewers show 
also many of the causes of accumulation where sewers are well built and 
have a good fall in them. For instance, the sewer in Meredith Street having 
a constant flow of water turned through it from St. John Street Road is kept 
free from deposit, whilst in the sewers in Whiskin Street, Skinner Street, 
Coburg Street, and the upper part of Gloster Street, the common run of 
water being too small to keep them clear, deposit accumulates ; and in the 
lower part of Gloster Street, where the junction with Meredith Street was at 
right angles, the deposit had accumulated to nearly twice the depth that it 
had done in the other sewers. Of this class of sewers that would gradually 
come under the necessity of cleansing, there is about 97.498 feet, which, esti- 
mated at the quantity of deposit contained in the above named sew ers, would, 
by the old method of cleansing, involve an expense of 244/. per annum, in 
addition to the sum before named. 

In the Report before named, it was stated that if the average sum which 
the cleansing then cost was applied for seven years, and the cleansing done 
by flushing, the apparatus and side entrances might be fixed to the sewers 
without any extra charge whatever, and the public would, at the end of that 
period, derive the benefit of a saving of nearly 800/. per annum, besides se- 
curing, during those years and for the future, a saving of 300/. •per annum in 
the item of cleansing, which the Commissioners had effected under their then 
existing contracts. The flushing system being adopted by you, the method 
of carrying it out was ordered to be as follows, viz. that when a sewer was 
complained of and required cleansing, the foul deposit should be flushed 
away, and apparatus fixed to enable it to be kept free from accumulations of 
deposit in future. The result to this time is as follows. Since the com- 
mencement of the system of flushing, the foul deposit has been washed away 
from about 16 miles in length of old sewers, on which have been placed 59 
side entrances and 67 flushing gates. After deducting from the cost of 
removing this deposit by the old method, the expense of all the side en- 
trances and flushing gates, there remains a saving of 445/. 13s. 6</„ and the 
side entrances and apparatus are furnished for future use. These sewers are 
about 2-7ths of those that appear to have deposit accumulate in them ; and 
2-7ths of the average annual cost of cleansing by the old method would be 
326/. 17s, The annual cost for men to work these gates is 106/., forming a 
saving of 220/. per annum on these 2-7ths of the sewers. The total cost of 
flushing apparatus to these 2-7ths of the length of the sewers has been 434/. 
thus whenever that apparatus should require renewing, the amount of two 
years' saving will renew the whole. It is not likely they will require renew- 
ing for between 30 and 40 years, if then. It is very probable that the 
interest of the saving will keep the apparatus renewed. There is also the 
saving to individuals of the cost of cleansing [private drains, which, by the 
system of flushing, can never become choked by accumulations in the sewers 
as heretofore ; and when it is considered that many sewers required cleansing 
every fifth year, the amount of expense and annoyance must have been con- 
siderable. Another benefit has been the avoidance of breaking up the pave- 
ment and roads, the cost of replacing which for holes that must have been 
made to cleanse the sewers that have been flushed, would have been 370/. 
The raising large quantities of foul deposit to the surface, to the annoyance 
of the inhabitants and passengers, has been prevented. And the side en- 
trances and flushing where they occur have afforded facilities for the men to 
rake the deposit from old gullyholes into the sewers, from whence it is 
washed away, thus preventing the breaking up the paving round the gully- 
holes, and a saving in the article of cartage of the deposit. In one year and 
a half the saving from this cause in the amount paid for reinstating paving 
round the gullyholes alone has been 101/. 8s. id. A misconception appears 
to exist that each flushing gate requires a man to look after it ; it may not 
therefore be irrelevant in this place to state that one man will be able to look 
after and manage all the flushing gates that may be placed in a district con- 
taining 15 miles of sewer. 

With respect to private drains, the flushing gates are placed on such a 
principle that, if the whole of them were shut for twelve months together, 
the houses draining into the sewers would not be at all affected by the water 
in the sewers ; but these gates are never shut except periodically to collect a 
head of water, and after the head is let off the gate is fastened back, so that 
no obstruction whatever is caused any where by the application of the sys- 
tem of flushing. At present, as above stated, the flushing gates are placed 
in such a manner that if kept shut for months together, the water would not 
enter the private drains ; but the result of experiments made upon this point 
was such as induces the surveyor to state.it as a matter worthy future con- 
sideration.! 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



Several houses by the side of the open part of the River Fleet at Kentish 
Town, have drains from their privies emptying into the sewers ; these drains 
were nearly filled with privy soil, which exuded and presented a most filthy 
spectacle along the side of the open sewer. A wooden flushing gate was 
constructed to pen up the water which rose gradually to such height as to 
completely fill the drains. The gate being very large, was made to open 
suddenly, by the simple principle on which the drag chain of a wagon is 
loosened. When the head was up the gate was opened, and the water rushed 
away. The effect upon the drains was, that the sudden withdrawal of the 
water brought out with it, the soil with which they were nearly filled, and 
left them in as clean a state as they were when first built. It also drew away 
all the soil and filth from the open sewer, as far as the head of water ex- 
tended. Since the flushing gates have been fixed, particular notice has been 
taken what the effect is upon neighbouring districts, through which the 
waters of these divisions pass before they reach the Thames. The depth of 
the deposit was measured at every hundred feet length before using the gate ; 
in one instance the length measured was 2440 feet before reaching the main 
outlet to the river. The gate was then shut, and a head 2 ft. 6 in. in height 
obtained, containing about 208 hogsheads of water; this head was let off, and 
then the whole length of sewer was again examined, when it was found that 
the deposit had been washed away in the whole length. In another instance 
the head of water was 3 ft. in height ; and this was found to wash deposit away 
for the whole length of 3250 feet, that being the length from the gate to the 
main outlet. The total length of continuous sewer that a head of water at 
one flushing gate would serve to keep free from accumulations, has not yet 
been ascertained, the greatest length by experiment being 3250 feet, as just 
stated ; but from the velocity of the current when it reached the extreme 
end, and the depth of water the head furnished at that point, the surveyor 
has not the slightest doubt but that more than a mile in length of continuous 
sewer might be kept clear by the use of one flushing gate. 

But the washing away below the gate is not the only benefit derived from 
heading up water by flushing gates, for the effect which took place, in the 
manner named in the private drains at Kentish Town, is also beneficially 
felt at the heads of sewers, and in other situations. The drains from the 
houses in Eagle Street. Red Lion Square, enter the sewer near the bottom, 
so that this sewer has required cleansing as often as twice in five years, the 
depth of deposit being one foot and upwards ; this sewer is nearly on a dead 
level for 300 feet. There is a flushing gate placed so as to head up water in 
this sewer to a height of one foot eight inches, so that when there was 11 
inches of deposit, there was nine inches of water standing over the soil. 
The head of water was let off, and it was found that an average of 3i inches 
in depth of deposit had been drawn away with the water from 300 feet of 
sewer by this one head. 

The accumulation of deposit in this sewer is prevented by this process, 
which occupies a man rather less than one day in the year. The East Long 
Alley, and part of the Moor's Alley sewer, have bottoms of the most irre- 
gular description ; the cleansing the deposit from these formerly cost on an 
average 16?. per annum : the accumulations are now kept down by a flushing 
gate of three feet in height, penning up the common run of water; to work 
which, occupies a man rather less than three days in the year. 

The open sewer at the back of Glo'ster Street, Hoxton, was formerly so 
offensive in the summer season, that one of the inhabitants, frum that cause 
only, petitioned for leave to arch over, at his own expense, the portion op- 
posite his premises, which was accordingly done. But since you have placed 
a flushing gate in the covered sewer wdiich empties into this open sewer, the 
use of that gate has not only kept down the accumulations in the covered 
sewer, but has had the effect of keeping the open sewer in question clear for 
its length of several hundred feet, thus preventing the dangerous nuisance 
which formerly existed. The saving in this instance is greater than that 
named as effected in the East Long Alley sewer. 

In regard to the effects of flushing the deposit into the river Thames, the 
surveyor has made observations, and taken measurements, which enable him 
to arrive at the conclusion, that rather more than 14-15ths of the soil and 
impurities that entered the sewers in the Holborn and Finsbury divisions, 
was washed to the Thames by occasional rains, and the common run of water 
in the sewers. 

That much road drift is swept through the gully grates into the sewers is 
certain. In Bedford Place, which has been lately flushed, the depth of de- 
posit was nearly four feet ; and amongst this was found a layer of road drift 
in one part, nine inches in thickness. 

In concluding this portion of the report, it may be in general ob- 
served, that if there be running through a sewer, a sufficient body of water 
with sufficient velocity to prevent deposits, that, of course, is the best ar- 
rangement. But such an arrangement can only be obtained in main lines of 
sewers, unless a considerable expense be incurred in the purchase of water ; 
and this expense would far exceed the expense of cleansing by flushing. 
But where there is not a run of water of sufficient body to keep the sewers 
clear, there is, and must be, a deposit. 



A convincing proof of this appears in the sewer, in a part of Holborn, 
which is in the Westminster district, and which is connected with the Essex 
Street sewer, which has been lowered from its outfall at the Thames into 
Holborn, and thence along Museum Street, Bloomsbury, to the boundary of 
that district ; to which point it was completed in 1839. Yet with the ad- 
vantage of a connexion with a sewer luwered from the Thames, and at a point 
very little more than a mile from the river, this part of the llolburn sewer has 
a considerable accumulation of deposit in it. 

The New River Company expressed their willingness to supply water at 
certain seasons at a moderate expense to your Commission, where it might 
be needed for flushing ; but at present, the common run of water, by being 
penned up at intervals, has been found sufficient for the purpose. The use of 
flushing gates, supplies the want of a sufficient fall in the sewers, and also 
the want of a continuous and sufficient flow of water at a much less expense 
than the cost of the prevalent filthy method of clearing the sewers from ac- 
cumulations of deposit. 

Where there is not a sufficient fall and flow of water, then by damming up 
the common run of water and letting it off suddenly, an artificial fill uf the 
water is obtained, which answers the purpose. The ordinary fall at which it 
is required that sewers shall be put in at, is about 51 feet for the half mile; 
there are, however, cases where such a fall cannot begot: it is found at 
Eton, for example, that a fall cannot be got of more than two feet in half a 
mile, and m parts of Hamburgh not even of half that height. Under such 
circumstances, unless there be a large body of water, with an adequate flow , 
there must be a deposit. It is in such cases that the flushing apparatus, 
collecting the common run of water supplies a remedy. If a continuous 
line of sewer were formed on a dead level, and if the water be raised by a 
dam 51 feet, then when the water is discharged, it has the effect of sweeping 
away silt, or of keeping half a mile of continuous sewer clear from deposit, 
producing the same effect as a fall of 5J feet in the half mile with a contin- 
uous flow of water. 

When the surveyor first suggested the present method of application to 
the principle of flushing, he asked your permission to take out a patent for 
it ; but your opinion being that it should be left open for the use of any who 
might wish to adopt it. he did not proceed therein ; as from its promising to 
prove a saving of considerable amount to the public at large, you as a public 
body did not wish a monopoly to be made of it ; and in accordance with this 
spirit other Commissions of sewers were invited to inspect it. 

Many persons, interested in sewage, have looked at the flushing apparatus 
used in these divisions, and the surveyor being desirous of the best possible 
plan, has always expressed his wish that any one would suggest anything 
that might answer the purpose better, but as yet he has not been favoured 
with any suggestion on the subject. Much approbation was expressed by- 
many, and one surveyor of sewers considered it clever ; Mr. Lindley, w ho is 
employed to lay out the new sewage for Hamburgh, expressed his high satis- 
faction with the plan, and at the clean state in which the sewers are kept by 
its use; and considered the curved junctions as an excellent engineering 
work : and the form of your gullies and shoots the one that should be gene- 
rally used. Captain Vetch, who has been employed to lay out a plan of 
sewage for Leeds, suggests Rushing for general use, and expresses his inten- 
tion of using all the improvements you have adopted, in every place where 
he has any influence. 

It is interesting to find that the principle of flushing has been in constant 
practice for 400 years at Eton College, during which long period the sewers 
have been kept free from accumulations of deposit by its use. > Sluice boards 
are used to keep up a head of water ; these are drawn up with a windlass, 
but the form of (lushing gates used by you is about to be adopted at Eton. 

In a communicatim, from a gentleman, the surveyor sent to France to 
examine the sewers there, it is stated that there are In Paris about 80 miles 
in length of covered sewers, the whole of which are constantly 
flushed by the use of wooden dams, employing upwards ol 80 | 
flushings with wooden dams, do not, however, clear the bottoms of the sewers 
from a heavy black deposit which is thereftre scraped together, and got by 
hand to the main line of sewer, where a sufficient head ol m 
to wash it away. Now, if the method of flushing used in the Hi Iborn and 
Finsbury divisions was adopted in Paris, six nun would be sufficient to 
manage the whole of the gates; and from the very superior effect obtained 
by the method you use, the whole of the deposit in every sewer would be 
washed away without the labour at present used. 

The Surrey and Kent Commission have, I am informed, used side en 
to some of their sew ers for years ; these were c rered ' > a sione, but since, 
Mr. lanson, one of the surveyors to that Commission, has sew the 
grating used in your divisions,' he has introduced -.bun lot the use of tlnir 
side entrances, and, 1 believe, one or both of the other surveyors to that 
Commission have done the same. 



' The same principle, upon a large scale, has also been in use for many 
years for scouring harbours and removing bars, as may be seen at Dover, 
Ramseate, See. — ho,' 



90 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



Another improvement that you have adopted, is a form of gully hole and 
shoot, constructed with radiated bricks, the shoot being half a brick in 
substance. The form of these is such as to deliver the water and deposit 
from the surface of the streets into the sewer, in such a direction as to cause 
no obstruction to the flow of water along the sewer. 

There have been 690 gullyholes and 13.060 feet of shoot built after this im- 
proved manner ; the saving in expense is £2149 11*. 9d. 

An improved form of grale was also adopted, by the use of which there 
has been a saving of £422 12s. Gd. effected/ 

The adoption of the present method of cleansing the gullyholes, intro- 
duced in the old system, has eflected a saving of £200 3s. 2d. 

By the improvement in the form and construction of new sewers, a saving 
of £1094 6s. Gil. has been effected on 14,591 feet length of sewer. In no case 
has the curved form of sewer failed ; nor were there any struts at all in the 
new sewer la'ely built from near Thornhill Bridge to the Mo.lel Prison ; nor 
any left in, as none were required. 

Every engineer and scientific person must agree that curved work for 
sewers is stronger than upright walls, where the substance of material is 
equal. By the use of curved work, you have been enabled to adopt a sewer 
for the use of short streets, by which a saving of nearly 5s. per foot lineal is 
effected from the cost of your second size sewer, which, when the great 
length of sewers required in situations where this sewer will suit, is con- 
sidered, the item of saving will be found ultimately to reach a very consider- 
able amount. 

Of the benefit of curved junctions and proper curves to turns in sewers, it 
would seem needless to utter one word ; and whether it be better for water 
conduits to have turns with curves, or turns with angles, it could scarcely be 
expected that there would be two opinions ; and in sewers where the water is 
loaded with foul matter, surely the less obstruction there is to the current 
the better. Besides, curved junctions are in reality a saving of expense to 
the public, by preventing occasions of obstruction where deposit would other- 
wise accumulate. 

To illustrate this, take the capital letter T, the head of the T to represent 
two sewers, the currents of water in which meet at the point where the up- 
right port : on of the T touches the head thereof, and then flow down in the 
direction represented by the stem or upright of the T; this see-ns bad 
enough; but a little way along the left portion of the head of the T let 
another line be drawn perpendicular thereto : this will represent a sewer 
coming in at right angles with a considerable flow of water, adding to the 
obstruction formed by the meeting of the other two streams, it being only- 
six feet from that adverse junction : and the natural consequence is, tlrat a 
very considerable accumulation of deposit has taken place. And if two 
other lines be drawn across the last perpendicular line, each of those lines 
will represent two sewers coming into that main line at right angles and op- 
posite to each other, so that the water falling from the sewer or the highest 
level not only meets and obstructs the current of water in the main sewer, 
but presents an obstacle to the flow of water from its opposite neighbour, 
hence considerable deposit has formed in the latter ; such consequences ac- 
cruing from junctions at angles, entail a perpetual expense upon the public 
in the removal of deposit. 

The absvc is a description of part of a new line of sewer and its junctions, 
built within the last seven years. 

The next improvement which the surveyor has to report upon is, the adop- 
tion of s ; de entrances to new sewers in lieu of man-holes or apertures, as 
formerly used. In the 24,624 feet of new sewer built by your Commission, 
since this improvement was adopted, side entrances, and such flushing gates 
as was deemed necessary, have been placed in lieu of apertures, and the 
saving by so doing has been £1349 lis. In the 21,048 ft. of sewer, petitioned 
for and built by individuals after the same manner, a saving to them of £782 
has been effected, after allowing 2-3 per cent as their profit, or the amount 
which a builder might think he could save by doing his own work, instead 
of paying for it at your contract prices. The avoiding breaking up the 
pavement or roads, and other advantages which the use of side entrances 
secures, the surveyor named in his former report on this subject. 

The total saving by the adoption of flushing apparatus, and of the other 
improvements named in this report, in about two years, is £6443 19s.; and 
2-7ths of the sewers that require artificial aid in removing deposit are pro- 
vided with side entrances and flushing apparatus for future use. 

On the whole, the amount of immediate saving which it was calculated 
would be effected by your adoption of the improvements herein named has 
been exceeded; and this will be the case with the perpetual annual saving ; 
experience showing that by flushing sewers with water, a saving of nearly 
two-thirds may be made from the cost of the old method of removing de- 
posit. But the fact which is of more importance, in a sanitary point of view, 
than the expense of removal is, that instead of the two or three thousand 
tons of refuse, which may be removed for £1000 or £1200 per annum, re- 
maining for years decomposing in the sewers, and generating miasma which 
penetrates the houses and creates disease there, and escapes, and is diffused 
in the streets amongst the passengers, the deposit would by the flushing ap- 



paratus be removed, with sufficient rapidity to prevent any extensive decom- 
position or any smell. 

The men engaged in cleansing the sewers have a more healthy employ- 
ment ; the laying cut of large quantities of foul accumulations on the sur- 
face of the streets, which was formerly the practice, is avoided ; the pave- 
ments of the streets are undisturbed ; the putting in drains surreptitiously is 
easily detected ; private individuals are saved from the annoyance of having 
their drains choked, and the expense of cleansing them in consequence ; and 
these are considerations of future expenditure in sewers, which your syste- 
matic adoption of these and other improvements will influence, so as to 
render your having done so one of those circumstances, the great and bene- 
ficial consequences of which will be felt, not only in these kingdoms but in 
every civilized nation in the earth. 

In conclusion, I respectfully beg permission to make a few observations 
upon the address of the Chairman of the 'Westminster Commission, lately 
published and circulated, in consequence of the late sanitary report of the 
Poor Law Commissioners. At page 30, there is a paragraph, as follows— 
" The truth is evident, that the Secretary of the Poor Law Commissioners 
has been content to inform himself, in respect of the Metropolitan Sewage', 
by special deference to the opinion of one individual, whose object has been 
to give himself importance, by vaunting his own contrivances, by exalting 
Iris own Commission, exaggerating his own success, and with unbecoming 
boldness casting unjust reflections on the adjoining Commissions, traducing 
the competency of hs brother surveyors of the surrounding jurisdictions." 

In the first place, I beg to state that the first communication I bad with 
the Secretary of the Poor Law Commissioners, on this subject, was his sending 
to me to give information as to sewerage, his questions being founded upon a 
printed copy of my report to your court, in April, 1840 ; the only information 
I gave him appears in the Report, at page 373, to part of page 378, and a 
quotation at page 61, on the quantity of deposit passing from the sewers to 
the Thames. 

I never endeavoured to show the superiority of the regulations of this 
Commission, by comparing them with those of other Commissions: and in 
the few observations I made as to the metheds adopted in the neighbouring 
districts, I endeavoured to show tlrat improvements were in progress. 

After my interview with Mr. Chadwick, I informed the surveyor of the 
Westminster seweis that I had been examined, and expected he would be 
sent for. Finding from a letter of Mr. Kelsey, the surveyor of the City 
sewers, that his feelings were much hurt, and that he attributed much of the 
Secretary's blame to me, I wrote to him. and he sent me an answer, from 
which the following is an extract. 

" Dear Sir, 
" Did my letter to the Poor Law Secretary produce no other result than 
your communication, I should feel highly gratified, for it has entirely dis- 
abused my mind of an impression which is by no means confined to myself. 

" With your leave, I will show your letter to a gentleman, whose father 
is connected with another Commission of sewers, for it is well tlrat the ill 
impression should be counteracted. 

" It is much to be regretted that the course which you supposed would be 
taken was not taken, 2 but advocates of any particular system never v\ ant to 
know the whole truth, but only just as much as can be bent to suit their 
object.'' 

And I have been informed that Mr. Dowley, the surveyor to the Westmin- 
ster Commission, never considered that anything personal to him or others 
was meant by me at all. 

In answering the questions of the Poor Law Commissioners' Secretary, I 
cast no reflection or said one word on the competency of any one ; and it is 
mere assumption to say that Mr. Chadwick has been content to inform him- 
self, in respect to metropolitan sewerage, from me only, when the many 
quotations he brings from others show the contrary. 

As to exalting my own Commission, it needs not my feeble praise ; its own 
acts — the scientific knowledge of its members— the attention given to every 
sort of improvement, will ever produce for it that meed of praise in the 
public mind which is justly due. I have always been ready to give every in- 
formation in my power to anyone that asks for it ; but, that little is rightly 
known of what is doing in this Commission, or how it is done, is very evi- 
dent ; a fact, which ths Report I this day have the honour to lay before you, 
will confirm. 

I have the honour to remain, 
Gentlemen, 
Your obedient and faithful servant, 

Jan.27th, 1843. John Roe. 



That of other surveyors of sewers being examined. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



01 



NOTES ON EARTH WORK, EXCAVATION, CUTTING, AND 

FORMING EMBANKMENT UPON RAILWAYS. 

Article V. — Tenders, Schedules, and Securities. 

The preceding paper treated on the supervision of works during their 
progress ; in the present one I will endeavour to give a sketch of the custom 
prevailing amongst the various railway works, previous to the actual com- 
mencement of works, in the prior operation of advertising the works for 
competition, and the condition and manner of taking securities. In 
the general form of contracts, plans, sections and specifications are ex- 
hibited, and printed forms of tender, drafts of contracts, and printed sche- 
dules are distributed to intending competitors ; in some few cases the 
approximate quantities of the principal works, as earthwork and masonry 
are given, but the contractor has to satisfy himself both as to quantity and 
nature of the ground, the companies furnishing him with sections of the 
strata from actual borings. The directors do not bind themselves to accept 
the lowest tender, but reserve to themselves the power of accepting any offer 
which they may think fit. The successful party has to enter into a bond with 
two securities to the extent of 10 per cent, on the amount of contract. 
The amount of contract is generally exclusive of permanent way, which is 
let separately, as also the keeping of the works in repair for twelve months 
after completion. As regards the permanent way, the Company furnish the 
material, and the contract is taken only for laying, and perhaps including keys, 
wooden pins, or small wares. The keeping the roadway in repair has been 
tendered for by contractors at sometimes six times the amount that the actual 
cost has been to them. After experience has tested the amount, it has produced 
a feeling amongst engineers that it is not expedient to include in the contract 
the keeping the works in repair, but the contract to be ended on the cer- 
tificate of completion being obtained from the engineer. When the directors 
meet to receive tenders, it fs expected the parties tendering, or an autho- 
rized person on their behalf, will attend. The directors make no allow- 
ance to the unsuccessful competitors for the expense of their estimates. In 
some cases the bondsmen of the contractor are bound in a specific amount 
proportionate to the estimated amount of the contract by the engineer, not 
a per centage. The time of completion is in some cases stipulated, and a 
penalty imposed if the works be not completed within the given time, in an 
increasing ratio, say 100/. for the 1st week, 200/. for the 2nd week, 300/. 
for the 3rd week, and increasing by 100/. per week for each successive week. 

The design and responsibility of centreing for bridges, &c. and the 
onus for the execution of the works are thrown upon the contractor, 
he is to repair all injuries, from whatever cause, during the execution 
of the work ; he is not to be allowed any day bill for work " expressed 
or implied " by the specification, and the decision of the engineer is to be 
final and binding upon the contractor, in all cases where there shall be any 
dispute or misunderstanding regarding the specification and drawings ; and 
should an insufficient number of men be employed, the engineer is to have 
full power to take the whole of the works out of the hands of the con- 
tractor, seize upon his plant, and cause the work to be finished by any other 
person. The payments on account are regulated by the certificate of 
the engineer, and a per centage retained in hand varying from 10 to 20 per 
cent. Some altercation amongst parties has arisen in their not being 
allowed to draw for material on the ground and not being in the work. The 
contractor is made responsible for all damage that may be done to adjoin- 
ing lands, and for any penalties and forfeitures imposed by the Act of Incor- 
poration as regards crossing canals or public highways. He, the contractor, 
is to furnish tools and assistants to the engineer in setting out the works, 
and the engineer has power to remove all materials insufficient as regards 
the quality at his mere dictum. 

I think, as a matter of justice, that the lowest tender should have the con- 
tract, provided he obtains the stipulated securities ; if the tender be 
not accepted, the party ought to be paid for his estimate. I consider that 
the present mode of taking security is unfair and inefficient, and that if 
penalties are to be exacted for delays, that an equivalent bonus should be 
given to the contractor for any number of weeks that the works may be 
completed before the stipulated time. I have, I believe, read attentively all 
the works in the English language relative to railways, and do not think 
that this important subject has been treated on by any party, even in the 
splendidly got up works of Mr. Weale, which merely give the specifications 
of the quality of materials and mode of execution of the works without note 
or comment. The practice of London for tenders of buildings under an 
architect is, that when a work is to be tendered for, the architect appoints a 



surveyor, and a limited number of contractors of note and reputation are 
written to, and they appoint another surveyor, who, with the former, make 
out a bill of quantities which is supplied to each competitor, as also the cost 
of the estimate, which is included in each tender, and is generally 1$ per 
cent, on the amount, and which is paid by the successful party. The 
architect charges 5 per cent, if he superintend and carry the work into exe- 
cution, and if the job fails for want of capital or change of opinion, the 
architect only gets paid at the rate of 1\ per cent, on the estimated cost. 

I cannot forego this opportunity of directing attention to an article in the 
Companion, to the British Almanac, page 21, 1843, on the sanatary condition 
of the people, where Mr. Chadwick observes that " In the execution of other 
local works, as sewers, roads, and drains to houses, no care is at present 
taken to ensure the superintendence of persons of competent skill. Noisy 
parish brawlers obtain appointments of this nature, and are paid at an 
extravagant rate for inefficient services occupying only a part of their time. 
A case is mentioned of an illiterate person receiving a salary of 150/. a year, 
or as much as a lieutenant of engineers and a private, or as much as three Ser- 
jeants of sappers and miners." Mr. Chadwick, with respect to the other 
works alluded to, states, a hundred thousand pounds have been received in 
fees for surveys of new buildings per annum, and that "this sum would be 
sufficient to pay the whole corps of Royal Engineers, or 240 men of science, 
and the whole corps of sappers and miners, or nearly 1000 trained men." 
Mr. Chadwick also observes that under the Tithe Commutation and Parochial 
Assessment Acts, that "amongst the most satisfactory surveys were those exe- 
cuted by a retired Serjeant of sappers and miners." In respect to railways, 
the point of the government wedge is already introduced, and I would warn 
the assistant engineers to unite boldly against this attempt to interfere with 
them. 

Whilst extracting from the Companion to the Almanac, I cannot 
forego the temptation of extending my extracts to the " Notes on railways," 
and the new position assumed by them in page "8, alluding to the Norwich 
and Yarmouth line : " the difficulty in obtaining the capital was so great, 
that the scheme was all but abandoned, when a new mode was devised 
whereby the contracts for the whole works were secured to compe- 
tent parties, on condition of their investing a large portion of their contract 
prices in the undertaking ; in this instance the contracts were taken at the 
original estimates of the engineer ; still the principle thus adopted might 
obviously lead to a good deal of jobbing, and is so far to be reprehended." 
In the above observations I perfectly agree, and have made the extract that 
this vara avis in terra may be more fully known through the Journal. 

Since writing the above, a special meeting of the London and Birmingham 
Railway Company has been held (Jan. 16), to consider the expediency of 
applying to Parliament for an act to make a branch railway from the main 
line at Blisworth to the city of Peterborough. This meeting is reported in 
the Railway Times (Jan. 21), from which I take the following conversation 
bearing on the subject. A proprietor asks, " Am I to understand that there 
is to be no specific contract for the completion of the work from end to end, 
and that the contract will be advertized in the usual way ? I presume it 
will be a common contract." The chairman replies, " In one sense it will 
be so certainly, but I trust that in another sense it will be an uncommon 
one, for I hope it will be done within the amount of the estimate. We do 
not, however, mean to advertise, but to adopt the now usual course of writ- 
ing to a certain number cf first rate contractors, requesting them to send in 
tenders within a specified time." Proprietor. — " Then there is no actual 
guarantee on the part of the contractor that the engineer's estimate will not 
be exceeded." Chairman. — " We certainly are not now in that position, 
although, as I said before, the engineer's estimate was accompanied by a 
tender with a full guarantee for the execution of the works within the sum 
named." Another proprietor is replied to by the chairman, who says, " I 
think the honourable proprietor may fairly presume that the estimate will 
not be exceeded by the mode of tender now proposed. The view of the 
board was that there ought to be a probability of reduction in the terms of 
the tender, rather than the chance of an increase, and it was that conside- 
ration which induced us to determine on competition, as far as it can be done 
with safety. As far, therefore, as the execution of the work goes, I consider 
that we are in a state of perfect security, and that they will be finished 
within the estimate." In the above conversation we have the results of the 
most experienced men as capitalists and engineers that the world has pro- 
duced, and with as much natural talent as perhaps ever will be produced. 
From which we learn that the London practice as regards contracts for 
buildings will be applied to railways, and that competition to too great au 
extent is unsafe, and that the guarantee of the contractor was for the exe- 



92 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[March, 



cution within the sum named as the estimate ; thereby fixing a maximum 
amount, and that the difficulty arose in fixing a maximum. No mention is 
made of a schedule, or power of making deductions by any given scale. 

Another plan, letting out works, has been adopted on broken works, that 
is, where companies have taken works out of the hands of contractors, by 
allowing other parties to finish them, at a per eentage on the expenditure of 
7 to 10 per cent., a check being kept on the contractor by the companies in 
the weekly pay bills. I have also known other public works, as gas works, 
so carried into execution. This system is also applied to the agents of con- 
tractors and extensive commercial works, a salary being fixed, and a per 
eentage being given on the amount of profits made by the concern. 

From the number of responsibilities and restrictions laid on contractors, 
as previously enumerated, one would have thought there would have been no 
necessity for the remark, that competition had taken place to too great an 
extent, and was unsafe. Do contractors rely for profits on extras and un- 
settled amounts ? there being many amounts which remain unsettled for 10 
years after the completion or opening of several railways already executed, 
or do they rely on the law's delay ? let the cause now in Chancery, of Ranger 
versius the Great Western company furnish the reply. Again, as to securities ; 
are there no bubble companies ? and on what has the contractor to rely on 
for letting his plant fall into their hands ? I can only think his protection 
must be the cash in his pocket, and his being ready for active defence. I 
have known a poor contractor ruined, by having his works pushed in bad 
weather, and he was obliged to leave the works without redress. Ready 
money is Aladdin's lamp, and will quicken even the perception of a Lord 
Chancellor. In settling disputes of this nature, arbitration is sometimes 
resorted to by public companies, to avoid the law's delay ; and engineers of 
eminence are called in to settle the disputed accounts. In all contracts be- 
tween companies and contractors, it would be well to name two parties, all 
as referees, in case of dispute, to curb the sole controul of impetuous or 
peevish engineers. 

The practice of the Board of Ordnance, is to fill up a printed schedule of 
prices. Take smiths work, for instance, the items enumerated most likely to 
be wanted, will extend to a hundred articles, of any pattern that the super- 
intending officer may order, as, articles of wrought iron, materials for day- 
work or for store, cast iron, exclusive of patterns. The tender is to he " at 
how much per cent., above or below the prices inserted in the schedule, he 
is willing to contract for the supplies ;" and only one rate of per eentage 
must be named above or below all the prices in the schedule ; and he is to 
make out his bill at these prices, and add to or deduct from the total the per 
eentage. according to his tender. The generality of tenders are below the 
prices of the honourable board. The contracts are taken for a term of years, 
determinable at any period after one year, on either party giving three months 
notice. Bondsmen, with two securities bound jointly and severally, are 
taken for the performance of the contract. The superintending officer has 
the controul of materials as to quality, and imperfections of workmanship, 
number of and efficiency of men employed. The contractor is to furnish 
daily a list of men, and weekly a statement of daywork, and how employed, 
and a list of articles, if any, to which the schedule will not apply. The bills 
are delivered within 10 days after the expiration of the current quarter, and 
payment made in the course of the subsequent quarter. In this account of 
the practice of the honourable Board of Ordnance, we have undoubtedly the 
nucleus of the principle adopted by the different railway companies ; but 
the chief point, the principle of a per eentage, has not been adopted, which 
I think is the safest for all parties, the company and contractor. I have 
known the practice adopted by a friend of mine, in a public work of great 
extent ; he sent a schedule of prices to parties, and they were to tender at 
per cent, on the amount of work (the bills beihg priced by the schedule) at 
which they would execute the works. In this mode there is no definite 
quantity fixed, and therefore no addition and deductions as the works pro- 
gress, and therefore there can be no extras so annoying to all parties con- 
cerned ; it is more assimilating to measure and value, with the exception, 
that the scale of prices is fixed before the commencement of the works. 
There is a custom amongst contractors of pricing the body of their contract, 
at a different ratio from that of the schedule, in the expectation that there 
will be more extra works than deductions here; I warn all parties that so 
doir.g, is decidedly wrong in principle and unexpedient in practice. To 
avoid the above practice, the Manchester and Leeds Railway company in- 
serted two schedules in their proposals, the first containing a list at which 
the tender is computed, t he second containing a list of extra works : in each 
schedule above 100 items were enumerated. A difficulty often also arises in 
the measurement of works, as to the custom of the country or trade ; and 



in railway works it is generally expressed, that net measurement only will 
be allowed, and that brickwork is to include all foundations, digging, pump- 
ing water, and all punning 1 or ramming back of walls, backing bridges, &c. 

I will now proceed to say a few words on plans, sections, specifications, 
forms of tender, drafts of contracts, schedules of prices, &c. The two first 
explain themselves, and the draft of contract is in the province of the lawyer. 
The specification is supplementary and general ; the latter applies to all con- 
tracts on a line of railway, and in one case was so voluminous as to extend 
to 20 folio pages containing 61 clauses. The 61st clause was to the following 
effect, and will define what is meant by general. " The whole of this speci- 
fication is to be taken and construed according to the true intent and mean- 
ing of it, and in case of the construction of any part of it appearing doubtful, 
the opinion of the engineer as to the intent of any such portion is to be 
binding upon both parties." The supplementary specification describes the 
particular works referred to in the general clauses, as for contract No. I. 
No. 5 L, or any subdivision of a particular line, say commencing at chain 

No. 21, in a field shown in the plan near , and ending at chain 

No. 306, shown in the plan situate near , being in length about 

3 miles, 4 furlongs, 5 chains, " yards, or thereabouts. In the specification 
a table of the gradients is given, and the number of the bridges, with de- 
tailed plans of each. The form of tender is as follows : — " To the Committee 

of . I, of , do propose to make and complete the work of 

the portion of Railway, (inclusive or exclusive of the permanent 

way, as the case may be), from — — to, — — according to the plans 
and specification, within the period and upon the terms and conditions men- 
tioned and contained in the draft contract exhibited, for the sum of £ s. d., 
and I have, in the schedule hereto annexed, set forth the prices of the different 
descriptions of work at which the aggregate amount of this tender is com- 
puted, and in case this tender shall lie accepted, I hereby undertake to exe- 
cute a contract according to the draft referred to within 14 days from this 
date, and propose A B and C D as securities for fhe due performance of such 
contract." Again, " I hereby offer to execute the whole of the works de- 
scribed in the specification, &c, and in the event of this tender being accepted, 
I bind myself to enter into a regular contract, and to find satisfactory se- 
curity for the due performance of the work, and I agree that the value of 
any addition to or deduction from the amount of the work specified, shall be 
calculated at the rates stated in the annexed schedule of prices." In the 
last case, the real estimate of quantities by the engineer was printed in the 
schedule, with a description of each kind of work attached, and in the case of 
the Manchester and Leeds Company before alluded to, the amount of secu- 
rity required was stated in the conditions of the contract; it was, therefore, 
necessary for the parties tendering to add to their tender. " And I do hereby 
undertake that A B and C D shall, within a fortnight from this date, execute 
a bond to be prepared by the Company for that purpose, in a penal sum 
equal in amount to 10 per cent, on the amount of my tender." The Great 
Western Railway fixed a definite sum for the bondsmen to become security 
for on each contract, not a per eentage ; also that the two sureties be bound 
jointly and severally with the parties tendering. 

Notwithstanding the arbitrary powers of engineers, the complex array of 
law, and the exaction of be .ids, they are all found inefficient as regards keep- 
ing contracts within a specific sum, or the gross amount of tenders. Can 
there then be any thing said in addition to show the inutility of contracts on 
the usual plan. 

I should like to see the principle of tendering now in practice by the 
Board of Ordnance applied to railways, as before alluded to ; and if this 
plan, with the addition of the quantities (as agreed upon by the con- 
tractor and engineer, or by their surveyor) were supplied to intending com- 
petitors, I think it would tend to simplify the cost of public works, and at 
the same time make the officers of supervision and of the executive look more 
lovingly on each other. I have no doubt, should Government execute the 
Irish railways, some such system will he adopted by the Board of Trade. 

I will, in my next, if leisure permit, enter on the principle and construc- 
tion of earth wagons, which has not, as yet, had the importance bestowed on 
it that it deserves. In the mean time allow me to subscribe myself, with all 
respect, 

5/. Ann's, Neivcastle-npon-Tune. Your's obediently, 

O. T. 



1 The cost of punning, per cubic yard, is about twopence, or half the cost 
of excavation. 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



ROYAL ACADEMY. 

Professor. Cockerell's Lectures on Architecture. 

CFrom the Athenaum.) 

Lecture III. 

The chronological table ' offered to the students was designed to assist their 
study of the history of architecture, so strongly recommended ; it was a sketch 
capable of great development — the intelligent observation of antiquity was an 
all-important object with the architect. No consideration could confer more 
importance and dignity on the art than that it was identified with time — 
that the architect himself was a part of history, and that the marked works 
he performs were, by the consent of language, termed monuments. Such a 
table presented at one view the religious and moral, the political and tech- 
nical influences which have guided aud developed the art. Through the 
>arly centuries we trace it as one of the most active engines of civilization ; 
but it is loug before we find the table rich with the names of patrons, ar- 
chitects, or works, aud then with many voids of tedious centuries between. 
The dearth of wisdom or wealth in governments, or genius or liberality in 
the individuals, accounts for the barren ages ; as naturally as do the contrary 
for the fruits of all the muses. They follow each other as natural conse- 
quences, as effects from causes. And it is glorious to recognize the coinci- 
dence of epochs favourable to art with the most wise-hearted and generous 
spirits of history. 

Under whom were those more remarkable buildings of Egypt raised ? It 
was when Sesostris built his library, and pointed to its destination by the 
significant and enlightened subscription — Vvxns larpftov — " The health of 
the soul." When were those bright edifices erected which have ever at- 
tracted the traveller to Athens from every part of Europe, and still do so ? 
It was when Pericles could discuss the buildings he designed with a So- 
crates, a Plato, a Phidias, and an Ictiuus — and so, with minor splendour, an 
Augustus, a Justiniau, a Medici, a Louis XIV., a Frederick the Great, a 
George III., or a King of Bavaria, have known how to illustrate their era ; 
aud, however a half-sighted economy has calculated and complained of the 
cost, history may be defied to prove that states have suffered from these ex- 
penses ; those wise princes kuew how fructifying they were in real commer- 
cial benefits ; and never wanted the address to silence the item-counting 
economists. " Do you complain of these expenses ?" said Pericles ; " I will 
find the remedy. I myself will defray them, provided you will allow my 
name to be inscribed upon the walls." He might have added — " You are 
prompt enough to vote money to carry on an Affghan war, on a pretence, 
into Sicily, and fill Syracuse with carcases, to your own disgrace and ruin ; 
but these expenses, trifling in the comparison, these becoming ornaments, 
these productive fructifying decencies of a great state, you grudge." 

When Louis's accounts of Versailles were made up, and his Minister of 
Finance asked what was to be done with them — " Burn them," said the 
monarch. He knew as well as Necker the secret " that the arts and 
sciences repay with usury the expenses of the state in providing for then- 
exercise and culture." He knew, too, that they formed not a tithe of those 
arrogant aud unsuccessful wars which he waged with all his neighbours. 

But why are the two centuries before our era less fertile in names ? be- 
cause the Roman sword began to supersede the olive branch of Olympia : 
and why again do they cease after the second century of our era ? because 
the Emperor himself (Hadrian) professed the art, and murdered his rival 
Apollodorus, the last great architect of Greece. And now, for twelve cen- 
turies, they are obscure under the antagonist rules of feudal aud ecclesias- 
tical aristocracy, and re-appear only with liberty and the muses. 

Again, for himself, the architect lays to heart the care and circumspection 
due to lasting monuments, and the penalty which the absence of these is to 
inflict on him in the curse 

Of Ripley and his rule ; 
and for his patrons, his duty to awaken them to the seriousness of these 
responsibilities, the compromise of national honour and credit in works 
which are nothing less than state matters ; and were so esteemed in Athens 
by the appointment of a minister, the $e/j.itfpyos, answerable for their success. 
He is humiliated in finding that his own design, with the originality of 
which he had flattered himself, is but a repetition of former essays. Again, 
in the contemplation of the slowness of invention, and the imitative nature 
of our species through centuries. The arch and the dome essayed during 
1000 years before they assumed the form of the Pantheon or the Bridge of 
Narni ; and 1400 more are required to accomplish a humble imitation in the 
dome at Florence. That the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman, as if spell-bound, 
did as their fathers did — that the monuments themselves are but the copies, 
more or less altered, the successors of a remote ancestry receding into the 
night of time. Pliny tells us that the temple of Ephesus had been seven 
times rebuilt. The oldest monuments of Egypt and of Greece, and of our 
Own countries, are composed of fragments of still ones : 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 

Multi : sed omnes Ulacrymabiles 
Urgentur ignotique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

1 See two following pages. 



" They had no artist, and they died." 

But the technical reflections on this table are not less instructive. The 
struggle of 2G00 years with the monolithc ;— the influence of fashions in the 
design, and of slavery in the execution, of works, reducing the cost by at 
least one quarter;— the lever, the lewis, the trochlea, and every engine em- 
ployed by modern masons, are recognized in all the oldest buildings of the 
east ; Stonehenge being one of the few buildings which displays the infancy 
of art ;— the inferiority of ancient cities in the distant view as a conglome- 
rate of low buildings, to those of the modern world with towers and campa- 
niles ;— the changes which customs induce ;— the church-bell, which in the 
seventh century hardly exceeded one cwt., and terrified Clothaire and his 
troops under the walls of Orleans ; then the delight and boast of commu- 
nities, and gradually becoming 80 tons in the 19th centurv at Moscow, en- 
larging during those centuries the towers and structures'for its reception, 
and altering by degrees the whole face of architecture ;— the use of glass,' 
in narrow windows in the first century, a vast improvement on Phengytes', 
used till then; the manufacture of the civilized only, till the 12th century; 
then infusing colours with unseen lustre — glazing iu part onlv the domestic 
windows, which had shutters below until the 1 7th, and now in one sheet 
filling the entire sash. Meanwhile, architecture bends to this manufacture, 
and changes its features and proportions with the phases of its improvement. 
And, lastly, cast-iron, which within 40 years has discovered capacities which 
will alter the whole structure of buildings. We may say with the poet 

Loin d'ici ce discours vulgaire 
Que l'art pour jamais degetiere, 

Que tout s'eclipse, tout finit ; 
La nature est inepassable, 
Et le genie infatigable, 

Et le Dieu que la rajeunit. 

The principle to be inculcated seems then to be the acceptance and em- 
ployment of every useful element of our art, and so to engraft new features, 
and bend it to the march of human improvement, as to be consistent with 
taste, while it is also to the great end of use. Thus we shall obtain new 
creations iu the art — which a servile imitation refuses. 

These are amongst the advantageous reflections which the contemplation 
of the chronological table will give rise to. 

This evening the Professor purposed offering some remarks on the prin- 
cipal monuments of civil architecture amongst the ancients. As the ritual 
prescribed the forms of sacred architecture, so political aud civil institutions 
prescribed those of civil architecture : where monarchs sway we have their 
palaces, suited to the temporal governor of the earth : regarded as God's 
vicegerent while living, and as demi-gods when dead, their niausolea endure 
through all ages, in the Pyramids, or in the Moles Hadriana ; and where 
these are supported by castes, we have the Labyrinth, the Temple Palace, 
and the treasury — in republics none of these are found, but the temple, the 
gymnasium, the theatre, the stoa, the basilica, and public works abound; 
when states are absolutely commercial, as Tyre or Carthage, nothing remains 
hut their name in history ; their architecture seems to have been confined to 
the perishable Trireme. 

The uncertainty of future existence made duration in the present the 
earliest object of solicitude ; monuments in the pyramid or the obelisk are 
the most remote architectural works which have reached us. In 1732 b.c 
Jacob raised a memorial to Rachel, " that is the pillar upon Rachel's grave 
unto this day." " The kings of Egypt," says Diodorus Siculus, did not 
think that the fragility of the body deserved a solid habitation ; indeed, 
they regarded their palaces as simple lodgings, in which each successively 
inhabited ; but they considered their tombs as their peculiar habitations, as 
their fixed and perpetual domicile. 

The subject of pyramids would never be mentioned without acknow- 
ledgment to the labours of Colonel Vyse, which for princely liberality and 
English endurance and disinterestedness are unparalleled, as indeed also for 
their great interest, since on this subject, debated for so many centuries, he 
has left nothing to desire. 

But, to the architect, no monument of antiquity could be more precious 
than the tomb of Absalom, iu the valley of Jehosaphat, which is monolithic 
(for the most part), or rather cut in the living rock, and exhibits an Ionic 
temple in antis (like Solomon's temple), with a Doric entablature, an Egyp- 
tian cornice, and a tholus or circular attic, surmounted with a conical top 
and a pomegranate ; all features in perfect correspondence with the reason- 
able expectations regarding Jewish architecture, which, however original in 
plan and disposition, would never be so in ornamental style, because the 
comparative smallness of the nation, the fortunes of individuals limited by 
law, the agricultural habits of the people, their discouragement of taste, 
and their position between great and flourishing countries so remarkable for 
its cultivation as to lend their artists to the Jews, whenever occasion de- 
manded, were all opposed to the invention of any peculiar and original style 
of architecture. 

A beautiful representation of this remarkable tomb had appeared iu 
Roberts' " Holy Land ;" there could be no doubt as to its identity, since 
tradition amongst the Jews on such a point might always be accepted as full 
and sufficient evidence — its perfect correspondence with holy writ (II Samuel, 
ch. xviii.) is striking : — " Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared 
up for himself a pillar, which is iu the king's dale : for he said, I have no 



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son to keep my name in remembrance; and he called 
the pillar after his own name, and it is called unto 
this day Absalom's place." Wren calls it " the 
most observable monument of the Tyrian style." 
" It were to be wished," says he, " some skilful ar- 
tist would give us the exact dimensions to inches, 
by wb.ich we might have a true idea of the ancient 
Tyrian manner." 

Labyrinths are amongst the earliest and most 
astonishing of architectural works; they were found 
in Egypt, Crete, Lemnos, and Tuscany. Herodotus 
describes them as surpassing in extent and magnifi- 
cence : the one he describes (Eut. cxlviii.) was 
composed of 12 courts, having apartments of two 
kinds, 1500 above the surface of the ground and 
as many beneath, in which were the tombs of their 
kings. " No one could enter them," says Diodorus 
Sicnlus, " without a guide." Yet Pliny tells us 
they were not contrived like the ornament com- 
monly called by that name ; in that of Lemnos, 
says he, were 150 columns turned in a lathe, which 
a child could move ; and this is remarkable as 
evidence of the use of such a machine in the capi- 
tals of the Parthenon, which has been always sup- 
posed. 

The living use of the Labyrinth is left to conjec- 
ture; but we may easily conceive their adaptation 
to a people of castes, with whom they might be 
colleges for those aristocratic classes surrounding 
the throne. We are told that all the youth of 
Egypt, born on the same day with Sesostris, were 
set apart and educated with the young prince, and 
thus it was that he found himself surrounded in 
manhood by attached companions, who carried his 
conquests and his fame to the greatest height. 
Where could so vast a generation be educated but 
in the Labyrinth ? 

The Professor doubted the interpretation com- 
monly applied to the so called temples of Egypt ; 
be believed them to be rather temple palaces, in 
which the temporal administration of a great coun- 
try was carried on, together with the spiritual. 
The ruins of Karnac covered 10 acres. Within the 
walls was inclosed a space equal to the whole 
length of St. James's Street, and four times its 
width. The comparison of this plan with that of 
the Louvre and its courts, with the use of which 
we are familiar (and exhibited with plans of Luxor 
and Dendera, and Diocletian's palace, and others 
drawn to the same scale), would show the high 
improbability of the employment of such vast 
spaces for the priesthood alone ; and it could be 
shown, especially at Dendera, that all the public 
business of the realm might be conducted there, 
and that the Pharaoh himself very probably re- 
sided, as in the Arab villages at this day, upon the 
F road terraces which these vast buildings afforded, 
raised into the air, and removed from the vermin, 
inundations, mirage, and confinement, to which the 
habitations on the soil of Egypt were subject. 

The Pharaoh united the offices of monarch and 
high priest, and all the dignity and imposing awe 
which the arts could afford, were associated with 
his presence. The palace was approached through 
an avenue of sphynxes of a mile in length. The 
Pylac were seen afar off raising a vast front of uni- 
form surface, on which were engraved on one side 
the Pharoah in his warlike attributes reviewing his 
troops, charging the enemy, whom he annihilates 
at a stroke, besieging cities ; on the other, in his 
peaceful, administering justice, and the more sacred 
duties of his priestly office. In front of this were 
obelisks (the smallest of which is now in Paris), 
and colossal figures of the Pharaohs. 

The first court equals in size Waterloo Place, 
from the column to Pall Mall. Here, under a co- 
lonade, " the King sat in the gate," with " his 
princes and counsellors ;" this was " his porch of 
judgment," the sculpture and painting of the ceil- 
ing symbolized appropriately the passage of the 
soul through human vicissitudes to a final judg- 
ment. 

The columnar grove beyond, 325 feet by 266, 
afforded a waiting hall (the only cool one in 
(Egypt for all the court, so pompously described 



BEFORE CHRIST. 



Dates, 
Authors, 
Patrons, 

Events. 



architectural 
Writers. 



Eminent 
Architects. 



2400 
S'oah 


2300 


Tower of Babel 


2200 
Menes 


Walls of Babylon 


2100 
Abraham 


Pyramids 

Obelisks 


2000-1900 



1800 
Amos or 

Cheops 
Joseph or 

Chephren 



Pyramid 
Pvramid 



1700 
1600 




Arch 


1500 Mu^ts 
Sesostris 


Beseleel 


Tabernacle 

Pyramid 

Temple of Jupiter at Thebes 


1400 




Labyrinth in Egypt 


K'.nn 


Daedalus 


Labyrinth of Crete 


1200 
Troy taken 




Nineveh 

Treasuries at Mycene, Orchome- 
nos, inc. 


1100 Solomon 


Hiram 


Temple at Jerusalem 


1000 
Shisbak spoils 
Jerusalem 


900 
Homer — Hesiod 


800 
Ezekiel 




Cyclopian Walls 
Labyrinth of Lemnos 



700 Theodorus 

Chersiphron Metagenes 



Rhoecus Temple of Juno at Samos 

Zoilus Rholus 1st Temple of Diana at Ephesus 

T. of Jupiter Panellenius of .Egina 
Agamedes Trophonius Temple of Cybele at Sardes 

1st Temple of Apollo Didymeus 



600 
Ezra Antistates Calleschros 

.Eschylus Agatarchus Democritus Antimachides Porinos 
Anaxagoras Silenus 



1st Temple of Pallas at Priene 

1st T. of Jupiter Olympius, Athens 
Temple of Jupiter Olympius. Elis 
Theatre of Bacchus at Athens 



500 Ictinus Carpion 

Theodorus 
Pericles phoceus 

Argelius 
Herodotus Satyrus Phyteus 
Thucvdides 



C'allicrates Mnesicles Temple of Ceres Eleusina 
Agaptus Libon Parthenon, Propylcca 

Pheax T. vEsculapius, Tralles. T. Selinus 

T. Jupiter Olympius, Agrigentum 
Mausoleum. Temple at Cyrene 



400 Hermogenes Nexaris Ma:sthes Callias T. Diana, Magnesia. T.Bacchus, 

Pytheus Theocydes Tarchesius Archias Teos 

Demophilos Pollis Daphnis Demetrjus 2nd T. Priene. 2nd T. Ephesus 

Leonides Philo Denocrates Lycicratus 2nd Temple of Apollo 

Peonius Pharos at Alexandria 





Silanion 


Melampus 


Sostratus 


Callimachu 


Corinthian Capital 


300 


Sarnacus 


Euphranor 


Polycletus 
Andronicus 




Theatre at Epidaurus 
Tower of the Winds 


200 






Cosutius 




T. Jup. Olym. Athens, completed 
Gymnasia 



Diodorus 
Strabo 



Fussitius 

Terrentius Varro Mutius 

Publius Sattimius 



Hermodorus 

Valerius 

Saurus 

Cyrus 



Batrachus 



Temple of Jupiter Stator 
Temple of Honour aud Virtue 
2nd Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 

Basilica at Fano in Italy 



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THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



05 



AFTER CHRIST. 



Pliny 
Plutarch 



Pausanias 

Lucian 

Dionysius 



200 


300 

Eusebius 
Constantine 


Metrodorus 
Alipius 


Temple at Jerusalem 


400 


500 

Justinian 


Anthemius 
Isidorus 


St. Sophia 


600 
700 


800 


Romualdus 


Cathedral of Rheims 
St. Mark's at Venice 


900 


Elphege 


Crypts of Winchester Cathedral 



Dates, 
Authors, 
Patrons, 

Events. 



Architectural 
Writers. 



Medici Alberti 

Cataneo 



Eminent 
Architects. 



Vitruvius Cerdo 

Seler 

Severus Rabirius 



Baths 

Tomb of Augustus 

Amphitheatre at Rome 



Apollodorus 
Hadrian 



Forum of Trajan 

Temple of Venus and Rome 

Moles Hadriani 

Temple of the Sun at Palmyra 

Temple at Balbec 



Leo X. 

Julius II. 



Buschetto 
Mauritius 
Lanfranc 
De Carilelpho 
Losinga 



Duouio of Pisa 

Old St. Paul's 

Choir of Canterbury Cathedral 

Durham Cathedral 

Norwich Cathedral 



Dioti Salvi 
Roger 
Normannns 
W. Senensis 



Baptistery of Pisa 
York Cathedral 
Lincoln Cathedral 
Canterbury Cathedral 



Troteman 

Poore 

Erwin von Steinbach 

Louton 

Arnolfo 



Wells Cathedral 
Salisbury Cathedral 
Minster of Strasburg 
Lichfield Cathedral 
S. Maria del Fiore 



Agostino da Siena 

Walsingham 

Walter 

William of Wykeham 



Cathedral of Sienna 
Ely Cathedral 
St. Stephen's Chapel 
Windsor 



Brunelleschi 



Cesare Cesariano 
Reginald Bray 



Cupola of S. Maria 
St. Francis at Rimini 

Milan Cathedral 
Henry Vllth's Chapel 



Philibert de Lorme 

Sansovini 

Serlio 

VlGNOLA. 

Palladio 



Bramante Rafaelle St. Peter 
Peruzzi San Micheli 

San Gallo Michelangiolo Cupola of St. Peter 
De Lescott Louvre 



Scammozzi 
Wotton 
Inigo Jones 
Perrault 
Christopher Wren 



Whitehall 

Borromini Facade of the Louvre 

St. Paul's 



Chambers 



Mansart 
Vanbrugh 
Hawksmoor 
Gibbs 
Perronet 



Soufflot 



Arches of Triumph at Paris 
Blenheim House 
Somerset House 



Nole.— The writings of those in capital letters are still extant. 



in Daniel : " the princes, the governors, the cap. 
tains, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the 
sheriffs, and the rulers of the provinces." Through 
these was the approach to the Sekos for the god ; 
and on the face of each column of the avenue were 
represented on one side Osiris, on the other the 
Pharaoh. 

The paving above all this showed a surface pre- 
pared for other buildings, apparently of timber : 
holes occur for the reception of the posts, very 
large ornamental spouts for the discharge of sewage 
and water, in a country of no rain, and there- 
fore only wanted for the uses of a great family. 
The parapet walls forming the external face of the 
temple palace, surmounted with the usual cornice, 
defend and partially conceal these buildings ; and 
at Dendera especially are chapels for the daily ser- 
vices of the Pharaoh and his family on this higher 
level, and the staircases by which they arrived at 
them. These were the " ivory palaces," the habi- 
tations of cedar, and sandel, and almug woods, al- 
luded to in the 45th Psalm, and in which each 
Pharaoh might indulge his taste, and be " glad," 
and enjoy exemption from the inconveniences of 
the nether world. 

Some very beautiful drawings, by Mr. Jones, re- 
presenting the actual remains and restorations of 
the Pila?, were obligingly exhibited, by permission 
of that gentleman. An interesting part of the 
ruins of Karnac was not to be forgotten, namely, a 
triumphal gate built by Shyshack on his return 
from Jerusalem, whence he had taken the golden 
shields put up by Solomon, as described in 1 Kings, 
xiv. 

The treasuries of Atreus, 48 feet in diameter, 
and the gates of Mycenre, and the treasury of Or- 
chomenos, of still larger diameter, are the only 
monuments of Homeric pretension, unless the Ly- 
cian remains, discovered by Mr. Fellowes, can be 
proved to be of that remote period, and that the 
taste of Sarpedon can be identified by them. 

Amongst the objects of civil architecture, few 
have had more influence on the art than theatres, 
both in their external elevation, in the application 
of the orders in relief on the pier and spandrel of 
the arch, and in the internal elevation, the scene, 
which has been the occasion of so much caprice 
and corruption of taste. The theatre, being con- 
stantly employed for parliamentary assemblies, re- 
quired a permanent scene, as well as moveable, and 
adapted to the performance. It was a subject of 
vast architectural study and expense. Pliny (lib. 
xxxvi.) tells us that Caius Antonius silvered the 
scene ; Pretonius gilt it ; Quintus Catullus clothed 
it in ivory. Scaurus surpassed them all ; he taised 
360 columns, in three ranges : the first was of mar- 
ble 38 feet high, the next was in glass, the third 
of wood gilt. Three thousand bronze statues orna- 
mented the intercolumniatious. Curion, unable to 
surpass Scaurus, built two theatres of wood, which, 
being back to back, could be turned so as to form 
an amphitheatre for gladiators, displaying the skill 
of the Roman carpenters to great advantage. 

Vitruvius (lib. vii. c. 5.) lamenting the deprava- 
tion of taste, tells us that Apaturius of Alabanda 
offered a design for a scene of two stories, the 
upper called Episcenius, filled with every caprice, 
centaurs did the office of columns, pediments were 
twisted in a variety of shapes ; all which pleased 
the people of Tralles, for whom it was designed ; 
but Licinius a mathematician, exposed its absurdity, 
and it was accordingly reformed on better princi- 
ples. 

The scene of Laodicea (amongst many which the 
Professor exhibited) was the most extensive, being 
no less than 254 feet in length. The theatre of 
Orange, lately published by M. Caristie, was a valu- 
able addition to our information on the Roman 
scene. 

Palladio's scene of the theatre at Viccnza gUes 
the best idea of its feature of ancient architectural 
magnificence. 

Originally of wood, and continuing so for many 

centuries, it was not until the third century before 

our era (232 B.C., the theatre at Epidaurus,) that 

they were built in stone and marble. The Greek 

13 



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[March, 



theatre approached the amphitheatre, and was a horse-shoe comprising 200" 
or more, because the orchestra was reserved also for the performance ; but 
the Roman theatre did not exceed 1S0 L , because the orchestra was occupied 
by the senators. 

The Odeum was a covered theatre, chiefly for music; that of Herodes 
Atticus, at Athens, was the most magnificent in Greece, and had a roof of 
cedar. The space covered was 240 feet by 159. The construction of such 
a roof, without obstructing sight or hearing, or injuring external architec- 
ture, offers a problem to the architect of no easy solution, and is one of 
great interest in the present times, as we are frequently called upon to cover 
large areas for occasional assemblies. 

But as modern theatres were more to the point with students, the Profes- 
sor called their attention to a magnificent work, lately published on " The 
great modern theatres of Europe," by M. Contant, which he exhibited. 

The amphitheatre was then considered : although of early Tuscan origin, 
and originally formed in earth or scaffolding, it was not executed in perma- 
nent materials till the end of the first century. One in earth had been dis- 
covered by Sir C. Wren at Dorchester. That of Vespasian (as shown in a 
diagram) was too large for the site of Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, &c. 
The velarium, 550 feet by 450, with which the colosseum was covered 
during exhibitions, was a suqirising contrivance, and had been made the 
subject of a work by the architect Fontana. M. Hittorf had suspended the 
roof of a panorama in the Champs Elysees, somewhat in the manner of the 
Velarium, with great skill. This work, published, was here exhibited. 

The gymnasium, in which the youth of Greece were instructed for the 
defence and honour of their country, in every department of prowess, was j 
an interesting object of civil architecture. The plan of that of Ephesus, 
published by the Dilettante Society, was exhibited, and it was gratifying to 
observe the use which the late Professor Mr. Wilkins had made of this 
example, in illustration of the text of Vitruvius, which had hitherto been 
misunderstood. 

The Gymnasium was the more interesting as the type of those Therma;, 
the Roman baths, which have furnished the great school of architectural in- 
itruction, and from which the best inventions of the architects of the middle 
age, and of the revival, had been derived. 

The name, Therma;, as well as the express declaration of Vitruvius, de- 
clare that these institutions were exotic : a refinement adopted from Greece 
in the time of Augustus. During the first three centuries of our era, seven 
of these were erected ; they were well calculated to indulge that love of 
luxury which rapidly corrupted the Roman manners under the emperors, as 
well as to gratify that constant excitement of novelty and splendour, which 
gave popularity to the government. Some idea of their extent may be con- 
ceived from the plan (exhibited) of the Baths of Caracalla laid down upon 
that plot which is comprised between Regent Street, Pall Mall, St. James's 
Street, and Piccadilly, covering about 28 acres. Cameron assures us. that 
those of Diocletian, somewhat larger, afforded hot baths for 18,000 persons 
at the same time : a bell rung at two o'clock to announce that the water was 
warm. The mask of a paternal urbanity was often affected by the despotic 
emperors, who frequently bathed with the people. One day Hadrian recog- 
nized an old companion in arms in poverty, scraping himself with a tile in- 
stead of the strigil ; accosting him kindly,' he furnished him with a slave, 
and all that could be wanted to his future comfort. Such an example could 
not but be infectious: accordingly when he came again, he was surrounded 
with poor acquaintances scraping themselves with tiles; but, calling them 
together, he observed, that being many they could scrape each other, 
without any superflous expense of slaves or furniture. The Thermx were 
in fact vast clubs, castles of indolence, in which even- easy exercise of body 
or mind, and every delight of the senses might be indulged. The gardens, 
raised about thirty feet above the general level, were adorned with every 
fragrant shrub and flower; the choicest works of sculpture, obelisks and 
fountains, exedrx for the enjoyment of the shade or the sun (of a structure 
well worthy the student's attention) terminated the walks. In the cen- 
tral building was the great hall, the type of Gothic structure in ecclesiastical 
architecture, namely, the groined ceiling reposing on a column, and abutting 
on an extended pier, with the nascent flying buttress. The space of the 
naves (varying from 76 to 90 feet) being twice that of York, the widest of 
our cathedrals. The area covered, offers the largest space with the smallest 
obstruction in the support, of any scheme yet devised, and cannot be too 
much admired. It has been well observed of those structures, that we 
discern in them the type of all that has been since done in architecture, 
just as throughout the animal creation we trace the more or less resem- 
blance to the type man. The interest excited amongst the French students 
recently (as exhibited in their late competition for the grand prize), pro- 
mises that this admirable feature of ancient architecture will be reproduced 
in Europe before many years past. It was proposed for the new Public 
Library at Cambridge ; it was employed by Sir C. Wren in Bow Church, on 
a small scale; and is executed on a still smaller scale, with considerable 
differences, but with happy application in the Bank of England, by Sir J. 
Soane. But the cloisters, the surrounding rooms and baths, their various 
forms and structures, and the happy union of the arch and the trabeated 
systems, would lead to more observation than can be here admitted. To the 
students he would say of them, 

Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna. 

Palladio designed to have published a book upon them, the drawings for 



which were afterwards edited by Lord Burlington. Mons. Blouet has pub- 
lished a magnificent work, giving all the restorations and details, which 
large excavations and very careful study of them enabled him to obtain. 

The Basilica is also of Greek origin, as the name imports. The kingly 
hall was such as Solomon built in the palace of the forest of Lebanon. It 
was the Westminster Hall of ancient governments for administration of 
justice, commercial exchange, great public meetings, &c. The building at 
Pcestum, so called, was more properly a temple, because the Greeks were not 
accustomed to apply sacred architecture to civil purposes. 

The Basilica of Trajan was the most magnificent exemplar of this species 
of building which the Professor could point out : with its forum, temples, 
and approaches, it covered 12 acres. The central hall or basilica, 540 by 
168 feet, would contain St. Paul's in length and in width, exceeded only in 
the extreme ends of the cross. The central nave, 27S by 78, would contain 
the whole of Westminster Hall, in plan as well as in section. In Rome were 
18 basilicas, and one at least in every city of the empire. Their subsequent 
adaptation to the Christian temple makes them highly interesting to the 
student. Vitruvius, lib. v. c. 1, describes the basilica, and his own work 
at Fauum, which differs from the usual form in some particulars. 

Lectcke IV. 

Of the divisions of the art proposed, that of domestic and villa archi- 
tecture alone remained to be considered. On this subject, two important 
preliminary remarks were to be made. Firstly, that the republican form of 
government, which prevailed in the ancient world after the seventh century 
b.c, greatly influenced the style of domestic buildings, which were expressly 
unostentatious externally, towards narrow streets, lined with shops, reserving 
all their elegance for the interior, in the atrium impluviatum — porticatutn— 
the exedra, &c. Secondly, that populations and fashions having been de- 
rived from the east, an oriental character was impressed on the ancient 
habits and arrangements of countries in which (as in Italy especially) the 
northern and occidental now prevail ; as derived from an opposite source. 
Whoever walks through the streets of Pompeia, after having resided amongst 
the Turks, will be struck with this fact. The profuse employment of water, 
in the bath, the impluvium, and in the corner of every street — the narrow 
street — the secluded mansions, within high walls — the internal air and space 
— the subdivision of the house into the men's apartments and the women's— 
the harem — the lightness of the costume — all express migration from warmer 
climates, and a marked distinction of the races of modern and ancient in- 
habitants. 

The Jews lived chiefly on the terraced tops of the houses, as the Professor 
presumed the Pharaoh to have done. " Ahaziah " (II Kings, c. i.), King of 
Samaria, " fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber ;" and it was 
thence that David, in a wanton moment, incurred the curse which fell upon 
his family. The house top is ever the scene of prayer. " Let him that is 
on the house top," says our Saviour, '• not come down into his house, neither 
enter therein," (Mark, xiii. 15) ; yet it is possible that in the latter ages 
they had adopted the Greek and Roman ichnography — it was, perhaps, 
through the roof of the atrium testudhiatuui that the sick man was let down 
to be cured by our Saviour (Luke, v. 19.) 

The narrowness of the streets, and unostentatious style of the houses in 
Athens, occasioned disappointment to the traveller, as Dica-archus expressly 
tells us ; in Rome the same ; and as the houses were limited by the Augustan 
law to 70 feet high, we must suppose them unattractive. The fragments of 
the great plau of Rome, inscribed on the pavement of the temple of Romu- 
lus, by order of Septimius Severus, and published by Bellori, show the re- 
semblance of the houses to those of Pompeia. It was an extraordinary in- 
novation on the ancient humility of the Roman house, which Cresar pro- 
posed, in demanding permission of the Senate to erect a fastigium, or pedi- 
ment, over his door. 

But the complete account of the Roman aristocratic house is to be found 
in the " Palais de Scaurus," by Mons. Mazois, as also of the citizen's house, 
in the " Ruines de Pompeia," so admirably illustrated by that ingenious and 
lamented architect. 

But if the Roman nobles accomplished the admirable works described, in 
favour of the public, they did not neglect their own comforts. Under the 
empire they lived as individuals with the income of monarchs ; and Straho tells 
us expressiy that " they built their villas after the palaces of the kings of 
Persia." The number" of them was also extraordinary; for, as Lucullus 
said, " they were as wise as those birds which change their residence with 
the seasons." 

Cicero had 19 villas, and it was in one of these that Caesar honoured him 
with a morning call, and paid him the very high compliment of taking a 
vomit in order that he might do justice to his lunch. In another he de- 
lighted to ornament his library with Greek paintings and sculptures, which 
his friend Herodes Atticus was always collecting for him. 

It was a fortunate legacy to the architect-antiquary which Pliny had left, 
in the description of his villa at Laurentinum. It had often employed the 
ingenuity of the architect, since the revival, but with small profit, till the 
discovery of the ancient ichnography of Pompeia. The Professor exhibited 
his own restoration, founded upon those data, in which, though he differed 
in some points from his accomplished friend, Mons. Haudebourt, in his ele- 
gant version of the Laurentinum, yet he strongly recommended it to the 
student, on account of the great research and taste shown in the composi- 



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97 



tion. Some of the features he would describe. You entered a small tarium 
and thence a court in the form of the letter D, surrounded with a portico, 
which was enclosed partially with glass (the very original of our old con- 
ventual cloisters), and thus excluded rough weather. Thence through a 
gay court into a triclinium, which hung over the sea, and had windows all 
round three sides, giving the full enjoyment of the air, and view of wood 
and mountains beyond. To the left of this was a room, at the end of which 
was a rotunda (in apside curvatum), so contrived as to receive the sun's rays 
from the rising to the setting : in this was a case containing books, calcu- 
lated to detain you, and such as " one loves to read over and over again." 
This arrangement afforded an angular parterre, protected on all sides except 
the south from the winds, and concentrating the sun's rays — a delightful 
refuge in the winter season. There were rooms heated by pipes from a hy- 
pocaustum, and others to retire to in stormy weather, to escape the roaring 
of the waves; a large bath for cold and hot bathing; a perfumery; and 
spheristerium, or fives court ; a long gallery (crypto porticus) with windows 
on either side, which, when opened, admitted the fragrance of beds of 
violets, and the sun's rays at the rising and setting. " At the end of this," 
continues Pliny, " is a casino I built myself — my delight : in it I have an 
Heliocaminus, a sun chamber, warmed by windows all round ; while reposing 
on my couch in a recess adjoining, I can see the garden, the landscape, and 
the sea, through a glazed door ; I can study in perfect quiet here, and escape 
all the noise and disturbance of my servants, occasioned by the Saturnalia." 
Pliny omits some features of great interest in the Roman house, as the 
Sacrariura, (the chapel,) in which the Lares (the household gods,) were 
placed, and sometimes the imagines majorum, of which the Romans, like 
ourselves, were justly proud. The Tabliuium, for the archives, which also 
received these sometimes ; and the Ergastulum, that room of the domestic 
side of the house in which chastisement was administered to the slaves, in 
the approved fashion of our schools at this day, as we see by various paint- 
ings preserved to us. 

Pliny describes his gardens, his figs and mulberries, his gestatio bordered 
with box, and plantatious disposed in the form of Xystus and the Hippo- 
drome ; classical titles, which give a charm to features otherwise insignifi- 
cant : and since " the world," says Sir C. Wren, " is governed by wordes," 
they may often be adopted by the architect with good effect, when intro- 
duced appropriately and without pedantry. 

The attention to the sun's rays in the milder climate of Italy, so conspi- 
cuously shown in Pliny's letters, is confirmed by all the ^authorities of anti- 
quity. 

Vitruvius (b. 6, c. vii.) is very particular in his recommendations to this 
effect ; but the wisest of men, in a still warmer climate, has enforced this 
point yet more strikingly : — " To make a house pleasaut," says Socrates, " it 
should be cool in summer and warm in winter : the building, therefore, 
which looks towards the south will best secure these objects, for the sun 
which will enter into the rooms in winter, will, by its greater altitude, pass 
over its roof in summer. For the same reason, these honses ought to be 
carried up to a considerable height, the better to admit the winter's sun ; 
whilst those to the north should be left much lower, as less exposed to the 
bleak winds from that quarter : for, in short," continues he, " that house is 
to be regarded as beautiful where a man may pass even' season of the year 
pleasantly, and lodge whatever belongs to him in security." 

The modern Italians are not less attentive to aspect, which they signifi- 
cantly express by the proverb, " Dove non viene il sole, viene il medico." 

But the most extraordinary villa of the ancient world, was that of Had- 
rian, at Tivoli, in which he displayed all the acquirements and collections of 
taste, during 21 years of constant travel through this vast empire ; in it was 
reproduced every remarkable building of the world, and probably every 
statue of celebrity, since from this magazine the baths of Caracalla were 
furnished 80 years after, and the Vatican in some of its most precious orna- 
ments. The whole was said to be inclosed in a wall 10 miles in circum- 
ference. Pizzo Legorio, Kircher, Contini, and Panini, have engraved and 
written upon the remains. 

The modern villas of Rome, built by the popes and cardinals since the 
15th century, convey to us some of those graces in which the ancient villas 
abounded. In these all the great masters of the revival have displayed their 
research and ingenuity. They are described in the elegant work of Messrs. 
Percier and Fontaine, to which the Villa Pia, by Mons. Boucher, has lately 
been added. 

Our own architects of the I6th, encouraged by Bacon, Burleigh, and 
Wotton, certainly studied these works, and engrafted some of their princi- 
ples on our Elizabethan architecture, which adapts itself admirably to our 
climate and the extent of our establishments. Bacon (Essays, vol. I.) de- 
scribes his idea of a villa with great detail, insisting upon the aspect and the 
seasons as primary considerations. Indeed, all authorities agree upon this 
subject, except those of the 19th century, and especially the patentees of 
hot air or hot water apparatus. 

" The Elements of Architecture," by Sir Henry Wotton, being " the Rules 
and Cautions of this Art cast into a Comportable Method," are amongst the 
most precious and tbe earliest in our language. He was long ambassador at 
Venice, from Elizabeth and James, and seems to have been personally ac- 
quainted woith Palladio. Domestic and villa architecture are special sub- 
jects with him ; for, says he, " Every man's proper mansion and home being 
the theater of his hospitalitie, the seat of self-fruition, the comfortablest 
part of his own life, the noblest part of his son's inheritencc, a kind of 



private princedome, nay, to the possessor himself an epitome of the whole 
worlde, may well deserve by these attributes according to the degree of the 
master, to be decently and delightfully adorned." 

In truth, during three centuries the cultivation of this branch of architec- 
ture may be said to be peculiar to England, and that, while monumental and 
palatial edifices are better illustrated on the continent, the constitution of 
this country, and of the English mind — prone to the salutary retirements of 
home, the centre to which all its desires and warmest imaginings are ever 
pointing — bave made the English house of every grade the most perfect in 
comfort and convenience, and the villa the beau ideal of individual posses- 
sion, and the branch of the art in which our country excels beyond all 
others. 

The compact square villa, after Palladio especially, was introduced by Inigo 
Jones, and much advanced by the model of those at Genoa, published by 
Rubens, who recommends them as full of beauty and convenience, and admi- 
rably suited to gentlemen of moderate fortune, such as the republic of Genoa 
is composed of. But the extension of the habits and the requirements of 
the present day have outgrown the spuare villa, and we are constrained to 
build a house beside the villa to accommodate them, with the worst possible 
effect in the group and in detail ; for in vain the plantation attempts to hide 
it out ; an anomalous composition is the Jesuit, and we had better have re 
verted to the Elizabethan mansion, which cast the house and offices into one 
in the extended E or H, or the French mansion, " enter cour et jardin," of 
the 18th century, reserving the centre for the best apartments, and the wings 
for offices, and the entrances in the angles communicating easily with all. 

The least rational of English productions in this sort is seen in the castel- 
lated elevation adapted to this plan — the battlements and dungeon-keeps of 
Edward the Third upon the Italian villa of the 16th and 1 7th centimes. 
The menacing aspect, the machicolations, threatening hot lead upon the in- 
truders, in the distance, are, on the approach, found to be peaceful and 
harmless ; the fortress is accessible at every window, and expresses a security 
from danger on better acquaintance, in direct contradiction to its fortified 
exterior. On entering the baronial hall, where you expect the paraphenalia 
of chivalry and the chase, retainers and bondsmen, you are addressed by a 
powdered footman, or may discover a housemaid sweeping the marble pave- 
ment. 

The Grecian villa is hardly better conceived; it may be taken for a library, 
or a philosophical institution. An extensive portico, borrowed from Minerva 
Polias, imposes its order on the whole composition, which is to be com- 
pressed accordingly, at the cost of all its internal proportions and accom- 
modations. Even' useful appendage of vulgar convenience is to be sxp- 
pressed, as ill-suited to its Flatonic refinement. As Swift says of Clelia — 

You'd think that so divine a creature 
Felt no necessities of nature. 

But such architectural solecisms derogate from the dignity of the art, and 
convert into a theatrical or romantic dream, that which should embody sound 
sense and rational invention. 

The essential features should be prominently expressed ; the nobler por- 
tions, the offices, kitchen, the clock, and the stables, should tell their own 
story. And fiction would be found unnecessary when all these are placed in 
due subordination and proper character by the artist's hand. 

France, until recent times, essentially monarchical and aristocratic, has 
ever delighted in palaces ; and since the reign of Francis I., they have been, 
the most remarkable of Europe. Du Cerceau, Philibert de l'Orme, Mansards, 
and Blondel, and many able successors, afford us the fullest information on 
the ichuography adapted to these grades. In conception and design, and in 
many respects in execution also, the Louvre is the most magnificent palace 
in the world, Situatad in the metropolis, and occupying 32 acres, its galle- 
ries, and museums, and its gardens, form the recreation of the people. The 
paternal monarch invites them into his courts and vestibules, of which he 
esteems them the best ornaments, the most familiar and acceptable guests at 
all hours ; participating with them his refinements and his delights, they are 
endeared and elevated, and the palace of the arts and sciences, a part of the 
entire composition, and ranging in the axis of the first court, forming the 
chief object from its windows, assure them of the nobleness of Ins views for 
their honour and real advantage. The palace itself, the work of centunes, 
still unfinished, is the great attelier of artists— the field in which they may 
exercise their genius for centuries to come in their several works— the great 
harbour in which talent may find protection and employment. 

It was for the foundation of such schemes as these, that Francis 1. invited 
Vignola and Serlio, and the painters of the school of Raphael, into France ; 
and for their transmission to posteritv, that he encouraged the publication of 
C;esari Cssariauo's translation of Vitruvius and the elementary wor^s of 
Serlio and others, which obtained for him in return the title of the lather 
of Literature. Nor were his successors inferior in these encouragements, 
which enabled native artists afterwards to rival the great Italians— for 
L'Escot was preferred to Serlia, and Perrautt to Bernini. 

The peculiarity of French orthography is in the high roofs, subdivided 
into paviliaus. affording great effect in composition of various and cumulating 
forms, aided by their high mi hafts and dormer windows, and their 

vast windows below them, suited to the northern climate. Indeed, Philibert 
de l'Orme, and the architects have rendered the Italian style 

homogeneous witli the northern climate and circumstances in the happiest 
manner. 

11* 



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A military people delight in pavilions ; each apartment was to represent a 
tent. So in the Tuileries the line of tents is terminated with two, distin- 
guished by the name of Pavilions de Flore and Marsan. A maritime people 
delight in' their ships : thus the English apartments convey the idea of " be- 
tween decks," and the largtr buildings are often like the man-of-war hulk 
laid up in ordinary. So in Russia the palaces have the air of barracks ; vast 
and forlorn, they remind the spectator of the plains of Siberia. In Egypt, 
the Troglodite excavation was revealed in the temple palace ; in Greece, the 
log.house in the temple structure: in China, still the tent, in its simplest 
form. 

In the middle ages domestic architecture arose from the monastic struc- 
tures in single rooms, lighted on either side like our colleges, the chimney 
shafts issuing from the eaves. The composite house of double rooms was 
borrowed from the Italians by Francis I., but even there the degagement was 
wanting, and the chamber, ante-chamber, waiting-room, and guard-room, 
were all passage-rooms. It is in the English palaces that this problem has 
been best solved. 

But the Professor observed, that this digression had led us from the chro- 
nology of the art, which terminated with the Roman villa ; and we now 
entered that melancholy period of history, in which all ancient ideas of 
human enjoyment were absorbed in loftier and more serious aspirations ; and 
the art during the next 1000 years was employed alone in military and eccle- 
siastical buildings, by means of the Freemasons. The original institution of 
that order is traced even to the Greeks and Romans. Numa established the 
first corporations of architects, Collegia Fabrorum, together with the inferior 
Collegia Artificum. They were invested with a religious character, and 
rights of framing laws and treaties amongst themselves. They greatly con- 
tributed to the increase of the Roman power amongst the barbarians, 
as have done our own people amongst the North American Indians, with 
whom an article of treaty on their part, has always been to send a 
blacksmith amongst them. The Collegia were greatly promoted by the 
Roman Emperors in the rebuilding of cities, in the aqueducts and public 
works, and endowed with peculiar privileges, as freedom from taxation, hold- 
ing councils with closed doors, &c. Victor relates that Hadrian was the 
first to attach a corps of architects to the Cohorts (about 120, A.n.) — an ex- 
ample which the admirable College for Civil Engineers at Putney, in favour 
of our colonies, promises to follow with great advantage. 

But it was at the termination of the eighth century, that the masons of 
Como assumed their peculiar form of Freemasonry, raised into importance by 
the patronage of the commercial and zealous Lombards, in the building 
of churches and monasteries with new materials; and dispersed after the 
destruction of that kingdom by Charlemagne, they spread themselves over 
Europe, obtaining bulls from the Pope, and maintaining peculiar rights and 
mysteries. Collegia had existed in England ; but, destroyed by the ravages 
of the barbarians, the Freemasons (probably of Como) were invited by Alfred, 
aud after by King Athelstan, who gave them a charter in York (926), the 
original of which is said to exist still in that ancient city. It cites the 
Oriental Church, the history of architecture from Adam, with Rabbinical 
tales of the Building of Babel, the Temple of Solomon ; Ilieram, the Greeks 
and Romans, Pythagoras, Euclid, and Vitravius, are quoted ; that St. 
Albanus (300, a.d.) obtained a charter from King Carausius, with sixteen 
laws, agreeing with the corpus juris, relating to the Corpora or Collegia of 
ancient Rome. Another precious document preserved to us was written in 
1450, under Henry VI., a great patron of architecture, published in the 
Gentleman's Magazine (1753, p. 417). 

In 1459 a grand lodge was erected at Ratisbon, of which the architect of 
Strasbourg cathedral was the grand master. Charters and privileges were 
added by Maximilian, 1498. In 1717, SirC. Wren was the grand master in 
England ; but shortly after the ancient fraternity altered its original form 
and purpose, and became what we now understand by Freemasonry. Wren 
was then extremely old, and probably unequal to oppose the perversion 
which then took place; and which, from his known services to the craft, we 
cannot doubt was contrary to his wishes. 

Thus the period of the revival was arrived at, and the Professor explained 
that in the previous and the present lecture he had devoted the more time 
to the review of ancient, sacred, and civil architecture, from the per- 
suasion that the art would never again effect similar productions ; therefore 
that antiquity formedjthat great storehouse from which the architect was to 
draw his best instructions. 

It might be said, that the problem of architectural power and combina- 
tion had been worked out and solved, that the mastery of the ancients was 
admitted, and that such works would never again be performed ; it would 
not again become a primary instrument of civilization. The human mind 
had passed through that stage of its discipline, and had embraced new 
sciences, engaging the faculties in occupations more advantageous to the 
improvement and happiness of our species. The intellectual growth to the 
manhood of our nature, now perhaps attained, would esteem architecture 
ever a powerful engine in the attainment of the sublime aud beautiful, but 
would probably never again indulge that preponderating regard given to it 
by the ancients. 

The middle ages laboured after the ancient models with many divergencies : 
in the revival with the muses, the conviction of their pre-eminence was ad- 
mitted, and their laws and principles were confessed as unalterable. Nothing 
then was wanted but to revive them, and the zeal with which this object was 
pursued was immense. 

lu 1416, Poggio Bracciolini, in searching for manuscripts, discovered a 



copy of Vitravius, " covered with dust and rubbish, in a tower not fit to 
receive a malefactor," says he, " at the monastery of St. Gal, at Constance." 
Copies of this happy revelation -were spread amongst the learned, until the 
invention of printing, in 1445, multiplied them amongst the great archi- 
tects of the day — Brunellesclii, Ca;sariano, Bramante, and others. The mag- 
nificent Albert i was one of the chief of these, but not finding in Vitravius 
sufficient to inform and fire the student's mind, he composed that work 
which all competent judges have esteemed the most masterly compilation in 
the art extant. " Seeing," says be (lib. vi.) " that of all antiquity Vitravius 
alone has reached us, that such chasms and imperfections appear in his 
work, that his help is insufficient : his language, too, — Greek to the Romans, 
and Latin to the Greeks — leaves so much unintelligible, I thought it the 
duty of an honest and a studious mind to free this science from ruin ; though 
the rehearing without meanness, reducing to a just method, writing in an 
accurate style, and explaining perspicuously so many various matters — so un- 
equal, so dispersed, and so remote from the common use and knowledge of 
mankind — certainly required a greater genius and learning than I can pre- 
tend to," &c. 

But he did not confine himself to the theory of his art ; as a scholar, a 
mathematician, a Platonist, and of a noble family, he associated with all the 
greatest spirits of his day, and was intimate with the living masters and the 
progress of their works. M'hatever conies from him, therefore, is generous, 
moral, philosophical, practical, and elevating : he proves himself truly of the 
order of cavalieros ; he mounts you upon his horse, which quickly you find a 
Pegasus ; he raises you above the vulgar cares and labours of this nether 
world, and in his airy flight he shows you all the kingdoms of the world and 
their handiworks ; and then he sets you down, cheered, instructed, delighted, 
and exulting in your profession. 

The only English edition is that of Leoni, 1755. The spirit of that day 
deemed art a primary instrument of civilization ; it became the boast and 
the occupation of the little courts of the rival states of Italy ; literary 
societies, discussions, and conversaziones, discovered and refined upon the 
true principles of poetry and of fine arts; and a Bembo, SaJolet, Aimibal 
Caro, Castiglione, Aretino, and a host of literary stars, all contributed their 
zeal and means to thea'sthetical intelligence of artists. Architecture became 
the field of poetical imagination : and we have the "i'jr^oTfpo^ax"', " The 
sufferings of love in a dream," by the learned friar. Collonna, in which the 
wonders aud delights of the art, and of its theories (full of original and 
beautiful conception, the source from whence the artists of the day drew 
continually), are accompanied with the romantic and amorous adventures of 
blighted lo\e, of which the author was the victim. "The Dream of Poli- 
philus." printed by Aldus, in 1199. was published in French ill 1600, with 
new plates, engraved from the drawings of Jean Gougeon. 

From that period (early in the fifteenth century) to the present day we 
have a race of able architects in an uninterrupted chain, each adding some 
new grace or invention to the art, on which their merit and celebrity are 
founded; all these we now appropriate without appreciating their difficulties, 
and these progressions ; or due acknowledgment to each for the contributions 
gradually made to our common stock. On the accompanying drawings of 
some of the great works of those masters, on which our present practice is 
based, the Professor proceeded to offer some comments. It must be pre- 
mised that the revival found the art under very different circumstances. The 
growth of liberty in the middle ages, magnifying the individual, whose house 
now became his castle, an aristocracy balancing the kingly authority, the in- 
crease of commerce, and many other causes, altered the whole face of do- 
mestic architecture ; it might safely be asserted, that no palace of the 
solidity of the Strozzi or of Burlington House, ever existed in antiquity. The 
remains of the most insignificant temples and public buildings are still found, 
but the absence of any remains of such solid mansions as those throughout 
the ancient world might be adduced in proof that the domestic architecture 
of the ancients was slight and ephemeral. The houses of the ancients, like 
those of the Turks, were of wood and brick, covered with plaster and with 
paint. Columns, indeed, abounded, but they were moveables, or furniture, 
the objects of manufacture at the quarries, and of trade. These reflections 
were sufficient to show, that the features which the architects of the revival, 
in their endeavour to restore classical architecture, introduced, were new 
in execution and design, and required a stretch and effort of mind which we 
do not sufficiently take into account. Those who may be considered the 
active restorers of architecture are — Brunellesclii, Bramante, Alberti, Peruzzi, 
Serlio, San Gallo, Michael Angelo, Raphael, San Micheli, Sansovino, Galle- 
azzo Alessi, Vignola, Palladio, Scaniniozzi, L'Escot, Philibert de l'Orme ; 
many others might be added, but none more remarkable than these. The 
question occurs, in what particulars were these men great ? the answer will 
always be, that not only were they eminent practitioners, but they advanced 
their art, and contributed new views and inventions towards its perfection. 

Tbe first essays were in imitation of the system observed in the colosseum 
and the theatre,' namely, the column and trabeation in relief, and superposed 
upon the frieze and arch, and this, in a small scale, formed a crowning order 
upon the tower on which Brunelleschi raised his dome at Florence. The 
same difficulties of constructing the trabeation, aud of finding stone of suffi- 
cient size, and of funds for opening the quarries, which had induced the de- 
cline of architecture under Diocletian, occurred in its restoration ; and it 
required the experience of one hundred and fifty years to suspend the disen- 
gaged entablature in the ancient manner, with any boldness of scale aud pro- 
jection, as in Perranlt's Louvre, about 12 ft. 6 in. 

Brunellesclii, in his church of St. Spirito and St. Lorenzo, employed the 



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orders in good proportion, but these supported arches. The celebrity of 
Bramante's St. Pietro, in Montorio, doubtless arose, in great measure, from 
the accomplishment of the trabeated entablature, though the scale was indeed 
small, only 3 ft. 10 in. from column to column. But the timid application 
of the classical orders to the middle age buildings, often of large dimensions, 
gave them rather the character of trinkets hung upon them than of constitu- 
ent parts of the fabric. Bramante, indeed, made a great step in the palace 
of Cardinal Wolsey, but the orders are still delicate in low relief, the windows 
circular-headed (from the difficulty of executing the square trabeated head) 
with the horizontal entablature above them. The basement, though elegant, 
has a gothic character, and the crowning cornice has but a small projection ; 
the whole is dry and timid. But Bramante had the merit of inventing the 
coupled columns, which gave breadth and proportion to the front not other- 
ways attainable. The ancients had left no examples of this disposition — but 
such were its advantages that it was at once accepted by Raphael and his 
successors ; Perrault used it in the Louvre and Wren in St. Paul's. 

Alberti's bold and master mind originated many of those features which 
his successors knew how to adopt, particularly in his church at Mantua ; he 
gave the hint which M. Angelo followed in St. Peter's, of incorporating the 
whole height of the interior (not done till then) in one order, and vaulting 
the ceiling. His church at Rimini bears the stamp of Roman magnificence, 
quite beyond his age. 

Peruzzi was the first to render his orders homogeneous with the structure, 
and his giving to the entablature of the upper order (especially in the Far- 
nesina) a proportion suited to the entire height of the two, was as beautiful 
as it was new ; it was afterwards adopted by Sansovino in the library at 
Venice with the greatest effect. 

But Peruzzi executed an entablature in the Palace Massimi, and square- 
headed doors of no mean dimensions (six feet six inches between the capi- 
tals) ; but it was especially in perspective that he made advances far beyond 
the conception of his day. In other particulars, the merit of Peruzzi is un- 
folded by Serlio, his pupil, who possessed his collections and published them, 
through the patronage of Francis I., in the first elementary work on the art 
written since the revival. The first edition in French is dated Paris, 1345 ; 
it was translated into Italian at Venice, 1550, and, by Robert Peake, into 
English, 1611, under James I. 

San Gallo was remarkable for the dignity which he gave to his buildings 
(especially the Palace Farnese), without the aid of the orders, except in 
subordinate dimensions, in the windows only, and in the interior court and 
vestibule. The vertically which is designed and usually conveyed by the 
orders he communicated to his buildings by- rustic quoins, which carry the 
eye up, and enable it to embrace the whole front. This invention, which 
appears to be wholly his own, became popular and universal. 

The windows, with their small orders, are undoubtedly taken from the 
Roman tabernaculum, or ornamented niche, so often seen in the baths and in 
the Pantheon, and was also a new application. 

Raphael, as great in architecture as in painting, adopted his master Bra- 
mante's invention of coupled columns, as also San Gallo's windows and 
quoins, and if he did not invent, he employed the balustrade with singular 
grace and effect — for grace united with strength and nobility, his palace 
Pandolfini, Caffarelli, and Uggieri are unequalled ; indeed, his letters show 
his enthusiasm for architecture, his profound estimation of the antique, and 
his ardent aspiration for the restoration of Rome to its antique character and 
splendour. The backgrounds of his pictures are not less to be regarded as 
examples than his executed works, being designed with as much care as if 
they were to have been perpetuated in marble. 

M. Angelo distinguished his designs by vastness and singularity, compared 
with the previous schemes of Raphael, Peruzzi, and San Gallo. We are 
surprised at his boldness in proposing one order, eight feet in diameter, for 
the external front, and a corresponding disengaged entablature for an ex- 
tended portico in the west front— which latter, however, was never at- 
tempted. His palace of the Capitol has many merits and peculiarities, one 
of which, practised in the Laurentian library also, was the sinking his co- 
lumns in niches. 

Vignola has been deservedly regarded as a master of the first merit, and 
has been hitherto the great authority in the French school, as Palladio lias 
been of the English. His stereotomy, profile, proportion, and composition 
are admirable; his orders are generally subordinate, often at the top of his 
buildings — they are never coupled as in Bramante and Raphael, but he 
reconciles the wide intercolumniation by a panel which gives proportion and 
sustains the pilaster with excellent effect. This expedient, much followed in 
Italy and in France, was original with him, as was also his modillion cornice, 
extending to the frieze, and giving extent and importance to the entablature, 
proportioned to the whole height of the building, in a better mode than 
that of Peruzzi. This beautiful invention is recommended without ostenta- 
tion : — " Questa cornice," says he, " la quale ho mesa phi volte in opera per 
finimento di facciate, ho conosciuto che riesce molto grata." This cornice 
was made the termination of the fabric, on which he never permitted a 
blocking or balustrade. But Vignola was chiefly remarkable for an artifice 
of composition, which, by subordinating the parts, gave apparent vastness 
to the whole ; his doors and windows are remarkably small, the latter 3 feet 
8 inches by 7 feet, only in Capralola — but, being finely proportioned and 
complete in their members, deceive the spectator into the belief of actual 
scale. This artifice has been much used by his successors, especially in the 
upper portions of churches, with good effect, where no means of comparison 



or admeasurement are offered, just as a man becomes a giant when seen upon 
a hill and against the clouds. 

Sansovino, the Lombardi, and San Michele, Palladio and Scammozzi, 
formed a school peculiar to Venice, uniting sculpture in the happiest manner 
with architecture. In the library of Venice, one of the most beautiful 
buildings of the world, Sansovino adopted two orders, to the upper of which 
he applied the deep frieze and entablature suited to the entire height, after 
the invention of Peruzzi, the intercolumniations being occupied with the 
Venetian window, so much employed afterwards in England — these windows 
having columns doubled transversely in the thickness of the wall, by which 
an amazing solidity and richness is communicated to the architecture ; an 
arrangement subsequently adopted by Palladio in his town house at Vicenza 
with admirable effect. 

San Michele, chiefly a military architect, and who first gave the gates of 
cities the character afterwards universal, is remarkable for the energy, rich- 
ness, and expression given to his works. His employment of the orders and 
of rustics is exemplary. His gates at Verona, and his palaces in Venice, es- 
pecially of the Grimani, are masterpieces. 

Palladio, by much the most laborious and learned architect of the revival, 
produced his effects by a happy employment of two orders, the one on a 
scale comprehending the entire height, the other subordinate, comprehending 
about two-thirds of that height. This principle had been employed by the 
ancients in the adjustment of side porticoes to the temple, and in the Pro- 
pylea of Athens. In this last, the subordinate being 10, the principal is 15 ; 
in the Casa del Capitano, it. is 10 to 161; the same in the Basilica; in the 
Casa Valmarana 10 to 20i. This principle may be regarded as the secret of 
Palladio's magnificence, just as the subordination of windows and features 
was of Vignola's. But his employment of the arch in conjunction with the 
trabeated arrangement adopted from the baths, his classical plans, his mas- 
tery over all the features aad parts of architecture, cannot be enough 
studied. 

The two volumes on the architecture of Venice, by Cicognara — the single 
volume of the works of San Michele at Verona, by Albertolli — and the 
works of Palladio, by Bertotti Scammozzi, should be within the reach of 
reference to the architect at all times. 

The pompous Scamozzi (braggadocio, as Inigo Jones calls him, probably 
from personal acquaintance, in his visit in 1614,) was a follower of Palladio, 
though he assumed to be an inventor. He was, however, the first to ac- 
complish a portico, of any size, with a disengaged trabeation, in the church 
of the Theani. He was chiefly remarkable for the employment of orders 
above orders in well-studied proportions. 

Galeazzo Alessi turned the peculiar locality of Genoa to immense advan- 
tage, and was the most active of those who have stamped upon the archi- 
tecture of Genoa that sumptuous character so original and exemplary. This 
architect was in frequent competition with Palladio and Vignola at Brescia, 
Bologna, and other cities. 

L'Escot and Philibert de l'Orme, in France, laboured with great advantage 
on the materials thus offered by the great masters of Italy ; and they are 
chiefly remarkable for their adaptation of their inventions to the require- 
ments of a northern climate, in large windows, chimney shafts, high 
roofs, &c. 

The student will add many more peculiarities and titles of merit to the 
great masters of the revival from the hints here offered. 



AN ARCHITECTURAL DOCTOR, AND ARCHITECTURAL 
IDLERS. 

Sir — Whatever may be the merit of Mr. Gvvilt's work, as one of 
elementary and practical instruction — and he must have been inge- 
nious, indeed, to have got up so bulky a volume without at the same 
time bringing together information, new as such to many, if not to all 
— whatever merit, I repeat, it may so have, the intolerance and illibe- 
rality not only betrayed in it, but in many places openly expressed, are 
not very creditable to him, nor likely to recommend his book. The 
most that can be said in his favour is, that be does not stoop to flat- 
ter, nor has even attempted to conciliate the good opinion of, those 
whose opinion is likely to have some influence in stamping the cha- 
racter of his " Encyclopedia." It is to be hoped that the bulk of the 
profession — at any rate those who follow it as a liberal art, do not at 
all agree with him in his "bow-wow " depreciation of a class of per- 
sons to whose labours in the study of Gothic architecture we are greatly 
indebted, and professional men themselves not least of all. It may 
be fairly questioned if that style of the art would have been revived 
among us at all, but for the diligence of extra-professional students, 
and the attention directed to it by their writings. 

It might be thought that, if not disinterested generosity, at least a 
sort of enlightened and generous selfishness would induce architects to 
encourage as much as possible a taste for the study of their art — and 
without some study, a taste for the art itself cannot be acquired — and to 
aid in removing the prejudices which deter persons in general from ap- 
proaching it, under the false notion of its being entirely a practical one, 



100 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



mechanical, dry, and repulsive. Whether any of his brother archi- 
tects will now side with Mr. Gwilt, remains to be seen ; but in my 
own opinion they have very little cause to congratulate themselves 
upon having a champion in their ranks, who would show his prowess 
by hewing down, and putting hors cle combat, all the volunteers en- 
gaged in the same cause. Much liberality I did not expect from Mr. 
Gwilt, but I certainly did suppose that he would exercise a little more 
discretion than he has done. I did not, for instance, imagine that he 
would allow his antipathy to German architecture to prevail so far, as 
to give no account of any of the numerous fine buildings erected in 
that country during the last 30 years; and as not to applaud the zeal 
-with which'architecture is there cultivated, if he could not say much 
in favour of the taste displayed in it. Had he done so — and the same 
■with regard to other countries, those chapters of his work might have 
been made to contain a great deal of quite fresh and valuable in- 
formation. The reason assigned by him for not doing so, is a most 
flimsy and childish one — perfectly ridiculous ; for according to that, 
there ought to be no such thing as criticism on contemporary works 
at all; nor ought any to have yet appeared relative to those of a Thor- 
waldsen, a Cornelius, and other great living masters in their respective 
arts. Besides, he might have executed that part of his lask very in- 
voctntly, and without giving the slightest umbrage to any one, by ab- 
staining altogether from criticism and comment, and confining him- 
self to description and mere matter-of-fact information. At pre- 
sent, his apology for passing over altogether what be was conscious 
■would naturally be looked for, sounds too much like the fox's — " the 
grapes are sour." The real reason, there can be very little doubt, 
was his inability to make the necessary research, and collect mate- 
rials for that part of his work, wherefore he would have done well to 
obtain assistance for it. Considering his avowed and unqualified dis- 
like, or I might say, hatred of modern German architecture, it is not 
very surprising that he should not have referred us to any of its chief 
productions, lest the bare mention of them should be mistaken for 
approbation. Yet neither does modern Italian receive better treat- 
ment from him, for lie says nothing of what has been done in that coun- 
try, within the present or even the last century, excepting the palace 
at Caserta. There is not a syllable relative to such architects as 
Calderari, Temanza,Selva, Piermarini, Cagnola, Niccolini, and a great 
many others, whose works display quite as much ability and taste as 
some of those which he most highly praises. Nay, though he ex- 
presses so very high an opinion of modern French architecture ge- 
nerally, it is only in general terms, without either describing any 
thing of the kind, or showing it in a wood-cut. In fact, he has not 
introduced any fresh subjects among his " illustrations ;" and of his 
" more than 1000 pngravings on wood," the greater part are mere 
diagrams, and the rest of very ordinary character. What will ulti- 
mately be that of his " Encyclopaedia " itself, may easily be guessed, 
for most assuredly it will not obtain a very flattering one either from 
students of Gothic, or admirers of German architecture, both of 
whom will not only be disappointed in it, but offended also, more par- 
ticularly the former, since they are by no means likely to relish the 
insolently sneering and contemptuous tone in which Mr. G. speaks of 
the " literary idlers, especially at the universities," who amuse them- 
selves with inquiring into the history of Gothic architecture; which 
censure, we must suppose, extended by him also to such publications 
as those by Parker, and Bloxam, their object being to aid, encourage, 
and promote the study of it, not at the universities alone, but all over 
the kingdom. But the popular current against which Mr. Gwilt 
swims, may overwhelm both him and his book; therefore, his opinions 
may do no great harm after all. What is chiefly to be regretted is, 
that his " Encyclopsedia" is likely to stand for some time in the way 
of any better publication of a similar nature, because, though there is 
ample room for one, in one sense, the market for it is, or will be 
thought to be, pre-occupied. 

I remain, 

Yours, &c, 

" A Literary Idler." 



OK THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 

Sir. — One of the greatest advantages which the practical man has 
over the theoretical, is that of being able to discover any gnat error 
in a design by mere inspection ; this facility in discovering serious 
mistakes at a " coup d'ceil " is only acquired by men of great practical 
skill and long experience, and is a faculty too frequently dearly bought 
by many failures ; the practical man, in forming a design for a bridge 
or any mechanical structure, seldom uses anything besides a scale 
and pencil ; he rarely commits any great error, but also he is rarely 



exactly right ; on the contrary, certain data being given to the the- 
oretical man, he enters into calculations mostly always long and in- 
tricate, and forms his design according to the dimensions obtained 
from his results; he frequently commits a mistake in his calculations, 
omits the consideration of some modifying circumstances, and thus 
his design is faulty, and frequently is only discovered to be bad wheo 
the structure falls to pieces ; even then he will certainly lay the blame 
on the builder, like a celebrated French engineer who, being told that 
a large bridge built according to his design had given way on the 
striking of the centering, would not believe it, saying, "Impossible, I 
calculated its dimensions to the greatest nicety." 

The sensible engineer will combine theory and practice, and giving 
to neither undue preponderance, will certainly, ceteris paribus, pro- 
duce the most perfect design; he will neither trust too much to the 
eye nor rely implicitly on his calculations, and thus he will avoid such 
a serious error as that which I committed, in my answer to the ques- 
tion on the strength of beams, proposed for solution by "Concrete," and 
which appeared in your Journal of last month; if I had constructed 
the result obtained by algebra and made a sketch of the beam corre- 
sponding to that answer, in short, if I had followed the advice given 
above of not trusting too much to your calculations, but correcting them 
by the eye, I should at once have perceived my gross mistake, viz., 
that of multiplying, instead of dividing, the momenta of the weights 
by the internal leverage^ of any point, in order to find the counter- 
balancing weight. 

By correcting the error myself, I shall prevent much useless discus- 
sion and comment from your Argus-eyed readers; at the same time I 
shall briefly explain what I conceive to be the real solution of the 
question. I stated in my letter of last month, that the true and best 
form to give to the beam is the parabolic ; this being however de- 
duced from erroneous calculations, must be altered, and a result much 
more simple and satisfactory will ensue by modifying ihe equations 
in one or two steps, dividing, in place of multiplying, the momenta of 
the weights by the lengths of the internal segments at any point be- 
tween the supports, in order to find the equivalent weight there. For 
the purpose of rendering my explanation more clear, and making the 
action of the weights on a beam so circumstanced, more intelligible, 
I add a sketch of the form it will assume before it attains the point 




v$h 




of fracture. N', M', M, N, is the beam resting on the supports M', M; 
the distance between these is C times that of the points of support 
fM', M,) from the extremities N", N, to which the equal weights 
W , W, are applied, to find the best form of the beam between the 
points of support. On first applying the weights, the part between 
the supports cambers, as represented in the sketch by the dotted line, 
acd assumes a circular form, becoming more flattened at the centre as 
it approaches the point of fracture, and ultimately breaks at or about 
the points c, c,. I am indebted to a friend, on whose accuracy I can 
depend, for the account of the experiments from which this explantion 
has been deduced; you will observe how precisely it agrees with 
Concrete's statement of the points of fracture as deduced from his 
own experiments ; I must here apologise to him for having cast a 
doubt on their accuracy ; I could not account how the beams could give 
way at these points; which more particularly made me suspect some 
error, is his statement that the bar of iron broke in tito points. The 
experiments I brought forward in support of my explanation in your 
Journal of last month, were conducted on such a small scale that I am 
not in the least astonished at the fact of the model yielding in the 
centre. It appears from the above sketch how the beam may remain 
in a very curved position without breaking; the leverage of the 
weights decreasing as the beam approaches the point of fracture. In 
the following investigation, I shall however omit the deflection of 
the beam and its weight. What then is the weight which, placed at 
any point (P) between the supports, will balance the two external 
weights, and what is the effect of its strain at that point ? 
From the principle of the lever, it is found equal to W. MN X 



1843.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



101 



+_M_ but tlle strain of any we j„i lt at the point P, as is 
MP X MP' 
proved in all works on mechanics, is expressed by the product of this 

, , , . MP X M'P 
weight, and the fraction Mp + M -p ' 



and consequently in this case 



by W X MN ; that is the momentum of the external weight, a con- 
stant quantity, but since the strength of the beam at any point is pro- 
portional to the breadth multiplied by the square of the depth, the 
breadth being the same, it ensues that the beam should be rectangular. 
If the weight of the beam was taken iuto consideration, it would appear 
that the depth of the beam should slightly increase from the centre to 
the supports ; and it is because this weight acts with greater effect at 
the centre that, in the experiments alluded to above, the beam broke 
near the supports. In practice, therefore, the beam should be made 
rectangular, unless its weight be considerable, in which case its depth 
should slightly increase from the centre to the supports, according to 
a law easily deduced by introducing the action of its weight at any 
point in the above equations. 

The strain at any point between the supports is W. MN, and at any 
oint outside the supports, W multiplied by the distance of the point 
pom the extremity. The strain is therefore less externally than 
f r ternally. 

You would greatly oblige me by inserting this letter in your next 
number. 

I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient, 

T. F N. 



PROCEEDINGS OP SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

Annual Meeting, Jan. 17, 1843. 

Annual Report. 

This report contains a reference to the proceedings and principal papers 
read before the Institution last session, and which have been reported in the 
Journal of last year ; likewise the receipts and expenditure of the past year, 
and the following obituary : — 

We have to regret the decease of the Right Honourable Lord Congleton, 
Mr. Samuel Seaward, Mr. Benjamin Hick, Mr. Charles Collinge, Mr. \V. D. 
Anderson, Mr. John Smeaton, and Captain Foster, Bombay Engineers. 

Lord Congleton. — Sir Henry Parnell was born in the year 1776. After 
the usual routine of university education he entered early upon a parlia- 
mentary career as member for Queen's County, and became distinguished for 
his steady industry and application to business ; his speeches abounded with 
facts and calculations, and in many political as well as financial questions he 
took a prominent part. In 1828 he was appointed chairman of the Finance 
Committee ; subsequently he became Secretary-at-War and a member of the 
Privy Council; in 1835 he succeeded Lord Lowther in the office of Treasurer 
of the Navy, with which were consolidated the duties of Paymaster-General 
of the Forces and Treasurer of the Ordnance, which combined otfice he held 
until his elevation to the peerage in 1841 as Lord Congleton of Congleton, in 
Cheshire. These public duties did not prevent him from filling numerous 
private offices, among which must be principally noticed that of chairman of 
the Commissioners of the Holyhead Road. This post naturally created an 
intimacy between him and our first president (Mr. Telford), which was only 
interrupted by the death of the latter. The active mind of Lord Congleton 
being thus directed to engineering pursuits, he cultivated the society of other 
civil engineers, and became an honorary member of this Institution in 1833 ; 
his Treatise on the Construction of Roads, and his plan (adopted by the 
Post-office) for improving the construction of mad coaches, show that his 
acquirements in the practical details of professional subjects were not super- 
ficial. He published also several works on finance, banking, aud the cur- 
rency, besides pamphlets on Catholic Emancipation and other political 
subjects. The decease of his Lordship took place in the sixty-sixth year of 
his age, respected as a public character for his attainments, his general con- 
sistency, and his great industry, and regretted by a large circle of private 
friends. 

Mr. Samuel Seaward, F. R. S., Sue., was born at Lambeth in the year 
1800, and at the age of fourteen years he entered the service of the East 
India Company as a midshipman : after his second voyage to Bombay aud 
China he relinquished a naval career, and was placed by his brother as an 
apprentice with the late Mr. Henry Maudslay, in whose establishment he 
had the best opportunities of acquiring a practical knowledge of mechanics 
and engineering ; of these opportunities he carefully availed himself, and 
always cherished a grateful recollection of his instructor. After passing 
about five years with Mr. Maudslay, he entered the service of Messrs. Taylor 
and Martineau, whence he proceeded to Cornwall, aud assisted, under the di- 



rection of Mr. Arthur Woolf, in the erection of several large pumping engines ; 
he then underto iti ndence of part of the works of Mr. Harvey, 

at the Hayle Foundry, where he had the advantage of the instructions of 
Mr. Richard Trevithiek. In the year 1825 he returned from Cornwall and 
joined his brother, Mr. John Seaward, in the Canal Iron-works, Limehouse, 
as manufacturers of marine and other steam engines, as well as of general 
machinery. The attention devoted by Mr. Seaward to the construction of 
marine engines particularly, and the successful adaptation of the " direct 
action" engines 1 (which were, it is believed, first introduced by Mr. Gutzmer, 
of Leith, on board the Tourist steamer), are well known in the profession. 
His ingenuity and mechanical talents are manifested in all the works under- 
taken by the firm to which he belonged, and by several scientific pamphlets 
which he published. He joined the Institution in the year 1828, aud became 
subsequently an active and useful member of council, and our Transactions 
are indebted to him for a memoir "On the application cf Auxiliary Steam 
Power to sailing vessels on long Voyages." Snatched from among us at 
the early age of forty-two years, the profession has lost an intelligent and 
zealous member, and his private friends a worthy and estimable man. 

Mr. Benjamin Hick was born at Leeds in the year 1790, and was 
brought up as a practical engineer in the establishment of Messrs. Fenion 
and Murray, by whom at an early age he was intrusted with the superin- 
tendence and erection of several large engines, &c, and he was eventually 
offered a partnership in their works; this he declined, and in 1810 engaged 
with Mr. Rothwell in the Union Foundry at Bolton, of which he was the 
managing partner; and in 1833 he established the Soho Foundry, now 
carried on by his sons in that town. His attention was directed to almost 
all branches of mechanics, and the ingenuity displayed in his inventions and 
improvements is generally acknowledged : some of his improvements have 
become public property without being claimed by him, or its being known 
from what source they emanated. He became a member of the Institution 
in the year 1824, and although the distance of his residence precluded his 
frequent attendance at the meetings, he was a liberal contributor to the col- 
lection of models, &c. His good taste, his integrity of character, the en- 
couragement which he extended to talent of all kinds, and the assistance 
given by him to all public improvements, obtained for him considerable in- 
fluence in the town of Bolton, where his loss will be much felt. 

Mr Charles Collingr. was born in the year 1792, and being engaged 
from an early age in mechanical pursuits, he eagerly embraced the proposi- 
tion of your vice-president, Mr. Henry Robinson Palmer, to unite with him 
and a few more young men 2 in forming a society for mutual improvement, 
by discussing scientific subjects ; from this commencement, in the year 1818, 
has arisen the Institution of Civil Engineers, which now numbers five hun- 
dred and twenty-five members of all classes. Mr. Collinge continued, through 
all the stages of its progress, an useful aud active member; he took his share 
of the duties as a member of councU, and filled the other offices of the Insti- 
tution with readiness, aud his attendance at the meetings was very constant. 

Mr. \Y. D. Anderson was a pupil of our first president, Mr. Telford, after 
wbose decease he travelled in Italy, whence he sent to the Institution a 
series of drawings of the Ponte Santa Trinita at Florence. On his return he 
was engaged under Mr. W. Anderson (his father), the engineer of the Grand 
Junction Water-works, on several surveys and other works. He then gave 
plans for, and was appointed engineer to, the Exeter Water-works, which 
situation he resigned in 1837, in order to become engineer to the corporation 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he constructed some important works. Ill 
health obliged him to resign this latter appointment in the year 1841, and 
lus decease took place during the last summer. 

Mr. John Smeaton and Captain R. Foster, Bombay Engineers, had 
only been elected during the past session, and owing to the sudden decease 
of the former, and the shattered health of the latter, consequent on a length- 
ened residence in the East Indies, they had scarcely ever been able to attend 
the meetings of the Institution. 



address of the president. 

Before I resign this chair I have to perform the pleasing duty of thanking 
you for your attention to the Institution, which has enabled your Council to 
present to you the satisfactorv Report that has just been read, and has ren- 
dered the discharge of my duty so agreeable. I take advantage of the op- 
portunity thus afforded me, to refer to some points which may not be 
considered strictlv within the scope of the Report of the Council. 

Honorary Members.— The Report has informed you of a considerable 
addition to the list of Honorary Members, by the electiou of several distin- 
guished individuals.— The following is a list of the Honorary Members re- 
ferred to :— Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington ; the Duke of Buccleuch 
and Queeusberrv; the Marquis of Northampton, President of the Royal 
Society : the Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst ; Lord Brougham and Vaux ; Sir 
Robert Peel, Bart., First Lord of the Treasury; Charles Shaw Lefevre, 
Speaker of the House of Commons ; Professor Airy ; the Rev. Dr. Buckland ; 
and the Rev. Dr. Robinson, of Armagh. These have been elected, not on 
accouut of their rank alone, but because with rank, they hold, or have held, 
high stations, or have been placed in situations in which they have shown 

1 The engines of the Gorgon, the first of a numerous class of Government 
steamers fitted with that kind of engine, were built at the Canal Iron-works. 

2 Messrs. H. R. Palmer, J, Field, W. Maudslay, J. Jones, C. Collinge, and 
J. Ashwcll. 



102 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[March, 



their desire to advance the sciences or arts connected with Civil Engineering ; 
or because they are themselves eminent as men of science and learning. 
None of them were proposed until they had, like all other candidates for 
election, expressed their desire to become Members ; and in many instances 
their wishes have been communicated in a manner highly complimentary to 
the Institution and to its objects. Indeed it is impossible that public men, 
who have held the highest offices, possessing only the tithe of the under- 
standing of a Wellington, a Brougham, aLyndhurst, or a Peel, can be indiffe- 
rent to the growing importance of engineering to the welfare of this country, 
or not aware that the greatness, I may, perhaps, be justified in saying, and 
even the existence of the nation, mainly depend on it. It has been said that 
the steam engine, rendered powerful and practicable by Watt, fought the 
battles and gained the victories of the last great war ; that by it the mines 
were drained, and the ores and coal raised, which, when applied to Ark- 
wright's and other improvements, multiplied in effect the power of the 
country, reducing the price of mechanical labour a hundred-fold, and en- 
abling us to supply foreigners with our manufactures, for which they re- 
turned us the sinews of war; and that, hence, notwithstanding an expense, 
beyond all precedent, continued for a quarter of a century, the country, even 
if the increase to the national debt were deducted, was richer as well as 
more powerful and more populous at the end than at the beginning of the 
war. In this there is much truth, but the effect being indirect is not so 
obvious. In the late Syrian and Chinese wars, however, there could be no 
doubt. In both cases the work was done chiefly by steam ships of war ; 
and it could not have been done so quickly or so effectually in any other 
known way. The steam engine, therefore, may now be considered the great 
power in war as well as in peace ; and hence, in another light, the immense 
importance of the objects of this Institution, when it appears that the long- 
boasted wooden walls of Old England will henceforth be comparatively 
inefficient without the co-operation of steam. I do not mean by this to 
express any opinion of the justice or policy of the late wars — the most glo- 
rious part of them was, in my opinion, their termination. My object is to 
show why the lately elected honorary members have naturally been desirous 
of becoming so ; why we have elected them, and why we may expect them 
to take an interest in our proceedings and our progress. But there are other 
considerations more congenial to our civil position in which the individuals 
who have not written and published scientific works are to be regarded as 
worthy of the membership. 

Sir Robert Peel, now at the bead of the government of this country, has 
not been unmindful that to the application, by his enterprising parent, of 
the discoveries of Watt and Arkwright he owes the position and education 
which started him in public life. At the public meeting in 1824, for erecting 
a monument to Watt, Sir Robert, then Mr. Secretary Peel, said, " that he 
belonged to that very numerous class of persons who had derived a direct 
personal benefit from the important discoveries of Watt, and he acknow- 
ledged with satisfaction and pride that he was one of those who derived all 
that they possess from the honest industry of others." His connexion with 
us is therefore natural : and by evincing his desire to promote science and 
the useful as well as the fine arts, he has proved, and I am sure will continue 
to prove, himself a useful as well as an ornamental member. 

The Duke of Wellington, in being, while in office, mainly instrumental in 
recommending the means for proceeding with the Thames Tunnel, and for 
completing the approaches to London Bridge (one of the greatest metropo- 
litan improvements), considered that he only did his duty ; but Sir Mark 
Isambard Brunei, and Mr. Jones (Chairman of the London Bridge Com- 
mittee), consider that to his Grace is mainly due the merit of these great 
works; and that as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he has always taken 
a lively interest in the works of Dover Harbour and other improvements upon 
the coast, I can bear witness, as well as to his knowledge of works of civil 
engineering, which he has lost no opportunity of cultivating. His Grace"s 
reply to a qnestion by me, as to how he came to know so much of the dif- 
ferent plans of sluices for draining, &c., was, that when with the army in 
Holland and Belgium he had plenty of time to ride round the country and to 
examine them. 

The Duke of Buccleuch has, in being the liberal President of the College 
of Civil Engineers, shown his desire to advance the profession ; and in the 
formation of mines, railways, roads, bridges, and piers, upon his extensive 
estates, he gives the best practical illustration of his taste for works of en- 
gineering, and his wish to promote the objects of this Institution. 

Earl De Grey, as President of the Institute of British Architects, himself 
in taste an architect, and aware of the close connexion between architecture 
and engineering, has abundantly shown the interest he feels for our success 
and progress. 

The Marquis of Northampton, as President of the Royal Society, would 
have had sufficient passport for membership, even if his zeal for science, par- 
ticularly geology, which we all agree with Dr. Buckland to be intimately 
connected with our profession, were not known. At the last anniversary of 
the Royal Society, his Lordship, in proposing as a toast the success of this 
Institution, referred in very flattering terms to its importance and future 
prospects. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons, Mr. Shaw Lefevre, has been a 
fellow-labourer with our associate, Mr. Handley, in the application of en- 
gineering to agriculture, — not only in the drainage of great districts, but in 
machinery of all kinds, from the steam plough downwards. — Our member, 
Mr. Parkes, could till up a long list of Mr. Shaw Lefevre's exertions in this 



way. As a Commissioner, ex officio, of many of the most important public 
works, I have witnessed his attention to details which, unless he were fond 
of engineering, he would not think of, even if he had more leisure than the 
onerous duties of Speaker of the House of Commons allow him. 

I might proceed to remark on the other recently elected honorary mem- 
bers, but they are so well known, and have by their writings shown them- 
selves so qualified, that to do so would be an unnecessary occupation of your 
time. 

The late Mr. Ewart. — Having referred to the subject of our steam fleet, I 
may mention that, until the year 1835, there was no chief engineer and in- 
spector of machinery for the navy, and that Mr. Peter Ewart, who died 
during the last summer, first held that office. As he was not a member of 
the Institution he is not noticed in the report of the Council ; but the 
situation he held, and his talents, will, I trust, he considered sufficient to 
make acceptable a short notice of some facts respecting him. 

Mr. Ewart was born on the 14th of May 1767, at Troquaire Manse, in the 
county of Dumfries. His father, and two or three generations before him, 
were clergymen of the church of Scotland. Peter was the youngest of a 
family of ten children (six sons and four daughters). The father's care was 
divided between the duties of his parish, his private studies, and the early 
education of his family, which he superintended, — the result proves how 
successfully ; two of his sons having been well known as among the most 
eminent merchants in Liverpool, and a third as Envoy of this country at the 
Court of Berlin, where he died at the early age of 32 years. At nine years 
of age Peter was sent to the Dumfries parish day-school, where he had the 
benefit of good masters, particularly of Dr. Dinwiddie, an excellent mathe- 
matical teacher. At this period his natural turn for mechanics showed 
itself. His hours of recreation were spent in the shop of a watch and clock 
maker (named Crocket), which lay between the school and his home ; and 
so well did he profit by what he saw there, that at the age of twelve he had, 
from materials which he had collected, made and finished a clock that per- 
formed well, and was the most interesting piece of furniture in his bed-room. 
In his fifteenth year he went to Edinburgh and attended a course of lectures, 
probably those of Professors Robinson and Playfair, as these distinguished 
philosophers were subsequently on the most intimate terms with Ewart. 
John Rennie, the late eminent engineer, had a short time before this begun 
business as a millwright in East Lothian, and on Ewart's leaving Edinburgh 
he was sent to Rennie. Ewart told me that he was Rennie's first apprentice ; 
that Rennie had one journeyman ; and that one of the jobs of the trio was 
the construction of a small water-mill (the Knows Mill), upon Phantassie 
farm, for which a shed was lent by Rennie's elder brother George, who after- 
wards stood as high as an agriculturist as his brother John did as an en- 
gineer. He described to me the scene that took place on the day this mill 
was started, when, inspired by the success of his first work, his master 
foretold, to the astonishment of his journeyman and apprentice, his own 
future greatness. 

The facts that the celebrated James Watt was about this time employed 
in the erection of his steam-engine to work the Albion Mills, which stood at 
the south-east angle of Blackfriars Bridge, now Albion-place, that he applied 
to Professor Robinson to recommend to him an intelligent well-educated 
mechanic to superintend the mill-work, and that Robinson fortunately re- 
commended Rennie, the Lothian millwright, who had distinguished himself 
in his class, are well known. And here I would call the attention of my 
young friends to the illustration which Robinson's recommendation, as well 
as Rennie's success, affords, that a practical knowledge of millwrighting is 
one of the best, if not the very best, foundation for engineering. Soon after 
Rennie's arrival in London he sent for his apprentice Ewart to assist him in 
the erection of the mills, — a proof of his opinion and his friendship. Ewart 
followed his master. How well he had calculated the expense of the journey 
may be collected from the fact that the last penny he had was paid as toll 
for passing Blackfriars Bridge to enable him to reach the mill. For four 
years, 1784 to 1788, Ewart worked as a millwright at these mills, whence 
he was sent by Mr. Rennie to Soho, to construct a water-wheel for Mr. 
Bouiton's rolling-mill, and was afterwards taken into the service of Boulton 
and Watt, to erect their steam-engines. There he had ample scope for his 
abilities, and the advantage of Watt as his friend ; this friendship terminated 
only with AVatt's life, and was continued by the present Mr. Watt, whom I 
have often heard speak with the greatest respect of Ewart's abilities and 
excellent qualities. 

In 1791 he was sent by Boulton and Watt to fix one of their engines 
upon the cloth-works of Benjamin Gott and Co., Leeds. Mr. Gott, who 
was then a young man, and became afterwards on the most public-spirited 
and liberal, as well as greatest manufacturers in this country, was just the 
person to appreciate Ewart's qualities ; the engine superintendent became 
his friend, and that friendship remained firm and unchanged for nearly half 
a century. I have heard Mr. Gott speak in the highest terms of Ewart. 
The following anecdote, told me by Mr. Gott, proves that others well able 
to judge entertained the same opinion. A gentleman speaking of Ewart at 
Gott's table, said he had met with but few better practical mechanics than 
Ewart. " You have been a fortunate man," said Professor Playfair. who 
was of the party, "for I have never met with one." In 1795 and 1796 he 
assisted the present Mr. Watt in planning the buildings and works of the 
Soho foundry, shortly after which, he quitted engineering as a profession, 
and became' a manufacturer, first at Stockport with Mr. Ohlknow, then 
shortlv after in Manchester with Mr. Gregg, and afterwards he took a cotton 



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103 



mill on his own account. His Mas being always so much towards me- 
chanics, it is not improbable that his idea was that he could make great im- 
provements in the cotton machinery, and that this led him to engage in the 
business of a manufacturer. 

Ewart remained in Manchester in constant association with Dr. Dalton, 
Dr. Henry, Mr. Kennedy, and other eminent men, until 1S35, when he was 
recommended by the present Mr. Watt to the Admiralty as a proper person 
to fill the situation which he held until the time of bis decease, on the loth 
September, 1812, then in his 76th year. His health had been delicate for 
some time ; but the immediate cause of his death was a blow from the end 
of a chain which broke when he was standing near it in the Dock Yard at 
Woolwich. Notwithstanding the long interval between his quitting the 
practice of engineering and his returning to it, and notwithstanding his age 
{68 years) when he undertook the office, he gave, so far as I have ever heard 
at the Admiralty or elsewhere, great satisfaction. The professional respon- 
sibilitv, in his own department, of the steam machinery of the British navy 
rested upon him, and how well he acquitted himself is proved by the results 
in China and Syria, and in almost every other quarter of the globe. 

Mr. Ewart's change of employment for so long a period of his life has 
caused his name and character to be less generally known than they deserved 
to be. Like Playfair, I may say that I never met with a man who had so 
general an acquaintance with engineers and mechanical men of his own time 
as Ewart had, hut he was not easily brought out. I have often pressed him 
to record in some way his great store of anecdotes and interesting facts, but 
my doing so was in vain. To write or even to speak on matters in which he 
had taken an active part appeared painful to him, and was never done when 
with more than one or two friends. His knowledge of machines, and par- 
ticularly of the principles of the steam engine, was very intimate. His ad- 
miration of Watt, and his practice at Soho, inclined him to view with some 
degree of scepticism any innovation in the engine, which he considered to 
have been almost perfected by his great master; and, for the public situation 
which he held, this prejudice was probably useful, for the war steamers in 
active service are not those in which new schemes should first be tried. 

Ewart was a warm and persevering friend to merit. My friend, Mr. Hart- 
ley, engineer to the Liverpool Docks, considers that he owes his appointment 
chiefly to Ewart's exertions in his behalf, and Ewart was ever afterwards 
ready to assist Mr. Hartley with his scientific opinion. Mr. Hartley is con- 
scious of the advantage he derived from it, and considers that by Ewart"s 
death he has lost his best and ablest friend and counsellor. Sir Edward 
Parry (the comptroller of steam machinery to the navy,) in a note I have 
lately received from him, states, that " after more than five years' constant 
and intimate acquaintance with Mr. Ewart, he must declare that he never 
met with a man of sounder judgment, more amiable feelings, or stricter in- 
tegrity of purpose; and that he felt he had, at his decease, lost an esteemed 
friend, as well as a valuable coadjutor in the public service." Sir Edward's 
note then refers to the late results of the war in Syria, and still later in 
China, in which he says. " the mighty power of steam played so decisive a 
part, that these wars, humanly speaking, may be said to have been entirely 
terminated by steam." 

I will close tiiis subject with an extract of a letter, dated in 1793, from 
Dr. Currie of Liverpool (the elegant biographer and editor of Burns), to Mr. 
Wilberforce. The letter is given in the first volume of Wilberforce's corres- 
pondence. It appears by the description that at that time the distress of 
the cotton manufacturers was greater than even anything of recent date ; 
that the workmen were in a starving state ; and that Ewart, the partner of 
Oldknow, went to Liverpool to represent the extreme case, and endeavour to 
obtain the attention of ministers through the members. He had a meeting 
with Dr. Currie, who writes thus to Wilberforce in order to increase his at- 
tention to the statement of the case. 

" (Ewart) is no common character; he was with Boulton and Watt as 
superintendent of machinery, and has an extraordinary degree of the most 
useful knowledge of every kind, and in a word is one of the first young men 
I ever knew. These qualities recommended him to the notice of the manu- 
facturers, among whom he exercised his profession of mechanic and engi- 
neer. He had offers of partnership from the first houses there, and was ac- 
tually taken into the house of Mr. Oldknow (of Stockport), at that time the 
first establishment in Lancashire. Mr. Oldknow was the original fabricator 
of muslin in this country, aud a man of first-rate character." 

Mr. Cotton. — Having referred to the countenance received from distin- 
guished noblemen, I must not omit also to say how proud I am of the com- 
munications and presents we have received from my excellent friend Mr. 
Cotton. Ewart was not more devoted to Watt than Cotton was to his late 
friend Huddart, whose portrait is, through Mr. Turner's kindness, before 
me. Watt and Huddart were indeed kindred spirits, I have often seen 
them together, and at the time and since I have often thought that never 
were two men better paired in person and bearing as well as in mind. Mr. 
Cotton was the friend of both. Being governor of the Bank of England, 
and therefore tilling the highest office in the greatest corporation in the 
world, he has given us very decided marks of the estimation in which he 
holds us. Following his friend Huddart in the march of mechanical im- 
provements, Mr. Cotton has invented a very beautiful machine for weighing 
gold coin : it is now used at the Bank, and from his uniform attention we 
may expect soon to have it brought under our notice. 

Thames Tunnel. — Among many engineering works of which this country 
is possessed, none has, during its execution, attracted so much public notice 



as the Thames Tunnel, and this even more in foreign countries than in 
England. In October 1812 the shield reached the shaft on the Middlesex 
side ; and we may therefore congratulate Sir Mark Isambard Brunei in 
having, so far as the great engineering work goes, completed the tunnel, and 
accomplished the great wish of his heart. With the amazement with which 
foreigners consider the abstract notion of a tunnel under the Thames, we in 
this country of mines and tunnels do not sympathize. We know that if the 
tunnel had been through the London clay or the chalk, there would have 
been little difficulty; hut this was not the case; the strata were of the 
worst kind, often entirely silt and quick-sand, which were forced through 
the smallest apertures. At these times the iron of the shield, little more 
than an inch in thickness, was the only division between the tunnel and the 
Thames. On three occasions this ever-watchful enemy succeeded. The 
second irruption, which took place on the 14th January, 1828, was the most 
serious, as then not only was the whole tunnel in possession of the Thames, 
but the shield, the invention of Brunei, and by which alone so much could 
have been done, was, as if in revenge, seriously damaged by the invader, and 
the tunnel was left nearly tilled with mud. Nine-tenths of those who pro- 
fessed to know anything of the subject, then considered the case desperate, 
and the works were indeed abandoned until the year 1836; but never, at 
least since the time of the Roman engineers, who confined him to his pre- 
sent width by their artificial embankments, had Father Thames so deter- 
mined a general to oppose him as Father Brunei. Armed with a new and 
more powerful shield, in design a masterpiece of ingenuity and contrivance, 
and executed in the best manner by Messrs. Kennie, the engineer and his 
companions renewed the attack ; and although twice afterwards beaten back 
and obliged to surrender possession, he has at last succeeded, and may now-, 
I think, bid defiance to the enemy. It was my duty, as the engineer con- 
sulted by the treasury, to visit the works on several occasions, and I can 
therefore certify to the difficulties and indomitable courage of our veteran 
member, which never failed him, for the notes which he despatched to four 
individuals (of whom I was one) on the occasion of irruptions, read as if he 
were rather pleased that the event had taken place; as if he had gained a 
victory rather than suffered a defeat ; resembling in this respect the bulletins 
from other great generals, who have not however always been so successful 
in recovering thetr misfortunes. The difference might be that Sir Isambard 
bad a Wellington, not to oppose, but to aid him. But, seriously, looking at 
the Thames tunnel entirely in an engineering point of view, we cannot but 
be proud of the work, and pleased to have the opportunity of congratula- 
ting Sir Isambard Brunei on the result of sixteen years (eight of which he 
spent on the spot) of hard mental and bodily labour. I know no other man 
who would have so worked, or if he had, could have so succeeded. France, 
his native country, has reason to be proud of him, as England, his adopted 
country, is. To Mr. Armstrong, Mr. I. K. Brunei, Mr. Beamish, and Mr. 
(now Professor) Gordon and Mr. Page, who were successively the assistant 
engineers, great credit is due ; and Sir Isambard has always spoken with 
satisfaction of their services and of the perseverance and courage of the 
men, many of whom stood by him in his greatest need as if the merit were 
to be theirs. 

Electric Telegraph. — Having said thus much on the Tunnel, I am induced not 
to pass over unnoticed Professor Wheatstone's application of electricity for 
telegraphic and other purposes, considering it strictly within our province, 
not ouly from its nature, but its application to railroads and similar pur- 
poses. And as respects utility (if there be use in despatch), we need have 
no apprehension on that account. The velocity of Wheatstone's messenger 
has reached a maximum, which can safely be said of but few human things, 
and we ought to be satisfied, as we know that the speed is about 170,000 
miles per second — that therefore a message could go to Bristol or Birming- 
ham in 14 ', ll) of a second, or round the globe, if wires could he laid for its 
travelling upon, in one-sixth of a second. The messages upon the Black- 
wall railway, upon part of the Great Western railway, and some other rail- 
ways, are carried at this extraordinary rate. The bells in the House of 
Commons are rung by it, and its uses are extending. Its superiority for 
telegraphing appears obvious. Professor Wheatstone informed me some 
years since that by his machine for measuring the velocity he made 10,000 000 
of miles per minute. I had named 10 A millions, being the velocity of light 
— my opinion, erroneous perhaps, having long been, that solar light is a 
modification of electricity, an hypothesis that seems to dispense with the 
necessity for the doctrine of latent light, which Professor Moser has intro- 
duced to account for his late elegant discoveries ; but this is too wide a field 
to enter on now. My object is to express how much I think the profession 
and the country are indebted to my highly gifted friend, who has entered 
upon his important labours with a zeal worthy of the cause, and a success 
that holds out the hope of ample reward ; for I feel convinced, that great as 
the recent discoveries in electricity or photography are, they are but an ear- 
nest of what is to come ; that riches are to be extracted from these recently 
opened mines, of which we have not at present the most distant notion. 
Unfortunately miners cannot work without tools, and they cannot always, 
from their own resources, command them. France has, by rewarding Da- 
guerre, and giving, so far as she could give, his inventions as a free gift to 
the world, set a noble example. I have nut heard that Wheatstone has bad 
any public aid in prosecuting his researches ; but with our own honorary 
member as premier, we may depend that the government of this great 
country will not be indifferent to a matter which involves so much of prac- 
tical utility and at the same time national glory. 

15 



104 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[March, 



ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 



Feb. 6. — William Tite, Esq., in the chair. 

Mr. Morris read a paper on Ripon Cathedral. 

Mr. Papworth read a paper explaining the method adopted by him in 1829 , 
to confine the lateral walls, then inclining outward of Trinity church, on 
Clapham-common. Upon a survey of the building, it was discovered that 
the brick footings of the walls of the church and tower, were built upon a 
continuous 4 in. yellow fir planking, containing much resinous matter, and 
abounding with large knots. In the first instance the trenches were not dug 
perfectly level, and the bottom course of brickwork was laid dry, thence 
much of the trench was in winter, subject to wet. and at all times to some 
moisture. In some parts, particularly the north west angle of the tower, 
and west staircase, the timber was probably never dry : the nature of gravel, 
(absorbing moisture freely J upon which the walls were built, of course admits 
damp air, and the timber is proportionably subject to the decay common to 
wood when so circumstanced. 

The footings were first examined from the vaults, when the timber beneath 
the brickwork was found to be in such a pulpy state generally, excepting at 
the knots and closely adjacent fibres, that the walls, both of church and 
tower might really be said entirely to depend on the latter for support; with 
the addition of the adhesion of the materials and the strength contributed by 
occasional cross walls. The planking was very soon removed, and York 
stone steps and proper underpinning substituted.' 

Although portions of the church walls, from the parapets down to the 
plates receiving the gallery floors were leaning outwards, it was found that 
all beneath was nearly upright ; of course this led to an examination of the 
ceiling, in which, at about the middle, a wide crack appeared running from 
the west towards the east end. On examining the roof, it appeared that the 
fissure, and the overhanging of the walls was caused by the pressure outward 
of the principal rafters, and chiefly on the south side of the church. This 
pressure outward had disjoined the tie beams, which had been scarfed in 
no very judicious manner in the middle, (the church being about 59 ft. wide) 
the scarfing was merely bound together by slight iron bands, and thin iron 
ties, depending on staples at their turned up ends and some spikes to restrain 
the lateral thrust ; which force had almost wholly disengaged these contri- 
vances, and amply accounted for the effects observed. The roof is of a mixed 
character uniting the king-post and queen-post arrangement. The queens 
were framed into the upper rafters, and those rafters, the tie beam and the 
king-post united and made a roof independent of the other timbers ; the 
usual straining beam between the heads of the queen posts being omitted. 
The disarrangement of the timbers of the roof, by settlements common to 
them, and the displacement caused by the thrust, made it proper to prepare 
for the operation, of drawing the separated scarfed ends of the tie-beams 
something closer ; it not being intended to give verv much further effect to 
the power contemplated, because it might have produced injurv to the entire 
roof, and to the upper part of the walls, the gutters and slating— at least it 
was considered injudicious to risk so much probable damage. 

The object was only to prevent a greater separation of the tie beams at 
their scarrings, to stop any further thrust to the walls ; and it appeared that, 
by drawing the lower ends of the queen-posts nearer to each other, each 
having a tendency to urge back its moiety of the tie beam towards the centre, 
that much might be done, and at no great expense. It being found that the 
queen-post mortices in the tie-beam were far from being filled by the tenons 
of the queens, and that to draw them much out of the perpendicular, might 
produce a further and serious disarrangement of the timbers above. To keep 
the queens upright, and therefore nearly parallel to each other, the timbers 
were bolted together through the head's of the queens, through the struts, 
and through the middle of the king-post; and iron blockings, intended to 
oppose any movement more than desirable, were carcfullv fitted and bolted 
to the top of the tiebeam at the foot of each queen-post. ' The application of 
iron rods having powerfully threaded screws and ample washers and nuts, 
was of course a matter of easy accomplishment, and when put into operation, 
there would evidently have been no difficulty in bringing the ends of the 
timbers into close contact; but, as above stated, there was no wish to effect 
much more than full security ; and they were only drawn together enough to 
close in part, the fissure in the ceiling. As will be evident on reflection, this 
operation of drawing together the posts might, without due care, have left 
the tie beams without any check to their tendency to sag, and it was therefore 
found proper, at the time the iron blockings were fixed on to the top of the 
tie-beams, to saddle on them iron straps, bolted well through the tie-beams. 

The authorities of Clapham church, not doubting the stabilitv of the edi- 
fice, directed, in October last, the execution of two additional' galleries for 
about 150 children, when the consequent scaffolding afforded the opportunity 
of a close examination, and it was very satisfactory to observe that the ope- 
ration has been completely successful, and that no settlement, nor spreading 
of the roof, nor further overhanging of the walls, has taken place. 

Feb. 20.— T. L. Donaldson, Esq., V. P., in the chair. 

Mr. Godwin read a paper on Church Building, which is given in another 
part of the Journal for the present month. 

C. W. Wooley read a paper on the Valhalla, which we propose to give 
next month, with engravings. 



LICHFIELD SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF ECCLESI- 
ASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The first annual meeting of the members of this society was held on the 
5th of January, at the Diocesan School Room, at Lichfield, and, was nume- 
rously attended. The chair was taken by the Rev. Prebendary Greslev, 
upon the motion of the Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of Lichfield. The 
report of the Proceedings of the committee for the past year was read by 
Richard Greene, Esq., F.S.A.. Hon. Sec. ; and we are glad to perceive 
thereby that, although in its infancy, and with but small present available 
funds, the society is stimulating the desirable object of church restoration 
upon correct principles, and is, in conjunction with sister societies, strenu- 
ously resisting the gradual destruction of our venerable churches by time, 
and that greater innovator, ignorance. We trust the day is arrived when 
the beautiful remains of those fabrics raised by the piety and skill of our 
forefathers, and venerated by us, will be rescued from the tender mercies of 
agrarian churchwardens, and own the fostering care of better guardians. 

The report was followed by an address from the Chairman, in which he 
set forth, in his usual plain and felicitous style, the leading characteristics of 
Gothic architecture, from the earliest period to its abasement in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and offered some strictures upon the cheap church building of 
modern times. 

Thomas Johnson, Esq., followed the chairman, with some most excellent 
practical remarks upon the care to be observed in effecting what are termed 
restorations. He admitted the great utility and advantage to be derived 
from the combined talent and enquiries of such societies ; but, as a practical 
architect, he held out a warning to their members to remember the ancient 
adage, " Xe sutor ultra erepidam." 

The proceedings were concluded by the honorary secretary, Richard 
Greene, Esq., who read a paper upon the sculptures of Norman architecture, 
in which he advanced the somewhat startling opinion that our earliest 
Christian church embellishments are essentially pagan, and of idolatrous 
origin. He supported the proposition with great ingenuity, and most inter- 
esting facts, elucidating the paper throughout with numerous drawings. 



METROPOLITAN IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY. 

On Wednesday evening, 22nd ult., a meeting of the Metropolitan Society 
was held. Mr. J. Ivatt Briscoe in the chair. The chairman congratulated 
the meeting on the attainment of one of the principal objects of the society 
— the appointment of a government commission to prepare a comprehensive 
plan of metropolitan improvement. From a letter in the hands of the secre- 
tary of Sir Robert Peel, it appeared that the new commission had com- 
menced its labours by inquiring into the expediency of an ordnance survey 
aud map of London upon the largest scale, and it was understood that the 
commission was now engaged in considering the various plans proposed for 
an embankment of the Thames. Mr. Martin, the painter, said, that for 
fourteen years he had been engaged in promoting the two-fold object of 
throwing open the banks of the Thames, and of converting the contents of 
the sewers, now flowing into the river, to agricultural uses. — Mr. W. E. 
Hickson observed, that some idea of the pecuniary value of the liquid manure, 
now permitted to be lost, might be formed from the fact, that in Paris a 
new contract had recently been signed, by which the contractor agreed to 
give the city 22,000/. for the contents of the cesspools of Paris. Mr. Fowler 
observed, that as numerous private interests would be affected by an em- 
bankment of the Thames, it was very important to watch any proceedings re- 
lating to this object, in order that the public interest should not be sacrificed. 
Mr. W. Lindley was anxious that the new commission in considering any 
plan for the embankment of the north side of the river, should inquire into 
the practicability of connecting it with the Essex road by means of a new 
and broad street running from Aldgate to the Thames, so as to form a prac- 
ticable carriage thoroughfare from the west to the east of London, which now 
could scarelv be said to exist. 



MODERN CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. 

A verv clever little periodical, The Eeclesiolorjist , published by the Cam- 
bridge Camden Society, has already done much good in counteracting the 
churchwarden barbarisms that have been too often committed in many of our 
churches; it is also creating a taste among the clergy for Gothic architec- 
ture, which will ultimately be of great service to the profession, and act as a 
counteraction to the selection of inferior designs by " Building Committees." 
The selection is frequently governed by favouritism, and much oftener by the 
want of true taste in those who are appointed to select the designs out of 
probably 50 or 60 that may be laid before them. We quite agree with the 
following hint on modern church architecture, and consider that too much 
attention and money is bestowed in highly finishing the stone work, carving, 
and other ornaments, when frequently rough scabbled stone work will pro- 
duce a more pleasing effect than the highly wrought stone, and be done at 
one-half the expence, consequently it may be used less sparingly than it now 



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105 



is ; in fact, very frequently the whole chureh may be built or faced with such 
stonework as cheap as with brickwork. 

" How often do we," says the Eeelesiologist, " see a simple village church, 
consisting, it may be, of low and rough stone walls, surmounted, and almost 
overwhelmed, by an immense roof, and pierced with some two or three plain 
windows between as many bold irregular buttresses on each side, or having 
a short massive tower placed at one corner, or in some seemingly accidental 
position, which nevertheless every one confesses to be as picturesque and 
beautiful and church-like an edifice as the most critical eye or the most re- 
fined taste could wish to behold. And just such another church could be 
built, perhaps, for seven or eight hundred pounds; while a modern early- 
English design, with all its wouldtbe elegancies of trim regular built buttress, 



tripellancet, and curtailed chancel, would contain no more kneelings, cost 
more than twice the money, and look like a ' gothick factory ' after all. And 
why is this ? Because a lofty tower must be built instead of a simple unpre- 
tending chancel ; or because one-half of the money is expended first in pro- 
curing, ond then in smoothing and squaring, gTeat masses of stone, or in 
working some extravagant and incongruous ornament, so that cast-iron 
pillars must be placed iu the interior instead of piers and arches; whereas 
the small and rude hammer-dressed Ashlar, or rubble work, of the ancient 
model, has a far better appearance, and allows a larger expenditure where it is 
most wanted, in procuring solid, handsome, aud substantial arrangements for 
the interior." 



EDGE'S IMPROVED GAS METER. 



Considerable excitement has lately been raised 
respecting the gas meters, in consequence of Mr. 
Flower issuing a pamphlet accusing the gas com- 
panies of defrauding the consumer by the false 
registering of the meter, occasioned by filling the 
meter above the proper level with water; when that 
is the case, be contends that the meter is registering 
water instead of gas, whereby the consumer is suf- 
fering considerable loss. This did appear to us a 
very serious charge, and in this age of improvement 
we felt surprise that this " false registering" could not 
be avoided, and that there was no scheme to adjust 
the water in the meter to the proper level, so that 
the meter should correctly register the exact quan- 
tity of gas consumed. Upon making some inquiry 
upon the subject, we very soon discovered that a 
meter, combining the requisites just alluded to had 
been invented and patented by Mr. Botten, and 
another by Mr. Edge, the well-known manufacturer 
of gas meters and fittings; but we consider the meter 
of the latter the best, as it combines other improve- 
ments. We have, therefore, much pleasure in pre- 
senting to our readers a description and engravings 
of Mr. Edge's meter, which appears to us to be as 
perfect as a wet meter can well be. 

Fig. 1 is a front view of the meter, with the outer 
casing removed to show the interior, and Fig. 2 is 
a cross section of the front portion of the meter. 
A is the improved index. B, patent lever valve. 
C, syphon pipe. D, waste water cistern. E, F, 
hydraulic sealed outlet to allow the accumulation 
of water in the waste water cistern to be drawn off 

upon the removal of the plug at E. G, tube for filling the meter with water, 
which dips into the water, and consequently prevents the escape of gas. 
H, shaft and apparatus connected with index. I, inlet tube through which 
the gas passes into the meter through the valve B, thence down the pipe C, 
and again up into the interior or drum of the meter, as shown by the arrows 
in the section Fig. 2. Thence through spiral chambers within the wheel, as it 
revolves, to the outside of the wheel, and escapes into the surrounding chamber, 
and out at the outlet tube, on the top of the meter, at the back of the index 
box A. As the gas passes through the spiral chambers, the pressure of the gas 
causes the wheel to which they are attached to revolve, and with it its axis, 
which is prolonged and passes through to the front box, where, by means of 
an endless screw on the prolonged end of the axis working into a toothed 
wheel keyed on to the lower part of the shaft H, and a pinion on the upper 
part of the shaft, sets in motion the clock-work of the index, which shows 
the quantity of gas that passes through the meter. 

There are several important improvements combined in Mr. Edge's meter, 
which we shall proceed to describe, the first and most important is an ar- 
rangement to prevent too much water being put into the meter. This 
is accomplished by the patent syphon C, and the waste water chamber D, 
the value of which cannot be over estimated ; for, in the first place, it re- 
moves the only dangerous part of the meter, viz., the outlet from the syphon 
pipe, which is now sealed off; in the second place, it prevents the fraudulent 
abstraction of the water, to the serious injury of the companv: and thirdly, 
it obviates the only tenable objection to the meter alluded to in Mr. Flower's 
pamphlet, that is, the accumulation of the water, by which the consumer is 
deprived of his full measure. The top of the syphon pipe C being placed on 
a line with the water level, every surplus drop must pass down it into the 
waste water box D, thence into the pipe F below, and when the plug is 
removed, it rises up the pipe F, and passes out at the orifice E ; and as this 
pipe is bent downwards, it must always present an hydraulic joint to prevent 
the escape of any gas that might accumulate in the svphon C, and which, by 
the construction of the old meter, would escape when the plug was removed. 
Provided too much water be collected, it would prevent the influx of anv 
gas, consequently it must he at once detected ; the consumer' would then 
have only to unscrew the plug E, and allow the water to run off, which may 
1 e done without the least danger. It will be observed that there is only one 
outlet screw, E, instead of two, as in the common meter. 

The second improvement is the patent index A, which enables the con- 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 





sumer to ascertain the quantity of gas used with ease and certainty. The 
complexity of the old method, which consists of 3 dials with the movements 
of the hands or pointers, has been the occasion of very frequent mistakes and 
misunderstandings, even with the inspectors, and amongst the consumers has 
created a feeling of doubt and distrust injurious to the advancement of the 
meter. In the improved index, the figures are made to revolve instead of the 
hands; and as the only one figure required on each plate (to denote the number 
of cubic feet consumed) can be seen at a time, no mistake can arise, so that 
both parties will be satisfied. A reference to the engraving cannot fail to 
establish its great superiority, and show how the quantity may be read off as 
78,900 without the chance of error. 

The third improvement is the patent lever valve, B, the object of which is 
to prevent the numerous complaints of the consumers, and the very heavy 
losses to the companies, by the lodgment of the old valve, consequent on the 
corrosion of the guide wires ; this lodgment can rarely, if ever, be proved by 
ocular demonstration, as the slightest movement will cause the valve to fall 
into its seat, but still it is proved daily, and beyond all question, by a di- 
minished registration ; and it is not the less objectionable, as an evil, for 
being a secret and invisible one. The lever valve completely and effectually 
remedies this ; it also indicates a deficiency of water much earlier than the 
old valve, and the shield protects it at once from any sudden rush of pressure; 
it may, in fact, be considered perfect in its action, and unassailable on every 
point. 



DRAWING SCALES. 
Mr. Drake, of Elm-tree-road, St. John's Wood, land-surveyor, has obtained 
a patent for making scales for laying down plans, of the same paper as that 
on which the plan or drawing is laid down. The scales are intended to ac- 
company the plans to which they belong, and being of the same material, 
they consequently expand or contract, by changes of temperature, in exactly 
the same proportion as the plan. The paper to be drawn upon is mounted 
on linen or cotton, by means of India-rubber cement, and, on a strip of it 
the scale is made. The under surface of the straight edge or holder, by 
which the scale is held, whilst being u id, and covered with a 

piece of paper or linen, so as to form a space for the reception of the scale; 
and the off-set scale, used with it. has a small metal frame at one end, which 
works against the edge of the holder. 



106 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



GALVANIZED IRON. 

Aboi - t five years since a patent was taken out in this country, by M. Sorel, 
for the purpose of galvanizing iron, by a process of ccating it with zinc, in a 
similar manner to tinning, but for some cause, we believe a dispute among 
certain capitalists, this patent has been allowed to remain in abeyance, during 
which period, it has been in considerable use in Fiance, and is, at the pre- 
sent time, we understand, extensively employed by the French government. 
It is now taken up in this country by some spirited individuals, who have 
established large works in London for zincing iron to any extent. The pro- 
cess may be applied to both cast and wrought iron in any form. 

" The effect of zinc in protecting iron from oxidation," says Professor 
Graham, " has been known to chemists for some time. When these two 
metals are in contact, an electrical or galvanic relation is established between 
them, by which the iron ceases to be susceptible of corrosion by dilute acids, 
saline solution, or atmospheric humidity. It was found in experiments lately 
conducted at Dublin and Liverpool, that small pieces of zinc attached to 
each link of a chain-cable were adequate to defend it from corrosion in sea 
water. The protection was observed to be complete even in the upper por- 
tion of the iron chains by which buoys are moored (and which, from being 
alternately exposed to sea water and air, is particularly liable to oxidation,) 
so long as the zinc remained in contact with the iron links. The protecting 
influence of the zinc could not be more certainly secured than in the articles 
prepared by the patent process, the iron surface being uniformly coated over 
by that metal. In trials to which I have had an opportunity of subjecting 
them, the iron escaped untouched in acid liquids, so long as a particle of the 
zinc covering remained undissolved. The same protection is afforded to iron 
in the open atmosphere by zinc, with a loss of its own substance, which is 
inappreciably minute. The zinc covering has the advantage over tinning, 
that, although it may be worn off, and the iron below it partially exposed, i 
the iron is still secured from oxidation by the galvanic action, while the 
smallest quantity of zinc remains upon it ; whereas tin. in common tin plate, 
affords no protection of this kind, and not being absolutely impermeable to 
air and moisture, the iron under it soon begins to rust in a damp atmosphere. 
The simplicity and perfect efficacy of the means employed to defend iron 
from the wasting influence of air and humidity in this process of zinc tin- 
ning, certainly entitle it to be ranked as one of the most valuable economical 
discoveries of the present age." 



DRPAYERNE'S PATENT FOR PURIFYING AIR. 

An abstract of this patent appears in the Mechanics' Magazine; it is 
granted to \Y. R. Vigers, Esq. of Russell-square, on behalf of Dr. Payerne, 
" for a mode of keeping the air in confined places in a pure or respirable 
state, to enable persons to remain or work under water and other places, 
without a constant supply of fresh atmospheric air.'' 

The first thing claimed and specified is the depriving the atmosphere 
in confined places of the carbonic acid gas which it contains, produced from 
respiration or combustion, by means of quick lime and caustic alkali, or of 
the lime alone, which is to be dissolved in eight times its weight of water. 
The air in the apartment is to be passed through this caustic solution by a 
pair of bellows, the nozzle of which reaches nearly to the bottom of the vessel 
containing the lime and water. The vitiated air thus coming in contact with 
the lime, the carbonic acid gas is absorbed. It is calculated that one cubic 
foot of atmospheric air must be purified for each person per minute. 

2. The patentee claims the restoring the requisite quantity of oxygen, to 
supply the place of that consumed ; which oxygen is to be procured from the 
chloride of potash, or driven otf from the peroxide of